.. d be free. 3. Third, mistrust authority and promote decentralization. 4.
Fourth, hackers should be judged by their prowess as hack- ers rather than by formal organizational or other irrele- vant criteria. 5. Fifth, one can create art and beauty on a computer. 6. Finally, computers can change lives for the better.
PHRACK, recognized as the “official” p/hacker newsletter, expanded on this creed with a rationale that can be summarized in three principles (“Doctor Crash,” 1986). First, hackers reject the notion that “businesses” are the only groups entitled to ac- cess and use of modern technology. Second, hacking is a major weapon in the fight against encroaching computer technology. Fi- nally, the high cost of equipment is beyond the means of most hackers, which results in the perception that hacking and phreak- ing are the only recourse to spreading computer literacy to the masses: Hacking. It is a full time hobby, taking countless hours per week to learn, experiment, and execute the art of penetrating multi-user computers: Why do hack- ers spend a good portion of their time hacking? Some might say it is scientific curiosity, others that it is for mental stimulation.
But the true roots of hacker motives run much deeper than that. In this file I will describe the underlying motives of the aware hackers, make known the connections between Hacking, Phreaking, Carding, and Anarchy, and make known the “techno-revo- lution” which is laying seeds in the mind of every hacker. . . .If you need a tutorial on how to perform any of the above stated methods %of hacking%, please read a %PHRACK% file on it.
And whatever you do, con- tinue the fight. Whether you know it or not, if you are a hacker, you are a revolutionary. Don’t worry, you’re on the right side (“Doctor Crash,” 1986). Computer software, such as auto-dialers popularized in the film War Games, provides a means for inexperienced hackers to search out other computers. Auto-dialers randomly dial numbers and save the “hits” for manual testing later.
Some users self-i- dentify has hackers simply on the basis of successfully collect- ing computer numbers or passwords, but these users are considered “lamerz,” because they do not possess sufficient knowledge to ob- tain access or move about in the system once access is obtained. Lamerz are readily identified by their message content: Sub ->numbers From -> (#538) To ->all Date ->02/21/xx 06:10:00 PM Does anyone know any numbers for hotels, schools, busi- nesses, etc.and passwords if you do please leave a bulletin with the number and the password and/or logon id. Sub ->phun From -> (#138) To ->all Date ->02/22/xx 12:21:00 AM Anyone out there got some good 800 dial up that are fairly safe to hack? If so could ya leave me em in e- mail or post em with the formats…any help would%be appreciated…. thanx – 18 – Sub ->NUMBERS From -> (#538) To ->ALL Date ->02/24/xx 03:12:00 PM Does anyone have any 1-800 numbers with id, logon and passwords? Sub ->Credit Card’s for Codez From -> (#134) To ->All Date ->01/26/xx 07:43:00 AM Tell ya what. I will exchange any amount of credit cards for a code or two. You name the credit limit you want on the credit card and I will get it for you.
I do this cause I to janitorial work at night INSIDE the bank when no one is there… heheheheheh Sub ->Codes. From -> (#660) To ->All Date ->01/31/xx 01:29:00 AM Well, instead of leaving codes, could you leave us “uninformed” people with a few 800 dialups and formats? I don’t need codes, I just want dialups! Is that so much to ask? I would be willing to trade CC’s %credit cards% for dialups. Lemme know. Sub ->0266 Codez From -> (#134) To ->All Date ->01/31/xx 06:56:00 AM Anyone, What is the full dial up for 0266 codez? Such requests are considered amateurish, rarely generate the requested information, and elicit predictable “flamez” (severe criticism) or even potentially dangerous pseudo-assistance: Sub ->Reply to: 0266 Codez From -> (#124) To ->C-Poo Date ->01/31/xx 09:02:00 AM Okay, here’s the full info, Chris: Dial 1-900-(pause)-%xxx%-REAL. When it answers, hit #*9876321233456534323545766764 Got it? Okay, here’s a 800 number to try: 1-800-426-%xxxx%.
