Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson symbolizes the promise and the contradictions of America’s historical heritage. As the third president of the United States, a diplomat, plantation owner, architect, scientist, and philosopher, he is one of the most important figures in American history. The writings of Thomas Jefferson are today more meaningful than ever before in America’s history. You could reach into your pocket, pull out a nickel and find him gazing into the middle distance.

Jefferson was born on April 13 (April 2, Old Style), 1743, at Shadwell, the most important of the tobacco plantations owned by his father Peter Jefferson, in the Virginia upcountry.An intelligent man, although educated, Peter Jefferson became a successful surveyor, landowner, and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from Albemarle County. His wife Jane Randolph, a member of one of the most distinguished Virginia families. As a child, he enjoyed to the full the advantages of his family’s position in life: the books, the horses, and the good life of the “Big Houses” at Tuckahoe and Shadwell.

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When his father died he left his fourteen-year-old son with not only valuable lands and property but the inheritance of Virginia wealth as well as loving and caring advise. Thomas not formally educated himself; he studied at Revered Mr. Maury’s school, not far from Shadwell. After two years’ in the spring of 1760, he left his native Albemarle to attend William and Mary College.

Jefferson gives evidence of enjoying to the party scene: the music, the dancing, the flirtations, and the punch drinking. After graduating from William and Mary in the spring of 1762, Jefferson studied law five years under George Wythe. Knowledge of the law is essential to an understanding of governmental procedures. He became a successful lawyer starting his career. When Jefferson was turning thirty he started his political career. In January of 1772, he had married Martha Wayles Skelton.After being married, they moved to Monticello, not far from his old home in Shadwell, this had been destroyed by fire in 1770.

Jefferson arrived in Philadelphia in June 1775 as a Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress; he already possessed, as John Adams remarked. ” A reputation for literature, science, and a happy talent of composition.” When he returned a later, he was appointed to the five- man committee, including Benjamin Franklin and John Adams. Which is the most important assignment ever given in the history of America: the drafting of a formal declaration of independence from Great Britain. Jefferson had the responsibility of preparing the draft, and was finally approved on July 4, 1776. By the age of thirty-three, his reputation had grown. Returning to the Virginia House of Delegates in October 1776, Jefferson at once set to work on a carefully planned reform of the laws of Virginia.

He introduced a bill to reorganize the courts of justice. Jefferson made the most of his opportunity to modernize the body of the law. He surveyed the whole field of education, and proposed a systematic plan of statewide education. He attempted to write religious toleration into the laws of Virginia by separating Church and State; when the “Bill for establishing Religious Freedom” was finally passed in 1785, he considered it a major contribution to American society. In June of 1779, he was elected Governor of Virginia. Jefferson took up his duties at a time when the British were raiding Virginia; in control of the sea, they could send forth-plundering parties to capture food and ammunition, and destroy. Jefferson himself escaped capture at the hands of troops by Colonel Tarleton.

In June of 1781 he had injured his wrist and was unable to ride for some time. During this period, he wrote to Marquis de Marbois, Secretary of the French Legation at Philadelphia.The observations Jefferson had been making for years about the surrounding country, its climate, its natural beauties, minerals, waterways, agriculture, and government. The manuscript was later the Notes of Virginia.

In September 1782, Jefferson’s wife ill since the birth of their last daughter died. Shortly after in June 1783, the General Assembly of Virginia elected Jefferson as a delegate to the Confederation Congress where he again headed important committees, drafted man reports, and official papers. Here, he criticized the proposed currency system and provided, in his “Notes on the Establishment of a Money Unit,” a sound coinage system to take its place.He drew up a draft for temporary government of the Western Territory or the Ordinance of the Northwestern Territory, stressing the importance of equality between the original and the new states, and attempting to exclude slavery from all the territories.

Jefferson was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to assist Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, on May 7, 1784. Jefferson entered the European stage where Diplomacy and society, arts and sciences, revolution and love were to provide him the richest years of his life. In 1785, on Franklin’s departure for America, Jefferson was made Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of France. In January of 1794, were the rewards of being once mare a private, free, man able to read, write, and enjoy music he retired.

