The Correlation Between Chinese History And Beliefs

The Correlation Between Chinese History And Beliefs The Correlation Between Chinese History And Beliefs The numerous cultures of Mainland China are both intricate with their systems of deities and traditions, and yet humble with their ways of life and survival. China is located in the midst of high lands, plateaus, canyons and numerous river systems. In coinciding with the difficult landscapes in which they live, the Chinese people have managed to generally abide by the natural protocols of the land. Throughout their approximately five thousand years of civilization the Chinese have concocted many traditions which are based upon their thriving in their environment. These traditions are what produce the intricate social structures of most of China.

Every aspect of the Chinese culture is interrelated and therefore necessary for the continuance of the civilization. These qualities are what have confirmed China as not only a grand civilization but also one of great integrity. The area in which China is contained is within the continent of Asia surrounded by the countries of Mongolia, Myanmar, India, Bangladesh, Kazakhstan, and both North and South Korea. With these various surrounding civilizations China has been susceptible to multiple altercations with encroaching empires and inflictions from outside cultures. Most disputes were over jealousy fueled by the captivating land in which China is located. However, the Chinese people, in accordance with their cultural beliefs, felt it dishonorable to claim ownership of any parcel of land.

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The Chinese people carry much pride for their vast existence as a mainly undivided civilization. However, their earliest of history was not thoroughly documented until the Qin dynasty (approximately 200 B.C.E.) Before that specific era Chinese history was preserved through stories by mouth rather than by quill. Though it is impossible to be assured of the validity of any oral tradition the Chinese people still regard them as written history. Many of the beliefs in current Chinese culture still heavily rely on the precepts of these stories as their basis. The unwritten history of China began nearly five thousand years ago with two rulers of primordial Asia.

The first of the rulers was known as Huang Di, also referred to as the Yellow Emperor, and ruled part of the Yellow River Valley of central Asia. The second of rulers was known as Yan Di, often referred to as the Fiery Emperor, to whom an unknown area of outer Asia had belonged. The importance of these two rulers is said to be in cause of their extensive attributes to early civilization in China. The invention of the cart, the boat, clothes, script and medicine is attributed to the genius of Huang Di. Whereas the necessity of cultivating the land through the use of a plow is attributed to Yan Di. `Perhaps, hundreds of years thereafter the attributions of Huang Di and Yan Di, the leaders known as Yao, Shun and Yu had led the people one after another. Yu was a prestigious and popular leader who supposedly gained the respect of his followers by taming two flooding rivers by redirecting their currents towards the sea.

Upon the death of Yu his son, Qi. had succeeded as ruler. With this first exchange in rule the first dynasty in Chinese history had been founded. It was called the Xia dynasty. With the establishment of its first dynasty China had been transformed from a primitive society, consisting of no family structure, private property, or class distinction, to a society based mainly on family and private ownership.

Little is known about the Xia dynasty except for that it had lasted four hundred years and was ultimately overthrown by the Shang,a state that was east of the Chinese establishment. All history before the Shang dynasty is largely legendary with very little or no material evidence of neither the Xia dynasty nor the rulers Yu, Huang Di or Yao Di. However, the Shang dynasty is assured to have existed in some manner as it is proven by numerous burial chambers and oracle bones unearthed one-hundred years ago in Anyang County, Henan Province. Anyang is believed to be one of the various capitals during the Shang Dynasty. The nearly one hundred thousand bones with nearly three thousand different ideograms on them concluded this assessment.

The findings of the many scriptures on the bones represent the existence of the Chinese written language for more than three thousand years. Within the capital the Shang rulers carried on superstitious traditions to determine how they would rule the land. At many times the rulers would summon the court diviner to assist in their decision. The court diviner would then take either a tortoise shell or the bone of an ox, drill a hole through it, and place it overtop of a fire until cracks developed. Then the court diviner would study the cracks as to determine the outcome of a decision and then they would record it onto a bone or piece of stone. These scribed bones were referred to as the oracle bones.

In this manner many of the accounts of the Shang dynasty is assured to be valid. Though the Chinese civilization had been much revised and advanced since the Xia dynasty. It had nonetheless still maintained its one notorious trait of slavery. The slaves of the Shang dynasty had been mainly that of the captured nations through acts of battles amongst other states and tribes. Slaves were used primarily to till the land and to conduct the household work of their masters.

In more dire circumstances the slaves may be bought only for sacrifice to the gods and their masters ancestors, or even to be buried alive with the corpse of their master. During the 11th century B.C.E., more than likely in the exact year of 1066, Zhou, a state in the Wei River valley in present-day Shaanxi Province, conquered the Shang dynasty. Before the conquest of the Shang Empire, King Wen of the Zhou Empire had made his state strong and planned the conquest. King …