The Elizabethan Period

The Elizabethan Period King Henry VIII was born in Greenwich on the 28th of January 1491 ( The British Monarchy, pg.1 ). King Henry VIII became heir to the throne after the death of his elder brother, Prince Arthur in 1502 and succeeded in 1509 ( The British Monarchy, pg.1 ).King Henry VIII was very intelligent and often was described as a man of many words, and very religious. In King Henry VIIIs reign, he wrote a book that attacked Martin Luther and supported the Roman Catholic Church, which had become a best seller ( The British Monarchy, pg.1 ).

In 1521, King Henry VIII was given the title of Defender of the Faith, by the Pope ( The British Monarchy, pg.1 ). In the year of 1509, King Henry VIII married his brothers widow, Catherine of Aragon ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ).King Henry VIIIs wife, Catherine had only produced one living child, a girl who was named Princess Mary ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ). Princess Mary was born in 1516 ( The British Monarchy, pg.

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2 ). King Henry VIIIs wife was in her forties in the 1520s and he was very desperate for a son ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ). The Tudor dynasty had been established by conquest in 1485 while King Henry VIII was only its second monarch ( The British Monarchy, pg.2).

At this time, England had not had a ruling Queen, and the dynasty was not secure enough to run the risk of handling the Crown on to a woman, which was risking disputed secession or domination of a foreign power through marriage ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ). When King Henry VIII had fallen in love with Anne Boleyn, which was the sister of one of his many mistresses, he had tried to persuade the Pope to grant him an annulment of his marriage on the grounds that the marriage had never been legal ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ). By pressuring the Pope, and getting someone he had known to become an Archbishop to help his situation and to hopefully persuade the church and pope, his marriage was declared invalid and Anne Boleyn was crowned queen a week later ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ).

In May of 1533, Queen Anne had married King Henry ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ). In May of 1533 Queen Anne married King Henry VIII and the Pope had responded with excommunication ( The British Monarchy, pg.

2 ). In an act in restraint of appeals forbade appeals to Rome, stating that England was an empire, governed by one supreme head and king who possessed whole and entire authority within the realm, and that no judgments or excommunications in Rome were valid ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ). The breach between the King and the Pope forced clergy, office-holders and others to choose their allegiance, the most famous being Sir Thomas More, who was executed for treason in 1535 ( The British Monarchy, pg.2 ). King Henry VIIIs second marriage, which had risen hopes of having a male heir were failed when she produced a daughter who was named Princess Elizabeth. Once Queen Anne had the daughter, King Henry VIII charged her on charges of treason and she was executed ( The British Monarchy, pg.3 ).

In 1537, King Henry VIII married Jane Seymour, who finally bore him a son. The son that Jane Seymour bore him, was named Edward VI, unfortunately 12 days after his birth, Queen Jane died, the year was 1537. After the death of Queen Jane, King Henry VIII married Anne Cleves ( The British Monarchy, pg.4 ). Later, King Henry VIII was married twice more, to Katherine Howard and Catherine Parr, both were killed ( The British Monarchy, pg.4 ). Neither of the two wives had produced a child, and King Henry VIII died on the 28th of January in 1547 ( The British Monarchy, pg.

4 ). Elizabeth I was born on the 7th of September in 1533, and was the last of the Tudor monarch ( The British Monarchy, pg.5 ).Her chances of succeeding to the throne were very slim since she had a half-brother, Edward, and her were behind the Roman Catholic sister Princess Mary ( The British Monarchy, pg.5 ). Elizabeth succeeded to the throne after the deaths of her half-brother and her her-sister ( The British Monarchy, pg.

5 ). Queen Elizabeth had a glorious reign, besides settling with the church and pope, she also saved England from religious wars. Also to Queen Elizabeths credit, she established an East India trading company in 1600 which made a big profit ( The British Monarchy, pg.5 ). Queen Elizabeth made at least 25 progresses during her reign and also attended the first performance of Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream. Although many people become confused over which Mary was the infamous Bloody Mary, the real Bloody Mary was Queen Elizabeths sister, Mary Tudor who created many prestestant martyrs (The British Monarchy, pg.6 ).

Queen Elizabeth was responsible for putting Mary, Queen of Scots in jail because she was the focus of assassination plots, she was not very trustworthy, could easily spark a rebellion, and was a temptation for potential invaders such as Philip II ( The British Monarchy, pg.6 ).In 1588, the English navy scored a great victory over the Spanish invasion fleet of around 130 ships, known as The Armada which was intended to overthrow the Queen and re-establish Roman Catholicism by conquest, as Philip II believed he had a claim to the English throne through his marriage to Mary ( The British Monarchy, pg.6 ). Unfortunately, during Queen Elizabeths long reign, the nation suffered from high prices and sever economic depression especially in the countryside, during the 1590s ( The British Monarchy, pg.6 ). Even though Queen Elizabeth had won the great victory against the Spanish armada, the price was costly, very costly, the approximate cost was about 5 million dollars. During Queen Elizabeths reign, she never chose to Mary once ( The British Monarchy, pg.

6 ). On March the 24th in 1603 at Richmond Palace, Queen Elizabeth died ( The British Monarchy, pg.7 ).Mary, Queen of Scots, was originally known as Mary Stuart ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1). Mary was the daughter of James V of Scotland and Marie de ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1).

Mary became the Queen of Scots from the time she was six days old ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg.1). Mary was not Bloody Mary, that was her sister, and Mary was a staunch until she died ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1). Mary became Queen of France and Scotland by marrying the French heir, Francis II. Mary was widowed in 1560 at the age of 18 and returned to Scotland the following year ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg.

1).In 1566, Mary married Henry Stuart Lord Darnley, son of the Countess of Lunnox, a granddaughter of Henry VIII ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1).

Marys husband was very unpopular and had the morals of an ape, was considered a jerk, and later conspired against her ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1). The two had a son born in July of 1566 who they named James ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg.

1).Marys husband was almost killed in a basement when it exploded, but was killed and was found in the garden stabbed and strangled ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1). Mary, Queen of Scots was accused for the murder. In May of 1568, after a variety of military actions, and her third marriage (possibly by force to the earl Bothwell) she threw herself on Englands ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1).

Mary spent 19 years in England, with various jailers at various houses. Elizabeth wouldnt agree to see her until Mary had been cleared of accusation of murdering her husband, but Mary claimed that a foreign court had no right to try her, but nothing was ever resolved in the investigation ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 1). Many plots surrounded her on ways to take the throne with other countries help but in 1586 she was tried in England by a panel of peers and justices , and was ( Compendium of Common Knowledge, pg. 2). Elizabeth tried to put off signing the death warrant for as long as she could, but eventually Mary was executed at last on 7 February 1587, at Fotheringhay Castle ( Compendium of Common Knowledge Bibliography The British Monarchy.

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