.. sychological attachments with anyone, after he was taken from his grandparents. This might have lead to a distrust for people in general. Freud believed that the super ego was important to our goals in life because it embodied everything that we had grown to desire for ourselves.
The super ego is in essence who we think we should be, growing up without a father Clinton may have looked to other sources for interjection. Interjection is how we come to understand what we should be and act like and it is usually gained from our parents and others we look up to.Clinton may have had to look up to public figures and as such might have set in his mind the belief that he should be a politician. Clinton’s id may be the most powerful, his insatiable appetite for female companionship outside of his marriage may be evidence of this statement.
But, that is only speculation. I didn’t note any use of Freud’s defense mechanisms, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t there. The books I used to research were very factual and didn’t offer as much insight as I would have liked.Humanistic psychology emphasizes the present experience and the essential worth of the whole person, promotes creativity, intentionalism, free choice, and spontaneity, and fosters the belief that people can solve their own psychological problems. (Allen p. 203). Rogers a humanistic psychologist would see Bill Clinton as a self actualized person.
Rogers would examine Clinton as a whole from his success to his failures and from his private life to his public life.Rogers would say that Clinton saw himself as a politician and therefore he started early in his life trying to develop the skills he needed to become a good politician, a young Clinton stated For years I have worked to prepare myself for a political life characterized by both practical ability and concern for rapid social progress. (Allen p. 269). Rogers would take great interest in this statement made by Clinton because, Rogers thought that people could reveal the most about themselves when given a chance. Rogers didn’t think that a therapist had to draw out answers but that the answers would present themselves when the individual had a good listener at their disposal. Using accurate empathy, Rogers would have tried to perceive Clinton’s inside world by listening to him talk without judging or interrupting, after hearing this statement Rogers would say that Clinton has a high self actualizing tendency. Rogers would also say that Clinton has a high level of congruence between his experiences relating to his self and his self concept.
Clinton has always thought of himself as a good leader and this is in agreement with his experiences, Bill also displayed leadership skills at the time by involving himself in many community projects and services.He was a member of the Kiwanis Key Club, and the Hot Springs High School faculty selected him as a Civitan Junior Businessman. He received the Elks Youth leadership award for Arkansas. (Levin p. 31).
Rogers would focus solely on the present and would say that Clinton’s success is impart due to his high general actualizing tendency and his high level of congruence with his experiences. Rotter took the social-cognitive approach to personality, Rotter believes that people’s behavior changes dramatically from situation to situation People gripped by the forces of a powerful situation show a general trend in behavior not characteristically displayed in others circumstances.(Allen p.
283). In such situations however, people continue to show differences in behavior among individuals. Rotter also believed that environments can control behavior, behavior is goal oriented, and determined by expectations. Rotter has six basic categories of needs which are recognition status, dominance, independence, protection, and dependency and physical comfort. Recognition status is the need to be seen as competent in socially valued situations.Clinton fulfilled his recognition status need by learning how to perform in the public arena, The National Committee for an Effective Congress stated that Clinton’s campaign was the most impressive grassroots campaign in the country today.
(Allen p.50). Clinton fulfilled his need for dominance by trying to be the best at everything. His need for dominance was so great that during a campaign for senior class secretary he told a close friend If you beat me, I’ll never forgive you. (Allen p.10).
Clinton has also fulfilled his need for independence by making important discussions throughout his life, even at a relatively young age. Protection and dependency is the need to have another person to provide so form of security and protection. Clinton had his mother and his grandparents to support him and later in his life Hillary. Last there is physical comfort, which is a learned need for physical satisfaction. Clinton shows a classic example of Rotter’s expectancy, because he kept running for office so his name would gain recognition .
This was the reinforcement he hoped to gain from these actions. A good example of a psychological situation is when Bill first met Hillary, I was so embarrassed (Allen p. 34). Bill had temporarily forgotten his own name and was embarrassed because he thought he looked foolish. Hillary most likely found this episode cute and sweet.Reinforcement value is the degree of preference of an intended outcome.
A reinforcement won’t work if it has a low reinforcement value. Rotter had two important generalized expectancies, one being an external locus of control and the other being internal. The locus of control is the degree to which you expect that the reinforcement of your behavior is dependant on your behavior, personal characteristics (internal) versus the degree you see the reinforcement of luck, chance or fate (external). Rotter would see Clinton as internal. Clinton is a self made man, he worked hard and started applying himself at a young age in order to reach a certain goal.He didn’t sit back and wait for a lucky break.
Applying theorist to Bill Clinton was more difficult then I thought it would be. The easiest to apply had to be Rogers because his ideas on self actualization fit Clinton very well, it is quite obvious that he has applied himself from an early age with one goal in mind. Politics. The hardest theorist to apply would have to be Freud because his theory is very pessimistic and does not fit Clinton at all. Clinton doesn’t exhibit many characteristics that would fit well in Freud’s stages of development.I think the easiest theory to understand was the Humanistic theory which made more sense to me than any of the rest. Clinton is an interesting character to read about.
I was hoping to be able to apply some of Freud’s ideas to explain his cheating ways, but I failed to see any strong connections that were worth mentioning. Psychology.