The Renaissance was a period of European history, considered
by modern scholars as that between 1300 and 1600. Many dramatic
changes happend during the Renaissance. The Renaissance was a
period of new inventions and beliefs.
The Renaissance was drastically different from the Middle
Ages. During the Middle Ages the church held most of the power and
it’s economy was agriculturaly based. Exploration and learning
was almost put to a stop. During the Renaissance society was
transformed into a society increasingly dominated by central political
institutions with an urban commercial attitude. Also, people’s
curiosity overcame thier fear and many people started to venture out
and explore. New schools and colleges became more and more common.
The Renaissance was started by many rich Italian cities, such
as Florence, Ferrara, Milan ,and Venice. Because these cities were
very wealthy, many merchants started to spend money on different
things, such as painting, learning, new banking techniques, and new
systems of government. These things gave rise to a new type of
scholar, the humanist. Humanism was subjects concerned with humankind
and culture. They stutied various things such as Latin, Greek
language, literature and philosophy. Music and mathmatics were also
studied as well.
The Renaissance gave way to new forms of painting , art and
sculpture. During the Renaissance, artist were no longer regarded as
mere artisans, as they had been to the medieval past, but for the
first time emerged as independent personalities, compared to poets and
writers. Many artisans merged mathmatics with art , in order to
become more precise in their measurements and to make sure an object
was supported both rationally and porportionally. As a result
painters tried and often suceeded into making their painting a window
into the world. Artists also studied the way light hits objects and
the way our eyes percieve light. A new kind of paint called oil paint
was used. This allowed the artist to create texture , mix colors, and
allow more time for corrections before it dried.
The printing press was probaly the most important advance in
technology. Europeans first used movable metal type to print a book.
On small pieces of metal they engraved single letters of the
alphabet. These could then be arranged and rearranged to form words
and sentences. Johan Gutenberg is usually given credit for the first
book printed, a copy of the Bible. By the 1500’s printing presses
where fairly well spread. The printing press had many effects on the
world. First of all, it made books much easier to come by, wich made
them cheaper. That ment common people could afford them. As a result
literacy became more widespread, in contrast to the Middle Ages where
usually monks and church officials were the only able to read.
Second, since many more people were able to read, they wanted to read
subjects other than religious or scientific work. So books on other
subjects were published as well. Also many books were published in
languages other than Latin, such as English, Portugeese, Spanish,
French, and Italian. A third effect was that scholars had better
access to one anothers work. They could also read the great works of
the ancient and medieval periods.
The Renaissance also had an effect on the general society.
Many people became interested in politics. Also, people became
interested in the world outside of thier towns. Many became
explorers, merchants, and mapmakers. Religion especially changed
during the Renaissance. In the Middle ages people were primarily
concerned with serving the church and getting to heaven. But
the increase in arts and education gave people something to look
forward to, and a life worth living. So inturn, people based thier
lives around various other things instead of the church. Because of
the increase in literacy people learned that the Catholic Church only
told the populus what they wanted them to hear. This caused many
people to break away from the churh and form Protestant religions.
The Renaissance produced many great minds. Leonardo da Vinci
was one of these. Although he was not regarded as a genious in his
time. He had numerous works of art such as the Mona Lisa and
The Last Supper. He also is now regarded as a great inventor. He is
credited for coming up with the idea of the helicopter. He dissected
corpses to learn more about human anatomy. Another great man was a
German monk, Martin Luther. He taught Biblical studies at the
University of Wittenberg. Luther’s beliefs challenged the church
although many people agreed with his ideas. He was eventually
excommunicated from the chuch and he started Protestantism.
In conclusion, the Renaissance was a time of new awakening in
Euroupe. It include the general loss of power by the church, an
increase in literacy and education, and an exploration period.


Renaissance Throughout history there has always been a struggle for power between absolute rulers and the people and somewhere in the middle they compromise at democracy. In the past the people have written documents to that limited the of the king and obtain their natural rights. The Magna Carta became known as one of the first documents to ever degrade the power of a king. Following the Magna Carta came the Petition of Rights, this to limited the strength of the king. Succeeding the Petition of Rights, came the founding of the Bill of Rights.

Without boundaries a ruler will abuse his power over the people. Therefore in order for a ruler to lead a democratic government he must have boundaries and regulations to abide by. The Magna Carta became the first stepping stone to a constitutional monarchy in England. The need for this document came about when King John neglected the peoples rights. On June 15,1215, King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta.

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Thereby, when King John signed the Magna Carta his power demarcated and his authority lessened. The Magna Carta stated We have also granted to all free men of our realm, on the part of ourselves and our heirs forever; all the subjoined liberties, to have and to hold, to them and to the heirs, from us and from our heirs (Magna Carta sec1). This passage said that people have the right to liberty at all time and the king nor any other person could take that right away. The Magna Carta also dealt with the court and justice system. It declared To none will we sell, to none deny or delay, right or justice (Magna Carta sec 40).

It also pronounced if any on shall have been dissiezed by us, or removed, without a legal sentence of his peers, from his lands, castles, liberties or lawful right, we shall straight way restore them to him.(Magna Carta sec52). This document was only the first of three document to limit the kings power. King Charles tried to rule as an absolute ruler, but he was unsuccessful in his attempt. Charles started to take advantage of his people by using force and unjust taxes. Parliament, unhappy with the conditions of the state deiced to do something about it.

They wrote the Petition of Rights. this document unabled the king to proceed as he wished. This document states that Parliament has the right to dismiss themselves. In other words that means the king can not tell Parliament they are finished and no longer have the power to do anything. Also Parliament would be called to session at least once every three years. Hence, the king would not be able to completely ignore Parliament and the voice of the people completely.

Consequently limiting his power. Another section declared that the people have the right to due process and all ancient taxes are abolished. By obtaining these rights and privileges the people are free to have there life, liberty, and property without a fear of losing any of these without due process. Lastly, the power of the king was limited by a third document, The Bill of Rights. Before William and Mary could become king and queen they were forced to sign the Bill of Rights. In order to persevere the right of the people, they wrote the Bill of Rights.

It states that it is the right of the subjects to petition the king. It also said that the freedom of speech and debuts or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament. Therefore the king is not above the law and does not have the power to take away the peoples rights. Every where in the world people are struggling for power, it has happened before, it is happening now, and it will happen again. The absolute monarch will usually fall because the democratic side will have more people and separation of power.

Therefore there more than one person to get rid of. History Reports.


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