Do you know about the founding of the thirteen colonies? Well today I amgoing to tell you about when, how, who, why, and where the thirteen colonieswere established. So read on to find out some new things.VirginiaRoanoke was the last of Sir Walter Raliegh’s attempt to establish a colony.
Although, the idea did come up again in 1606. In 1607 105 LondonCompany-sponsored settlers arrived in Jamestown from England. The first year washorrible for the colonists, with only thirty-two colonists living through thewinter. After supplies and new settlers came, and they learned how to grow theirown crops, the colony slowly began to grow.
Virginia was saved by tobacco.New YorkEngland had to clumps of colonies In 1660, it is now the United States. Inbetween the English colonies the Dutch controlled, some lands. In 1624 someDutchMerchants had formed a company to trade with the Americas is being called theDutch West India company. Their post was along the Hudson River. It grew intothe colony New Netherland.
New Amsterdam was the main settlement of the NewNetherland. In 1626 the Dutch West India Company bought Manhattan from themanhates people. To increase the number of settlers the company sent overfamilies from the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden and Finland, anyone who broughtat least fifty settlers got a big estate. New Netherland boasted a great harborand thriving river trade. The English wanted to have the valuable Dutch colony,so in 1664 the English sent a fleet to attack New Amsterdam During that timePeter Stuyvesant ruled the colony as governor. When the English ships came toattack, the governor was not ready for war and surrendered the colony.
KingCharles II gave the colony to his brother Duke of York. Who then renamed it toNew York.MassachusettsIn the early 1600s Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church werecalled Puritans. Those who didn’t want to reform the Anglican Church and wantedto leave and found their own churches were Separatists. The Separatists werepersecuted in England and so some went to the Netherlands. Though they were safethere, they still had trouble, they had a hard time finding work.
So someSeparatists made an agreement with the Virginia Company, to settle there and inreturn they would give them a bit of their profit they make. In September of1620 one hundred and thirty-two passengers boarded the Mayflower. The passengershad planed to settle in the Virginia colony. Since the winter was coming, thefirst land they saw was Cape Cod, so the colonists agreed upon to drop an anchorin the Cape Cod Bay. They went ashore at a place called Plymouth. WilliamBradford was their leader, and he said “all things stared upon them with aweather beaten face”.
The Plymouth was outdoor the area of Virginia Companyand its laws. To provide the new colony, the pilgrims made up a document calledthe Mayflower Compact.MarylandMaryland was just a fantasy for Sir George Calvert. He wanted to establish asafe place for his fellow Catholics, who were being persecuted in England.
Hewanted the colony to bring him fortune too. Calvert’s Fantasy came true in 1632.King Charles’ I gave him a colony north of Virginia. Sadly though, Sir GeorgeCalvert died before his dream was granted. So his son Cecilius Calvert tookcharge of the colony. Then it was named after Henrietta Maria, the EnglishQueen, they called it Maryland. The young Calvert never lived in Marylandthough, but he did send two of his brothers to run the colony.
Since tobaccosaved Virginia, Maryland colonists went straight to tobacco farming. They alsoplanted crops to feed their families and workers. In 1728 Baltimore was founded.Soon after that Baltimore became Maryland’s biggest settlement.
Rhode IslandRoger Williams, a minister, was banished from Massachusetts in 1635. He wasbanished because he felt that people should be free to follow any religiouspractice they wanted. William also believed that it was wrong for settlers totake land away from the Native Americans. Roger Williams left Massachusetts in ahurry, so they wouldn’t send him back to England. William bought land onNarragansett Bay, where he later providence.
In 1644 he got a charter for acolony East of Connecticut called Rhode Island. It soon became a secure placefor dissenters. Rhode Island was the first place in America where people of allfaiths could worship freely.New HampshireOther people followed Roger Williams, making colonies where they couldworship what they wanted freely. In 1638 John Wheelwright led a congregation ofpeople from Massachusetts to the north.
There they founded a town of Exeter inNew Hampshire. The same year, a group of Puritans settled Hampton. The colony ofNew Hampshire turned completely independent of Massachusetts in 1679.ConnecticutSouth of Massachusetts was the fertile Connecticut River Valley, where it wasa lot better for farming compared to the rocky soil around Boston. In the 1630scolonists started settling in this area.
Tomas Hooker, a Minister, startedbecoming disappointed with Massachusetts. He wasn’t happy with the way Winthropand the other Puritans ran the colony. He also heard about the excellentfarmland.
In 1636 Tomas Hooker accompany his group to Connecticut, where hefounded the city Hartford. Three years after that Hartford, Windsor, andWethersfield agreed to form a colony. They made the Fundamental Orders ofConnecticut.DelawareIn 1631 the first settlement was attempted in Delaware by Dutch traders. In1638 Peter Minuet led a group of Swedish settlers to the Delaware River. TheDutch gained control of the land in 1655 from the Delaware after defeating theDutch.
In 1682 Delaware was given to William Penn but his control didn’t last.In 1701 Delaware became independent.The Carolina’sAt first it was just called Carolina which means “Charles land’ inLatin. The king gave it to a group of eight prominent members of his court.
Theythought they would make a profit be selling and renting land to settlers. Thesettlers began coming in 1670. In 1680 they founded a city called Charleston.John Locke, an English philosopher wrote a constitution for the Carolina Colony.The Constitution went over social ranking and land distribution, but it didn’tgo according to plan.
The people of northern and southern Carolina went theirseparate ways, creating two colonies, North Carolina and South Carolina.PennsylvaniaIn 1680 William Penn, a wealthy man, introduced a plan to King Charles.Penn’s father had lent a lot of money to the king. So instead of money WilliamPenn wanted land in America.
The king was pleased to get rid of his debt, gavePenn a tract of land stretching inland from Delaware River. The new colony namePennsylvania was as huge as England. To encourage settlers to come toPennsylvania William Penn advertised pamphlets in several languages. In 1681 itbecame a royal colony.New JerseyThe Duke of York gave the southern part of his colony to Sir Lord Berkeleyand Sir George Carteret.
They named it New Jersey after the island of Jersey,where Carteret was born. They had hoped to make some money from New Jersey, bycharging the settlers rent. So to interest settlers, they advanced big tracts ofland and beneficent terms. They also promised freedom of religion,representative assembly, and a trail by jury. New York and New Jersey were alikein some ways, and they both were places of ethic and religious variety. SinceNew Jersey had no harbors, it didn’t form a major port or city like New York.Sir Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret didn’t make the money they thoughtthey would make from rents. So then Berkeley sold his share of West Jersey in1674.
Carteret’s share was auctioned in 1680. Then in 1702 New Jersey was thenruled by a king, becoming a royal colony.GeorgiaIn 1733Georgia was founded. Georgia was one of the last British colonies inAmerica to be established. A group led by General James Oglethorpe, got acharter to make a colony where English debtors and poor people could make afresh start.
The British government wanted to create Georgia so the colony couldprotect the other British colonies from the Spanish attack.So in conclusion I hoped you learned a few new things about how the colonieswere established. If not then I hope, you enjoy my report.
Thank you for readingit.Category: History