In the few months of retirement Jefferson began supervising the farm of his estates and designed a plow, which revolutionized agriculture. He also read in his library and wrote friends.After three years of retirement, Jefferson was drafted in 1796 to run for President and accepted it. He ran against John Adams losing but became the vice-president. After Adams term, Jefferson ran for president again against Aaron Burr. Jefferson’s second term, an impatient John Randolph of Roanoke did not like by Jefferson’s methods of dealing with the Federalists.

Rejecting Jefferson’s policy involving territorial controversies with Spain, he led a small but forceful team of anti-Administration Republicans in the House of Representatives. As Jefferson’s second term ended, he reopened his campaign for a system of general education in Virginia.Jefferson was convinced that the institution could be the greatest achievement in a lifetime dedicated to the belief that truth makes men free. The institution or State University for Virginia was the first American University to be free of official church connection. The University of Virginia was Jefferson’s daily concern during his last seven years. He chose the books for the college library, drew up the curriculum, designed the buildings, and supervised their construction. The University opened in 1825 the winter before Jefferson’s death.

Jefferson continued to pursue a multitude of other tasks.In his eightieth year he wrote on politics, sending President Monroe long expositions later known as the Monroe Doctrine. Jefferson’s life had been rich and deep, astonishing in its complexity, rewarding to his family, his friends, his fellow citizens, and to America. Jefferson died ten days before the fiftieth anniversary of American independence July 4, 1826.

Jefferson symbolizes for many both the promise and the contradictions of America’s historical heritage. He was a plantation owner from Virginia who helped formulate the American Revolution and became the third President of the new country. He wrote the Declaration of Independence.Jefferson’s manifesto asserted that God had not created masters and servants, aristocrats and commoners. All had been “created equal”.

All were entitled to human dignity. Jefferson was a landowner and engaged in ambitious building projects at Monticello and Poplar Forest. He unsuccessfully looked for an alternative crop to tobacco, and like many American farmers after him he was heavily in debt to the banks.

Jefferson’s plantations were worked by slaves he owned an estimated two hundred slaves. During his presidency, his political enemies published charges that the had several children with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings which was not in the book I read but a point I wanted to bring up. How can a man so intelligent and brave write the Declaration of Independence and own slaves? The man, who wrote, “all men are created equal.” He seems to be so what of a hypocrite.I will take into consideration that in the eighteenth-century, Virginia slaveholders might have wished freedom for slaves, but the difficulties of finding viable places of residence and means of livelihood may have been a factor. Although we may find Jefferson guilty of failing to make adequate allowance for the conditions in which slaves were forced to live, Jefferson did not take the next step of concluding that slaves were fit only for slavery.

Did Jefferson mean to include blacks or women in the language of the Declaration? Writing from retirement at he age of seventy-three, he told a correspondent the “laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind.” I respect Thomas Jefferson for his intelligence, work, and actions took to form our country today. Jefferson was a very intelligent man for his time and find it amazing of all the work he did in his lifetime.

I believe he is the most important president of all the presidents of America. American History.

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson symbolizes the promise and the contradictions of America’s historical heritage. As the third president of the United States, a diplomat, plantation owner, architect, scientist, and philosopher, he is one of the most important figures in American history. The writings of Thomas Jefferson are today more meaningful than ever before in America’s history. You could reach into your pocket, pull out a nickel and find him gazing into the middle distance. Jefferson was born on April 13 (April 2, Old Style), 1743, at Shadwell, the most important of the tobacco plantations owned by his father Peter Jefferson, in the Virginia upcountry.

An intelligent man, although educated, Peter Jefferson became a successful surveyor, landowner, and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from Albemarle County. His wife Jane Randolph, a member of one of the most distinguished Virginia families. As a child, he enjoyed to the full the advantages of his family’s position in life: the books, the horses, and the good life of the “Big Houses” at Tuckahoe and Shadwell. When his father died he left his fourteen-year-old son with not only valuable lands and property but the inheritance of Virginia wealth as well as loving and caring advise. Thomas not formally educated himself; he studied at Revered Mr. Maury’s school, not far from Shadwell. After two years’ in the spring of 1760, he left his native Albemarle to attend William and Mary College.

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Jefferson gives evidence of enjoying to the party scene: the music, the dancing, the flirtations, and the punch drinking. After graduating from William and Mary in the spring of 1762, Jefferson studied law five years under George Wythe. Knowledge of the law is essential to an understanding of governmental procedures. He became a successful lawyer starting his career.

