World War I The Causes of the War OK, in a nutshell, World War Is cause went as far back as the early 1800s. People controlled by other nations began to evolve peoples feelings of nationalism. The French Revolution of 1789 brought a new feeling to the word Nationalism. People who spoke French, German, Italian, ext.
felt that they should have a separate government in a country where everyone spoke the same language. Unfortunately, we cant please everyone and this demand they had was something impossible that could be done.As time passed people began to establish war cults or military alliances. The members from these groups would discriminate and verbally abuse the people, which didnt speak their language.
Warmongers criticized at foreign ways of doing things. Sometimes newspaper stories help spread publicity. Some German leaders strongly urged commercial & political expansion to the east, mostly in Asia.II- Military Alliances Military alliances were another of the many causes of World War I. When the German Empire was united in 1871, Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck hoped for a period of international peace. He looked for allies to support Germany. It was then that in 1882 Germany, Austria-Hungary & Italy signed a treaty called, ” The Triple Alliance.” The treaty was made to protect them from attacks from France or Russia.
Germany & Italy feared France & Austria-Hungary feared Russia.The three members of the alliance formed a powerful block in central Europe. Unfortunately, Austria-Hungary & Italy were not very friendly. They argued mostly over land and/or territory that Italy thought they should have. So, both countries competed to see who would take control of the Adriatic Sea first. When the war broke out in 1914, Italy didnt keep their word about the contract they had agreed to in the treaty. It turns out they had made a secret treaty with France in 1902.As a result of that they had to remain neutral then declared war on Austria-Hungary.
After the Triple Alliance formed, the rest of the countries in Europe saw that they were at a disadvantage. The disadvantage was that if there ever was an international crisis, Great Britain, France & Russia would have to fight for themselves but the Triple Alliance would have the advantage of acting together as one. Then in 1894, France signed a defensive alliance with Russia. Then only by itself was Great Britain. Soon after they faced naval rivalry & growing mercenary with Germany.
In 1904, Great Britain & France reached a cordial understanding or how you would say in French, “Entente Cordial.” By the terms in the agreement, they settled all the disagreements they had about almost anything & everything. Most important being colonies. Both nations became partners. Then France succeeded in bringing Britain and Russia together. In 1907 the two nations signed the Anglo-Russian Entente,” it was kind of like the cordial agreement that linked France, Russia & Great Britain was called “The Triple Entente.” Men, Battlefronts & Strategy I- Strategy of the War The chief of the German general staff Count Alfred Von Schlieffen planned a very little simple strategy in 1905 and changed it in 1912.His plan was that German armies were to crush France in a campaign by going through Belgium, which was neutral.
Now, the Germans were planning to crush Russia, then planned to make Britain surrender. Then they would sweep into Asia & yes, they would try and conquer them too. This guy expected a 2 front war & planned that Austria-Hungary and some small German force in East Prussia would take the eastern front. But no. The Allied strategy called for attacks by the French armies in Lorraine upon the start of the war.OK, so the plan was that. On the Eastern front it would be Russia trying to invade Germany through East Prussia and attack Austria-Hungary in Galicia.
They hoped to strike westward at Germany while the Allied Armies went east. The War I- The US enters WWI (1917, 4th year) Early in 1917, the Central Powers, which consisted of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany & the Ottoman Empire, were at a strong position. They had in control Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, most of Belgium & Northern France.
Then, yes, the USA entered the war. And so the tables began to turn in favor of the Allies. Germany unrestricted Submarine welfare so this caused the US to join the Allies. The news of the outbreak of the war in 1914 had surprised many Americans. As a result, President Woodrow Wilson had declared that “the US would be neutral in fact, as well as in name.” When the Germans torpedoed Lusitania, in 1915 they killed128 Americans.So President Wilson thought the US would not enter the war but as we already know, he was wrong. Germany approached Mexico for alliance; this was heard from the British when they intercepted a message.
