1.Discuss the congress of Vienna. Who were the leaders?
-To rebuild Ausstria after Napoleon had destroyed it.
i.Austria: Prince Metternich
ii.Russia: Alexander I
iii.Prussia: King Frederick William III
iv.England: George III, but by then he was insane, so Lord Castleregh filled in
2.List the Russian Czars from 1814-1914
a.Alexander I: helped defeat Napoleon and went to the congress of Vienna
b.Nicholas I: stopped the Decemberist Revolt
c.Alexander II: stopped the Crimean War and freed the serfs
d.Alexander III: reactionary (shut down schools)
e.Nicholas II: Tran Siberian Railroad, Russian Revolution, overthrown
3.Discuss the Crimean War.
-Was to decide who would guard the Holy Shrines in Palestine
Russia wanted to be in the Mediterranean Sea along with being in the Black Sea
-they blew up the Turkish fleet in the Black Sea to do so
England and France didnt want Russia to be there and they go and attack Russia. Most English and French die from food poisoning. France ends up guarding the shrines and England keeps the Russians at Bay.
4.Explain the English parliament and its political parties.
-House of Lords: appointed by the King or Queen for life.
-House of Commons: elected
-1911: Power of the purse switches to the House of Commons
-Torries (conservatives): rich land owners, wanted to build an empire, leader was Disraeli
-Whigs (liberals): rich businessmen, free trade, new rich, leader was Gladstone
5.The unification of Italy.
-France, Austria, and the Pope opposed the unification. Mazzini had attempted to start a revolution but had failed because he was a bad organizer. Count Camillo Cavor was the Prime Minister of Sardinia Piedmont. Cavor asked England and France to be their allies. Napoleon III decided to become military alliances with Sardinia Piedmont. Austria controls Venetia and Lombardy and they tax the wine, liquor and tobacco. Cavor sneaks these items in, in a way that would upset the Austrians. Cavor is really trying to start a fight. So when Austria declares war on Sardinia Piedmont, Cavor goes to France and gets Napoleons army to come fight the Austrians. Cavor hired the Red Shirts, who were led by Garavaldi to go from the north and Cavor went through the south, so they tried to unify Italy. The Pope realized this and told Napoleon what Cavor was doing. So Napoleon sends his army to protect Rome and the Papal states. The only states Cavor didnt get were Lombardy and the Papal States.
6.The Unification of Germany
-Prince Metternich set up the Carlsbad Decree, which was against German nationalism. Otto von Bismarck was from East Prussia and was a wealthy land owner. He was a diplomat and went to Paris and later became the Chancellor of Prussia. The German Wars of Unification: the first was in 1864, which attacked Denmark. Austria agreed to help if they split the states of Schleswig and Holstein. Bismarck agreed, but secretly he was setting up Austria for attack. His plan was to surround Austria with Prussian territory and irritate them till they declared war. In 1866, Bismarck attacked Austria. In the Treaty with Napoleon III, France would help fight and would get the southern catholic states. The war was thought to last for two years, but only lasted 7 weeks. The reason it took a short while was because the Prussians had new weapons and the Austrians still had the older ones. In the Treaty of Prague, Prussia takes states from Austria. In 1870, the Franco-Prussian war, Prussian tourists take pictures of French bridges, communication centers, and railroads. The pictures were used for military targets. When the king was supposed to meet with the French ambassador, he gets sick and sends him a nice note saying he is ill, but Bismarck takes it and changes it to a mean one. So Napoleon gets mad and declares war on Prussia. Napoleon is captured at the Battle of Sedan and no one will pay the ransom. France loses the war and has to pay 5 billion gold dollars and indemnity. France loses Alsace and Loraine. Bismarck wanted the money, coal, and iron ore for German weapons.
7.Austria declared war on Serbia after Franz Ferdinand and wife were killed. Serbia was allied to Russia and Russia declared war on Austria. Austria and Germany had a treaty so Germany declared war on Russia. France and Russia were allied so France declared war on Germany. Germany declared war on France, and Belgium and England are allies to France.
8.What were the new weapons in WW1.
-Poison Gas: Germany was the first to use it
i.Mustard gas and Chlorine Gas
-Planes: no one put good use to them.
9.What were the Nazi racial ideas of Hitlers Mein Kampf?
-Aryans: Germany, Holland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, England, Austria
-Celts: France, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Belgium
-Latin: Spain, Italy, Greece
-Slavs: Russia, Poland, Ukraine, Slovaks
-Orients: China, Burmese, Japanese, Korea, Vietnam
10.How did Stalin gain power?
-Stalin was the general secretary at the politburo. When Lenin died, he held a meeting which he only invited the Left to, the Left was Kamenev and Zinoev. With the Left they voted off Trotsky because they didnt like him. Since he was the general secretary, it was his job to fill the empty seats, so he filled them with his own guys. Later he held a meeting with the Right, which were Thomsky, Rykov, Bukharin. With them , they voted off the Left. After filling the seats with his own men, he voted off the Right and he now had total control over the politburo.
11.What was Operation Sea Lion and why did it fail?
-The invasion of England
-First destroy RAF, second, destroy navy. Third, invade.
-First, Hitler didnt stick to the plan. After bombing the RAF and factories over and over again, the British accidently bombed Berlin. Hitler was mad and stopped bombing the RAF and bombed their cities.
-Second, the British had radar, the Iltra Code machine, and the Spitfire plane, which was more maneuverable.
12.Describe the failure of Operation Barbarossa.
-The Invasion of Russia
-Biggest land invasion ever planned.
-Was supposed to start in May but didnt start till june.
-Hitler first had to bail Mussolini out of Greece.
-Had three troops: North: Leningrad. Center: Moscow. South: Kiev, Ukraine.
-South moved very fast and had a pocket of Russian soldiers. They asked Center for more tanks and Hitler sent tanks down to South. Center had almost gotten Moscow.
-Hitler kept interfering.