When Jefferson was turning thirty he started his political career. In January of 1772, he had married Martha Wayles Skelton. After being married, they moved to Monticello, not far from his old home in Shadwell, this had been destroyed by fire in 1770. Jefferson arrived in Philadelphia in June 1775 as a Virginia delegate to the Second Continental Congress; he already possessed, as John Adams remarked. “ A reputation for literature, science, and a happy talent of composition.” When he returned a later, he was appointed to the five- man committee, including Benjamin Franklin and John Adams.

Which is the most important assignment ever given in the history of America: the drafting of a formal declaration of independence from Great Britain. Jefferson had the responsibility of preparing the draft, and was finally approved on July 4, 1776. By the age of thirty-three, his reputation had grown. Returning to the Virginia House of Delegates in October 1776, Jefferson at once set to work on a carefully planned reform of the laws of Virginia. He introduced a bill to reorganize the courts of justice.

Jefferson made the most of his opportunity to modernize the body of the law. He surveyed the whole field of education, and proposed a systematic plan of statewide education. He attempted to write religious toleration into the laws of Virginia by separating Church and State; when the “Bill for establishing Religious Freedom” was finally passed in 1785, he considered it a major contribution to American society. In June of 1779, he was elected Governor of Virginia. Jefferson took up his duties at a time when the British were raiding Virginia; in control of the sea, they could send forth-plundering parties to capture food and ammunition, and destroy. Jefferson himself escaped capture at the hands of troops by Colonel Tarleton.

In June of 1781 he had injured his wrist and was unable to ride for some time. During this period, he wrote to Marquis de Marbois, Secretary of the French Legation at Philadelphia. The observations Jefferson had been making for years about the surrounding country, its climate, its natural beauties, minerals, waterways, agriculture, and government.

The manuscript was later the Notes of Virginia. In September 1782, Jefferson’s wife ill since the birth of their last daughter died. Shortly after in June 1783, the General Assembly of Virginia elected Jefferson as a delegate to the Confederation Congress where he again headed important committees, drafted man reports, and official papers. Here, he criticized the proposed currency system and provided, in his “Notes on the Establishment of a Money Unit,” a sound coinage system to take its place. He drew up a draft for temporary government of the Western Territory or the Ordinance of the Northwestern Territory, stressing the importance of equality between the original and the new states, and attempting to exclude slavery from all the territories. Jefferson was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States to assist Benjamin Franklin and John Adams, on May 7, 1784. Jefferson entered the European stage where Diplomacy and society, arts and sciences, revolution and love were to provide him the richest years of his life.

In 1785, on Franklin’s departure for America, Jefferson was made Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of France. In January of 1794, were the rewards of being once mare a private, free, man able to read, write, and enjoy music he retired. In the few months of retirement Jefferson began supervising the farm of his estates and designed a plow, which revolutionized agriculture. He also read in his library and wrote friends. After three years of retirement, Jefferson was drafted in 1796 to run for President and accepted it. He ran against John Adams losing but became the vice-president. After Adams term, Jefferson ran for president again against Aaron Burr.

Jefferson’s second term, an impatient John Randolph of Roanoke did not like by Jefferson’s methods of dealing with the Federalists. Rejecting Jefferson’s policy involving territorial controversies with Spain, he led a small but forceful team of anti-Administration Republicans in the House of Representatives. As Jefferson’s second term ended, he reopened his campaign for a system of general education in Virginia.

Jefferson was convinced that the institution could be the greatest achievement in a lifetime dedicated to the belief that truth makes men free. The institution or State University for Virginia was the first American University to be free of official church connection. The University of Virginia was Jefferson’s daily concern during his last seven years. He chose the books for the college library, drew up the curriculum, designed the buildings, and supervised their construction.

The University opened in 1825 the winter before Jefferson’s death. Jefferson continued to pursue a multitude of other tasks. In his eightieth year he wrote on politics, sending President Monroe long expositions later known as the Monroe Doctrine.

Jefferson’s life had been rich and deep, astonishing in its complexity, rewarding to his family, his friends, his fellow citizens, and to America. Jefferson died ten days before the fiftieth anniversary of American independence July 4, 1826. Jefferson symbolizes for many both the promise and the contradictions of America’s historical heritage. He was a plantation owner from Virginia who helped formulate the American Revolution and became the third President of the new country.

