this study guide is a suggestion on which areas to focus on for the midterm; ask your TA if you have questions or need clarification! terms that are *ed are those which require knowing the definition of the term only, unless otherwise noted items not listed on the study guide will NOT be covered on the exam Chapters 1 & 2 material ? psychoactive drug* Having effects on thoughts, emotions or behavior ? the four pharmacological revolutions 1. Vaccines Pasteur, Jenner, and Koch Convince public that medicine is very powerful in benefiting people 2. Antibiotics curing or preventing diseases, penicillin 3. Psychopharmacology the study of the behavioral effects of drugs, on mind, emotions, and perceptions such as schizophrenia 4. Oral contraceptive drugs used by healthy people to gain chemical control over their own bodies ? the four types of drug-induced toxicity 1. Acute short term effects of a single dose 2. Chronic long term effects of repeated use 3. Behavioral resulting from the behavioral effects of a drug 4.
Physiological physical effects on body ? DAWN – what it is and what it measures, the limitations of DAWN as a reporting system, and the top three drugs on the DAWN lists – total deaths from illicit drugs compared with those from alcohol alone and cigarettes alone Drug Abuse Warning Network Collects data on drug related crises from hospital emergency rooms around the country **ASK** DAWN does not correct for frequency of use DAWN TOP 3 1. Alcohol-in-combination 2. Cocaine 3. Heroin/Morphine Alcohol deaths = 100,000 Cigarette deaths = 400,000 Illicit deaths = 15,000 ? relationships between crime and drug use – what are they 1. Drug causes crime 2. Drug use might cause criminal behavior when the person in under the influence 3. Crimes carried out for the purpose of obtaining $ to purchase illicit drugs 4.
Illicit drug use is a crime Article 38 – be able to recognize the main examples given in each category of the drug problem as given by this author (specifically within the crime, economy, health, international politics, morality and civil liberties sections) ? what is the authors position on legalization of drugs? ? do not need to know the specific numbers given for costs of drugs Chapters 5 & 6 material ? the life-cycle of a neurotransmitter, how chemical signaling occurs ? how drugs work in this chemical signaling process (e.g. cocaine prevents reuptake of dopamine), also section on p.125 on possible mechanisms of drug actions ? limbic/mesolimbic systems and their roles in reward, pleasure center ? know the major neurotransmitters and their general actions in the CNS ? dose-response curve/relationship* ? potency* ? routes of administration – know what they are, how they deliver drug to the CNS, their relative characteristics Article 10 – need to know the various ways dopamine affects neurotransmitter actions (in specific, such as how cocaine works in achieving a high and influencing dependence) ? be able to recognize the articles main points about addiction (the role of genes, the role of environment, role of dopamine, role of other factors) ? do not need to know the specific #s (for drug usage rates) given in article Chapters 8 & 9 material ? barbiturates*, benzodiazapines*, phenothiazines/antipsychotics* ? uses of these three above groups clinically and recreationally ? the different levels of psychological and physical dependence of the three groups ? know the principles of dependence, withdrawal, and CNS actions in terms of dose and type (short v. long acting and quick v gradual time of onset) for barbiturates and benzodiazepines ? methaqualone section ? date rape drug section ? inhalants – know the general types and the health effects associated with use, reasons for using ? mechanism of action of the antipsychotics (i.e. blocking receptors for the neurotransmitters) Chapters 10 & 11 material ? metabolism – do not need to know specifics, but know role of liver and the rate of alcohol elimination ? the specific effects of varying BAC on behaviors (e.g. Table 10.2) ? know how to calculate BAC if given amount of drinks, what type of drink, and how long drinking, if then given info from chart of BAC and amount of drinks associated with that BAC for a given weight/gender (e.g. – if a 200 lb male consumes 10 cans of beer in 4 hours, what is BAC (given the chart section of: 1 beer, .019; 2 beers, .037; 4 beers, .070; 6 beers, .110; 8 beers, .150; 10 beers, .180) answer – after 4 hours, liver has eliminated .25 oz/hr X 4 = 1 oz of alcohol, which is equivalent to 2 beers, therefore BAC is 10 beers – 2 beers = 8 beers, or .150) ? alcohol withdrawal, what are its characteristics? ? physiological effects of alcohol, including the resulting hangover (not what is a hangover, but why biochemically do you get one) ? know the health effects of alcohol abuse ? FAS, know definition and risk factors ? know the specifics of why Prohibition was enacted, why it worked, why it did not work, and the reasons given for its repeal ? know the trends on rates of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, and the correlates of such fatalities ? what is the association of alcohol and crime ? the various definitions of alcoholism (their general characteristics) ? the different treatment methods for alcoholism, whether they work or not, and how they work or do not work Article 22 – how does this article define binge drinking ? know what the articles two main researchers (Merrill and Engs) say about college drinking, specifically why do they say it either is or is not a problem, and what solutions do they suggest? ? is Indiana Universitys alcohol policy effective, and why or why not? Article 57 – how does the author distinguish between problem drinking and chronic drinking ? why does the author feel that a moderation treatment is necessary for problem drinkers; specifically, what reasons does she give why AA and the disease model are not effective? Chapters 12 & 13 material ? know the section smoking and pregnancy in the text, what health effects are for babies ? know the sections about the physiological, behavioral, and addictive effects of nicotine (know the specific biochemical mechanisms of each) ? xanthines* ? know the specific health effects for drinking caffeine that are covered in text Article 11 – omit Article 16 – know the health, economic, and medical care effects of smoking – should know in specific the statistics given in the section coffin nails and the section price of addiction (an example would be deaths due to lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, ect; and medical cost of smoking in U.S. $50 billion) – for the rest of article should just be familiar with statements about US tobacco marketing and distribution foreign and domestic.