There was a record number of sinking of US merchant ships. Germany has thrust war on the US. On April 2nd, 1917 the president read a war message that was sent to him which read: “The world must be safe for democracy.” After this the US didnt sign anything, but simply associated themselves with the Allies, although they were unprepared.II- The Allies Attack (1917) So the Germans would have benefit, they had to figure an out an attack. They went on March of 1917 off to the battle line, prepared.
The Germans called it the Sigfried Line and the Allies called it the Hidenburg Line. The Allies carried out the only offensive operation on the battlefront. That year ended without much change. In 1917, the French executed Mata Hari, who was a Dutch dancer that was spying for the Germans. Feelings against Germany were strong as war progressed.
School kids were affected much by the war as well.They were not allowed to learn German or German Literature. People criticized any techniques that were said to spies. Therefore, the Dept. Of Justice was asked to keep close look for the spies. The Final Years I- The Final Year (1918) The Allies won fined victory in 1918. Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, Austria-Hungary & Germany signed armistice.On January 8th, WilsonFreedom ofannounced his 14 points.
The 14 points included the following: Reduction in Trade Barriers Amend to Secret Diplomacy Navigation Evacuation of Central Powers troops Adjustment of Colonial Claims Amendments Creation of an association Re-establishment of Poland from Allied Countries Independence for the people ofof nations to work for permanent peace Home rule for the non-Turkish parts of the Ottoman Empire. TheAustria-Hungary14 points gave hope to many enemy people for a peace settlement. II- The Last Campaign After a quiet winter the Central powers planned to overwhelm the allied armies before the full benefit of American aid could arrive. Hidenburg promised he would be in Paris by April 1st. In March, German armies under Ludendorff struck along a 50-mile front. The Allies gave way slowly but in other sections fast.In April the Allies formed unified command. On May 31st, the Germans reached the reached the banks of the Marne.
It lost 7,800 men. France then renamed the spot “the wood of Brigade of Marne” to honor the heroic stand of the man. American troops blocked an enemy offensive at Château-Thierry & prevented Germans from sweeping across the Marne to Paris.5 major battles raged at the same time.
After July 18th the Allied offensive never stopped until the truce. On August 8th, the Allies led by Canadian & Australian troops attacked the Germans fiercely at Amines. On August 26th, Germans began retreating to the Hidenburg line. The battle was described as “The Black Day.” About 1,200,000 Americans fought on the Battle of the Meuse-Argonne. About 1 of every 10 people was killed.III- The End of Central Powers Austria-Hungary also planned a huge drive to make Italy withdraw from the war. But floods and resistance by Gen.
Armand Diazs troops stopped the Austro-Hungarian armies in June. In October, Diaz started an offensive to the northeast across the Piave River. He split the Austro-Hungarian Empire into 2 and destroyed them.On Sept 29th, Bulgaria signed an armistice at Salonika. Another member of the Central Powers, the Ottoman Empire signed a peace agreement on October 31st. In the late of 1918, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks & Poles declared independence. IV- Results of the War. The peace settlements healed many wounds, but also caused new ones.
The Allies had emphasized the principle of self-determination. This caused the flame of nationalism to burn more brightly than it had 1914. The Allies formed the League of Nations to settle disputes in a peaceful way. Unfortunately, member nations didnt always support these agencies in International Dispute.
V- The Home Front The Home Front in Europe came under intense bombing. The war destroyed the industrial and community lives of many cities, towns and villages.It closed and/or destroyed schools, factories, roads and railroads.
In many countries people had to depend on food supplied by the government. In Eastern Europe many left their homes because they were scared of invasion. Refugees moved from place to place in search of food and shelter. After the war, people who went back to their homes went to find that their villages, towns and/or cities didnt exist.
Fortunately, the US supplied food and clothing to an extent. BY: PAULA–12/99 Bibliography 1). Encarta 98 1999 CD-ROM. Copyright 1998 2).
Encarta 96 1995 CD-ROM. Microsoft 1996. 3). Comptons Encyclopedia 1998 CopyrightOnline1997 4). The Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Third Edition.
Encyclopedia www.encyclopedia.com Copyright 1994, Columbia University Press.