He wrote the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson’s manifesto asserted that God had not created masters and servants, aristocrats and commoners. All had been “created equal”.

All were entitled to human dignity. Jefferson was a landowner and engaged in ambitious building projects at Monticello and Poplar Forest. He unsuccessfully looked for an alternative crop to tobacco, and like many American farmers after him he was heavily in debt to the banks. Jefferson’s plantations were worked by slaves he owned an estimated two hundred slaves. During his presidency, his political enemies published charges that the had several children with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings which was not in the book I read but a point I wanted to bring up.

How can a man so intelligent and brave write the Declaration of Independence and own slaves? The man, who wrote, “all men are created equal.” He seems to be so what of a hypocrite. I will take into consideration that in the eighteenth-century, Virginia slaveholders might have wished freedom for slaves, but the difficulties of finding viable places of residence and means of livelihood may have been a factor. Although we may find Jefferson guilty of failing to make adequate allowance for the conditions in which slaves were forced to live, Jefferson did not take the next step of concluding that slaves were fit only for slavery. Did Jefferson mean to include blacks or women in the language of the Declaration? Writing from retirement at he age of seventy-three, he told a correspondent the “laws and institutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind.

” I respect Thomas Jefferson for his intelligence, work, and actions took to form our country today. Jefferson was a very intelligent man for his time and find it amazing of all the work he did in his lifetime. I believe he is the most important president of all the presidents of America. American History

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson was the third president of the United States.His terms lasted from the year 1801 to the year 1809.Jefferson was an American revolutionary leader as well as an influential political philosopher.Jefferson was among a group of the most brilliant Americans that resulted from the Enlightenment in Europe.

Possibly one of the best writers during his time, Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence.Jeffersons status as a Virginia aristocrat gave him the two most important things to become an educated man, which was a difficult thing to become during that time.Those two things, time and the resources, allowed him to educate himself in history, literature, law, architecture, science, and philosophy.He also had a great deal of influence on his ideals that came directly from the European culture and thought because he had been a diplomat and friend of French and British intellectuals.

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Jefferson was born on the thirteenth day of April of the year 1743 at Shadwell in Goochland (now in Albemarle) Co., Virginia, which was at the time considered a western outpost and was to remain as Jeffersons lifelong home.He was the son of Peter Jefferson and Jane Randolph Jefferson.

His father, Peter, was a surveyor, a cartographer, and a plantation owner and he was also largely self-educated.His mother, Jane was from the prominent Rudolph family of colonial Virginia.Jeffersons intense interest in botany, geology, cartography, North American exploration, and love of Greek and Latin are due largely from his father and his surrounding environment out in the west where he also absorbed the democratic views of his Western countrymen.

For several years, Jefferson studied at the local grammar and classical schools.After that, he entered the College of William and Mary in the year 1760.During his time at the college, he had become a close friend to three prominent residents of Williamsburg: William Small, George Wythe, and Francis Fauquier who was the lieutenant governor of the colony. Small was of the college faculty who Jefferson had studied under.Small had an in depth knowledge of the Scottish Englightenment and its approach to law, history, philosophy, and science.He had also introduced him to the natural sciences and to rational methods of inquiry.

Wythe was of the Virginia bar.In Wythe, Jefferson had found an equally gifted teacher of law.Wythe led Jefferson to see the study of law not as a narrow vocational preparation but as a means of understanding the history, culture, institutions, and morals of people.After two years of college, Jefferson was admitted to the bar in 1767.

He was then elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses in the year 1769, which was the beginning in his long career in politics.During Jefferson’s years from 1769 to the year 1775, he was been a leader of the patriot faction in the colonial house of burgesses. He helped form and was a member of the Virginia Committee of correspondence. During the First Virginia Convention, Jefferson prepared a paper called A Summary view of the Rights of British America in the year 1774. In the paper, he brilliantly expounded his view that the British Parliament had not authority over the colonies and that the only bond that the colonies had with England was of voluntary allegiance to the king among the colonists. Jefferson’s most famous act came during his time as a delegate to the Second Continental Congress in the years 1775 to 1776.

