Windows Nt Windows NT Operating System Windows NT History. Since it was first released in 1993, Microsoft Windows NT Server has established itself as the network operating system (NOS) of choice for countless organizations of all sizes in private industry and public agencies. They have discovered that Windows NT Server is extremely reliable, highly scalable, and capable of handling the complex, mission-critical demands of even large Fortune 500 corporations. But the widespread adoption of Windows NT Server stems from more than just its operating system capabilities. What IT managers in every industry are discovering is that Windows NT Server provides a complete and solid platform for an all-encompassing range of services and activities.
It combines the best aspects of an application server, a file and printer server, a communications server, and a Web server — along with interoperability and management features that make it an excellent NOS for organizations, whether they have mixed computing environments or operate entirely on Windows NT Server. Windows NT provides the backbone for a complete, organic system, where all elements working together seamlessly. When joined with other Windows NT-related products, including the BackOffice family of applications and Windows NT Workstation, Windows NT Server provides the foundation for a powerful and well integrated environment. That integration means that administrators and developers can focus on their jobs, instead of spending time and money wrangling with disparate systems and applications.1 Scalability. Windows NT runs across both Intel- and RISC- based architectures, providing maximum flexibility and minimizing the number of operating system platforms that businesses need to support.
Windows NT runs 32-bit applications , and many 16-bit applications. That’s because each 16-bit application can run as a separate, multi-tasked process in its own memory address space–isolated from other active applications. This multi-tasking process also boosts application speed and responsiveness, and provides maximum data and application protection. Windows NT is also licensed for use on Symmetric Multi Processing (SMP) servers with up to eight processors for high scalability. Versions of Windows NT Server, available from select system vendors support even larger SMP servers up to 32-processor support. Large SMP servers running Windows NT Server represent a powerful upgrade path for enterprise applications that need to handle more users and data.
NT Enterprise Edition’s 4 GB Memory Tuning feature (4GT) supports servers that have up to 4 GB of RAM. This new capability allows memory-intensive applications running on the OS to use up to 50 percent more RAM on 32-bit Intel-architecture servers. 4GT does this by reducing the potential RAM allocated to the Windows NT kernel from 2 GB to 1 GB and increasing the potential RAM allocated to applications from 2 GB to 3 GB. The result can dramatically improve performance.2 NT Security. The high level of security in Windows NT provides benefits in both standalone and connected environments, and works regardless of your choice of network operating system.
That’s because Windows NT a virtual gate through which all users, resources, and applications must pass–giving comprehensive control and security. The security features in Windows NT Workstation include: ? User authentication and access control ? Industry standard-based certificates to verify the origin of unknown code ? The Windows NT File System (NTFS) to protect the file system and its contents ? Auditing to identify potential risks ? Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) for secure Internet connections With Windows NT, you control which users and applications have access to your crucial data, line-of-business applications, and base operating system–so you can keep your system safe from tampering or user error. And you can set separate user profiles on a single desktop, each with its own set of clearances and prohibitions. A secure network system has many characteristics. A baseline measurement of a secure operating system is the U.S.
National Security Agency’s criteria for a C2-level secure system. Although C2 security is a requirement of many U.S. Government installations, its substantial value extends to any organization concerned about the security of its information.3 The operating system must protect data stored in memory for one process so that it is not randomly reused by other processes. For example, Microsoft Windows NT Server operating system protects memory so that its contents cannot be read after it is freed by a process. In addition, when a file is deleted, users must not be able to access the file’s data even when the disk space used by that file is allocated for use by another file. This protection must also extend to the disk, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and any other devices.
Each user must uniquely identify himself or herself. In the Windows NT Server operating system, this is achieved by typing a unique logon name and password before being allowed access to the system. The system must be able to use this unique identification to track the activities of the user. Also, system administrators must be able to audit security-related events and the actions of individual users. Access to this audit data must be limited to authorized administrators.
In addition to meeting the U.S. Government’s C2 requirements, there are certain real world security problems that a fully secure system must also solve. These real world security issues tend to fall into two categories: managing security and using security. Windows NT Server is designed to meet the requirements for a C2 secure system while also providing excellent tools for both managing and using these comprehensive security features. The requirements for a C2 secure system are articulated by the U.S. Department of Defense’s National Computer Security Center (NCSC) in the publication Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, also known as the Orange Book.
All systems, whether they are network operating systems or standalone operating systems, are evaluated under the criteria set forth in the Orange Book. Windows NT Server was designed from the ground up to comply with the NCSC’s Orange Book requirements. Microsoft and the NCSC have worked closely throughout development to ensure that both Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server comply with the government’s requirements for a C2 secure system. The NCSC has published different interpretations of the Orange Book. These interpretations clarify Orange Book requirements with respect to specific system components. For example, the NCSC’s Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria, or Red Book is an interpretation of Orange Book security requirements as they would be applied to the networking component of a secure system.
The Red Book does not change the requirements, it simply indicates how a network system should operate in order to meet Orange Book requirements for a C2 secure system. Although C2 security is a requirement of many U.S. Government installations, its value extends to any organization concerned about the security of its information. Windows NT also supports security in confronting the highly challenging security environment of the Internet. Windows NT, in combination with Internet Explorer 4.0, lets you establish various levels of trust zones for a comprehensive approach to managing high-risk unknown sites, moderate-risk known extranet sites, as well as low-risk intranet sites. Windows NT Server stores user account information, including a der …