is the art song, for single voices and piano, a form that came popular in the nineteenth century. Choirs, or groups of singers split between men and women and between high and low voices and these voices are: soprano, alto, tenors, baritone, and bass are needed to form a choral literature. The most highly organized type of instrumental music is the symphony, a orchestral piece that might be from twenty minutes to more than a hour. Tone is the most fundamental element of music.A type of tone is the psychophysical phenomenon called sound. Sound is a result from vibrations in the atmosphere.
A tone has four characteristics. It could be higher or lower in pitch than another tone, with the higher tones having a faster rate of vibration. A melody is a meaningful series of tones that has emotional significance.Melodies differ from one another in contour, organization, and cadence. A pitch range is a step-like arrangement. Some others might be wide ranging and include large leaps in pitch. The material surrounding a melody gives it its texture.
A melody that is heard alone is said to have a monophonic texture.When it is accompanied or supported by a set a chords, it has a nomophonic texture. If two or more independent melodies are heard together, the result is contrapuntal texture or just counter point. Rhythm is a principle by which we organize perception of time and space. The unit of time in music is called a beat, which must recur often enough to be considered a series.
In music, successive accents give rise to the concept of meter.Accents might differ in spacing and strength. Much music exhibits groupings of beats into threes.
Accented beats do not need to appear in regular succession. A musical scale, known as the diatomic scale, results when eight tone are arranged in order according to a certain formula of halfs and whole steps. The scale steps themselves are usually called degrees. A particular scale formula-major or minor may be constructed on any of the twelve halftones within a octave.Therefore, Western music commonly uses twelve major and twelve minor scales as well as other scales based and different formulas. Harmony is defined as the affect of tones heard in combination.
The harmony measurement is the interval between two pitches. Chord is the unit of harmony which consists of three or more tones vertically spaced a third apart. There is different ways to copy chord, like inverting them, altering their notes, and adding or subtracting tones. A chord may be inverted by putting one or two of the upper tones below to the core of the chord.
Aesthetic experience has determined that certain chords are more stable than others. A cadence in a harmonic sense is essentially a set of two or more dissonant chords followed by a more consonant one. A composition is based on a particular scale and employs the chord established on that scale. Through a process called modulation, this is a replication to other scales and chords take place, but the composition generally starts and finishes in its basic key.
The vast majority of Western music is based on five organizing principles, resulting in music that has coherence, satisfying proportions, and both unity and variety. The main result in music that has coherence, is that the satisfying proportions, and both unity and variety, this has enabled musical theorists to discover certain patterns of manipulating the musical material to produce satisfying aestetics ends.This principles give rise to the concept of musical form, are repitition, contrast, symmetry, variation, and development, to which may be added a hierarchical plan which small units are put together in a increasingly larger unit. The unit of music form is the phrase, which itself may include or be composed of short fragments called motives.
Under the influence of the above organizing in various ways. The resulting small forms similarly may be combined through the same principles to form parts or selections, which, in turn, are combined to form a movement. A movement may be considered to be a short independent composition which is usually five to fifteen minutes long.On a higher level of organization, movements are put together to form still larger compound forms, such as the sonata or the symphony. One of the most important types of movement forms through much of the late eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries was the sonata-form. Movements other than the sonata- form include the minuet with true and replicated, are commonly, simply called minuet: a faster of the minuet, sometimes with humorous intent, called scherzo: a set of theme and variations: a symmetrical form called rondo. In instrumental music, the compound forms include the sonata with one or two instrument, consisting usually of three or four contrasting movements, the symphony, written for orchestras similar to the sonata but often longer and more elaborate; and the conerto, which is essentially a sonata for orchestras and a solo instrument.
(Encyclopedia Americana, 1997.) Composers of secular music also made great strides in the sixteenth century. The relationship between text and music was shown by word painting in which certain textual details were illustrated in the music.Similar songs, set mainly in contrapuntal style for four voices were composed in Germany. In the late Renaissance, instrumental music progressed far toward achieving independence from vocal music. Earlier, instrumental forms had been written largely in imitation of vocal music.
In Italy, in the sixteenth century, canzoni based on vocal chansons but often included instrumental idioms, appeared for keyboard or lute and for groups of string or wind instruments. Set of dance tunes, arranged into suite for instrumental groups.The appreciation of music has two components emotional and intellectual: a person listen, reacts, and responds.
A listener of music does not go beyond the sensory reaction provided by the listening experience that is, if they confine the experience to the emotional component he makes contact only with the physical material of music. Only by being aware of the principles and perceiving them in action can the listener experience total enjoyment of both the emotional and intellectual components. People use music in different ways. They use it to express their feelings, their thoughts, and their emotions.In this world there is Christian music and worldly music or secular music.
There is different styles of music such as: rock, rap, jazz, etc. The Christian style is a style that worships Christ and the worldly style does not worship Christ. Bibliography Encyclopedia Americana. 575 Lexington Ave. New York, New York: 1971.Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury, Connecticut 06816: 1997.
Ardly, Neil. Instrumental Music. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989.Music.