Although the Declaration of Independence was given to a committee to draft, the document was the wholly work of Jefferson except for the minor altercations by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and the others on the floor or the Congress. During Jeffersons first term as president, a major presidential achievement sparked because of his lifelong interest in the West and in American-French relations.This achievement was the Louisiana Purchase in the year 1803.This was the greatest land bargain in the history of the United States.The results from this purchase doubled the size of the United States and greatly improved the strength of the country materially and strategically.The purchase also provided a powerful impetus toward the western expansion in the United States.

The territory itself was owned by France and expanded over 2,144,520 square kilometers (828,000 square miles) in area.The territory took up the present-day states of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota west of the Mississippi River, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, nearly all of Kansas, and portions of Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado east of the Rock Moun..

…tains, and Louisiana west of the Mississippi River but including New Orleans.The French originally settled the land in the early 18th century, the area west of the Mississippi and the Isle of Orleans was ceded to Spain by a secret treaty in the year 1762.

Soon after the end of the Seven Years War, the area east of the Mississippi was lost to Great Britain.However, after the American Revolution in the year 1800, the land was returned to France through another secret treaty by Napoleon I where he induced a reluctant King Charles IV of Spain to agree to.The return of the land to the Spanish surprised the United States government when the news had reached them.Reason for this was because in the preceding twelve years, American settlers had gone westward into the valleys of the Cumberland, Tennessee, and Ohio rivers. Their survival of depended on their right to use the Mississippi River freely so they could make shipments to New Orleans to export.Now, this right for the American settlers to freely use the Mississippi River to basically make their living was guaranteed by the Treaty of San Lorenzo, Spain, in 1795.This had granted the United States to be allowed to ship goods to the mouth of the Mississippi without paying duty and also the right to deposit or temporarily store American goods at New Orleans.However, with the secret treaty, Spain in the year 1802 revoked that right and thus resulted in growing tension between the West and Thomas Jefferson.

Now that this conflict had risen in the west, a man by the name of Robert R. Livingston, U.S.

minister at Paris was instructed by Jefferson to take two steps in resolving this lost right of using the Mississippi River. The first step was to approach Napoleons minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, with the object of preventing the retrocession in the event this act had not yet been completed.The second was to try to purchase at least New Orleans if the property had actually been transferred from Spain to France.With the orders and the two million dollars granted by Congress to secure their objective, Livingston, with appointed minister James Monroe went ahead with President Jeffersons orders, however the negotiations ended up being impossible.

As months had passed, glimmerings of a possible deal between France and the United States started to fade away.However, with the costly French failure in Santo Domingo to put down the revolt and causing Napoleon I to reconsider his plan of making Hispaniola the keystone of his colonial empire, Louisiana soon became of diminishing importance to the French.Also, with the imminence of the renewed war with Great Britain, the financial status of France also started diminish.So, in the year 1803, Napoleon decided to offer for sale to the United States the entire Louisiana Territory.Even though the two American ministers, Livingston and Monroe were not given the instructions or the authority to purchase the whole entire Louisiana, the negotiations with BarbeS-Marbois who was acting for Napoleon, soon moved into a conclusion.

On second of May in the year 1803, a treaty was signed between the United States and France.The terms of the treaty came with the form that France had received from Spain and thus the Louisiana Territory was sold to the United States.The agreement was that the United States would pay $11,250,000 outright and assumed claims of its citizens against France in the amount of $3,750,000, which the United States also agreed, to discharge.Interest payments from the final settlement finally made the total price $27,267,622.Despite the scruples that Jefferson had about the purchase being constitutional or not, his other fears that Napoleon would change his mind because of Livingstons reports and from the overwhelming public approval of the Louisiana Purchase, except for most of New England, eventually overcame him and he approved.After the United States Senate ratified the treaty in October of that same year, the flag of the United States was raised over New Orleans on the twentieth of December.Even though the United States had purchased a great deal of land, it was still unclear.The wording of the treaty was vague and the boundaries were not clearly described.

Also, the fact that the United States was to also own West Florida, which was suppose to be considered part of Louisiana was not assured.Despite that the final boundaries of the territory were not settled for many years, the boundaries roughly extended form the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to British North America.The total purchase had doubled the national domain, increasing it 2,144,500 square kilometers.

Thomas Jefferson

.. t could never die. Because of his absence in Europe, Jefferson had no direct part in the framing or ratification of the CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES, and at first the document aroused his fears. His chief objections were that it did not expressly safeguard the rights of individuals, and that the unlimited eligibility of the president for reelection would make it possible for him to become a king. He became sufficiently satisfied after he learned that a bill of rights would be provided and after he reflected that there would be no danger of monarchy under George Washington.Secretary of State Although his fears of monarchical tendencies remained and colored his attitude in later partisan struggles, it was as a friend of the new government that he accepted Washington’s invitation to become secretary of state.

During Jefferson’s service in this post from 1790 to 1793, Alexander Hamilton, secretary of the treasury, defeated the movement for commercial discrimination against Britain, which Jefferson favored. Hamilton, also, connived with the British minister George Hammond to nullify Jefferson’s efforts in 1792 to gain observance of the terms of peace from the British, and especially to dislodge them from the northwest posts. Jefferson’s policy was not pro-French, but it seemed anti-British. Hamilton was distinctly pro-British, largely for financial reasons, and he became more so when general war broke out in Europe and ideology was clearly involved.In 1793, Jefferson wanted the French Revolution to succeed against its external foes, but he also recognized that the interests of his own country demanded a policy of neutrality.

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Such a policy was adopted, to the dissatisfaction of many strong friends of democracy in America, and was executed so fairly as to win the reluctant praise of the British. Jefferson was greatly embarrassed by the indiscretions of the fiery French minister, Edmond Charles Genet, who arrived in Washington in the spring of 1793, but he skillfully brought about Genet’s recall and avoided a breach with the revolutionary government of his country. Jefferson helped Hamilton gain congressional consent to the assumption of state debts, for which the location of the federal capital on the Potomac was the political return. His growing objections to the Hamiltonian financial system were partly owing to his belief that the treasury was catering to commercial and financial groups, not agricultural, but he also believed that Hamilton was building up his own political power by creating ties of financial interest and was corrupting Congress. The issue between the two secretaries was sharply joined by 1791, when the Bank of the United States was established. They gave to the president their rival interpretations of the Constitution in this connection.The victory at the time and in the long run was with Hamilton’s doctrine of liberal construction, or interpretation, of the Constitution and his assertion of broad national power.

But Jefferson’s general distrust of power and his reliance on basic law as a safeguard have enduring value. By late 1792 or 1793 the opponents of Hamiltonianism constituted a fairly definite national party, calling itself Republican. Jefferson’s recognized leadership of this group can be more easily attributed to his official standing and his political philosophy than to his partisan activities. In the summer and autumn of 1792, by means of anonymous newspaper articles, Hamilton sought to drive Jefferson from the government. The alleged justification was the campaign being waged against Hamilton by the editor of the National Gazette, Philip Freneau.

Jefferson had given Freneau minor employment as a translator for the State Department, but he claimed that he never brought influence to bear on him, and there is no evidence that he himself wrote anything for the paper.But he had told Washington precisely what he thought of his colleague’s policies, and had already said that he himself wanted to get out of the government. Early in 1793 the Virginians in CONGRESS vainly sought to drive Hamilton from office or at least to rebuke him sharply for alleged financial mismanagement. Jefferson undoubtedly sympathized with this attack and probably drafted the resolutions that were introduced by Rep. William Branch Giles (Va.

) and soundly defeated. A degree of unity was forced on the president’s official family by the foreign crisis of 1793, which also caused Jefferson to delay his retirement to the end of the year.Vice President During a respite of three years from public duties, he began to remodel his house at Monticello and interested himself greatly in agriculture, claiming that he had wholly lost the “little spice of ambition” he had once had. He was outraged by Washington’s attack on the Democratic societies, which were identified with his party, and by what he regarded as the surrender to the British in Jay’s Treaty, but at this stage he was playing little part in politics. Nonetheless, he was supported by the Republicans for president in 1796, and, running second to John Adams by three ELECTORAL VOTES, he became VICE PRESIDENT. His Manual of Parliamentary Practice (1801) was a result of his experience as the presiding officer over the Senate. His papers on the extinct megalonyx and on the moldboard of a plow invented by him attested to his scientific interests and attainments.These papers were presented to the American Philosophical Society, of which he became president in 1797.

A private letter of his to his friend Philip Mazzei, published that year, severely criticized Federalist leaders and was interpreted as an attack on Washington. Jefferson’s partisan activities increased during his vice presidency. He deplored the FEDERALIST exploitation of a dangerous quarrel with France, although Jefferson’s own sympathy with France had declined. The notorious Alien and Sedition Acts were the principal cause of Jefferson’s disapproval of the Adams administration. Jefferson’s grounds were both philosophical and partisan. The historic Republican protest against laws that attempted to suppress freedom of speech and destroy political opposition was made in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions (1798).Jefferson wrote the former, as James MADISON did the latter. Jefferson’s authorship was not known at the time.

In the Kentucky Resolutions he carried his states’-rights doctrines to their most extreme point in his career. In invoking the authority of the states against laws that he regarded as unconstitutional, his resolutions were in the tradition that finally led to nullification and secession. But they were also in the best tradition of civil liberties and human rights.

President: First Term Jefferson’s victory over John Adams in the presidential election of 1800 can be partially explained by the dissension among the Federalists, but the policies of the government were unpopular, and as a party the Federalists were now much less representative of the country than were the Republicans. Jefferson’s own title to the presidency was not established for some weeks, because he was accidentally tied with his running mate, Aaron BURR, under the workings of the original electoral system. The election was thrown into the HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, where the Federalists voted for Burr through many indecisive ballots. Finally, enough of them abstained to permit the obvious will of the majority to be carried out. Jefferson later said that the ousting of the Federalists and the accession of his own party constituted a “revolution,” but that statement was hyperbole. He was speaking of the principles of the government rather than of its form, and his major concern was to restore the spirit of 1776.

He regarded himself as more loyal to the U. S. Constitution than his loose-constructionist foes were, though in fact he was less a strict constructionist in practice than in theory. Although he had objected to features of Hamilton’s financial system, he had no intention of upsetting it now that it was firmly established. Instead, the purpose he had in mind, and was to be highly successful in carrying out, was to obviate some of the grave dangers he saw in the system by reducing the national debt.

Jefferson’s accession to the presidency is notable in American history because it marked the first transfer of national authority from one political group to another, and it is especially significant that, despite Federalist obstructionism for a time, the transition was effected by peaceful and strictly constitutional means.Jefferson himself emphasized this in his conciliatory inaugural address. These events set a precedent of acquiescence in the will of the majority.

The new president described this as a “sacred principle” that must prevail, but he added that, to be rightful, it must be reasonable and that the rights of minorities must be protected. His accession removed the threat of counterrevolution from his country. The government he conducted, in its spirit of tolerance and humanity, was without parallel in his world.

His first term, most of it in a period of relative international calm, was distinctly successful. He was the undisputed leader of a party that had acquired cohesion during its years in opposition. In James Madison as secretary of state and Albert Gallatin as secretary of the treasury, he had lieutenants of high competence whom he treated as peers but whose loyalty to him bordered on reverence. By virtually ruling himself out of the party, Vice President Aaron Burr relieved Jefferson of a potential rival. Working through the Republican leaders in Congress, whom he treated with the utmost respect, Jefferson exercised influence on that body that was unexampled in previous presidential history and was to be rarely matched in later administrations.Because of his own commitment, and that of most of his countrymen, to the doctrine of division of powers between the executive and legislative branches, his leadership, except in foreign affairs, was indirect and generally unadmitted.

He also shared with most of his fellows a rather negative concept of the functions of the federal government in the domestic sphere. The policy of economy and tax reduction that the favorable world situation permitted him to follow served to reduce rather than increase the burdens of his countrymen, and it contributed no little to his popularity. Dispute with the Judiciary Jefferson restored the party balance in the civil service, but he was relatively unsuccessful in his moves against the judiciary, which had been reinforced by fresh Federalist appointees at the very end of the Adams administration.

In the eyes of Jefferson and the Republicans, the federal judiciary constituted a branch of the opposing party and could be expected to obstruct the administration in every possible way. He treated as null and void late appointments by Adams that seemed of doubtful legality, and the Republicans repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 with his full approval.But he was rebuked by Chief Justice John Marshall in the famous case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) for withholding the commission of a late-hour appointee as justice of the peace. The effort to remove partisan judges by impeachment was a virtual failure, and the Federalists remained entrenched in the judiciary, though they became less actively partisan. The Louisiana Purchase These partial political failures were more than compensated by the purchase of Louisiana in 1803, the most notable achievement of Jefferson’s presidency.

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