Give the opera- tor your zip,and fake it from there! Enjoy, you hack- meister, you! Sub ->Reply to: 0266 Codez From -> (#448) To -> #38 Date ->01/31/xx 03:43:00 PM What the fuck kind of question is that? Are you that stupid? what is the full dial up for an 0266? Give me a break! Call back when you learn not when you want to leech! Sub ->CC-ING From -> (#393) To -> #38 Date ->02/05/xx 01:41:00 AM WHAT THE HELL ARE YOU? PROBABLY A NARC, AREN’T YA! NO ONE IN HIS RIGHT MIND ASKS FOR CARDS. (AND NARCS AREN’T IN THEIR RIGHT MINDS) AND GIVE OUT CARDS, WHAT DO YOU THINK WE ARE, SHLONGS?! PERSONALLY I GET MY OWN ON THE JOB, PUMPING GAS PAYS A LOT MORE THAN YOU THINK, THEREFORE I DON’T NEED ANY. THINK ABOUT IT, IF YOU ARE A GOOD HACKER, WHICH I CAN SEE YOU’RE NOT, THEN YOU CAN HACK OUT YOUR OWN CODEZ. PEOPLE WHO NEED CCS CAN CALL CC-VMBS. I HAVE ONE, BUT DON’T ASK FOR IT.
IF YOU DON’T KNOW MY CC-VMB LINE THEN YOU’RE NOT TO WELL KNOWN. A LOT OF KNOWN HACKERS KNOW MY CC-VMB LINE. WELL, IF YOU’RE A NARC, YOU’VE JUST BEEN FOUND OUT, IF NOT YOU MIGHT WANT TO GET A JOB AS ONE CUZ YOU ACT JUST LIKE ONE %In BBS protocol, upper case letters indicate emphasis, anger, or shouting%. Although hackers freely acknowledge that their activities may be occasionally illegal, considerable emphasis is placed on limiting violations only to those required to obtain access and learn a system, and they display hostility toward those who transgress beyond beyond these limits. Most experienced CU mem- bers are suspicious of young novices who are often entranced with what they perceive to be the “romance” of hacking.
Elite hackers complain continuously that novices are at an increased risk of apprehension and also can “trash” accounts on which experienced hackers have gained and hidden their access. Nonetheless, experienced hackers take pride in their ethic of mentoring promis- ing newcomers, both through their BBSs and newsletters: As %my% reputation grew, answering such requests [from novice hackers wanting help] became a matter of pride. No matter how difficult the question happened to be, I would sit at the terminal for five, ten, twenty hours at a time, until I had the answer (Landreth, 1985: 16). The nation’s top elite p/hacker board was particularly nurturing of promising novices before it voluntarily closed in early 1990, and its sysop’s handle means “teacher.” PHRACK, begun in 1985, normally contained 10-12 educational articles (or “phi- les”), most of which provided explicit sophisticated technical information about computer networks and telecommunications sys- tems. Boundary socialization occurs in message bases and newsletters that either discourage such activity or provide guidelines for concealing access once obtained: Welcome to the world of hacking! We, the people who live outside of the normal rules, and have been scorned and even arrested by those from the ‘civilized world’, are becoming scarcer every day. This is due to the greater fear of what a good hacker (skill wise, no mor- al judgements here) can do nowadays, thus causing anti- hacker sentiment in the masses.
Also, few hackers seem to actually know about the computer systems they hack, or what equipment they will run into on the front end, or what they could do wrong on a system to alert the ‘higher’ authorities who monitor the system. This arti- cle is intended to tell you about some things not to do, even before you get on the system. We will tell you about the new wave of front end security devices that are beginning to be used on computers. We will attempt to instill in you a second identity, to be brought up at time of great need, to pull you out of trouble. (p/hacker newsletter, 1987). Elite hacking requires highly sophisticated technical skills to enter the maze of protective barriers, recognize the computer type, and move about at the highest system levels.
As a conse- quence, information sharing becomes the sine qua non of the hack- er culture. “Main message” sections are generally open to all users, but only general information, gossip, and casual commen- tary is posted. Elite users, those with higher security privileg- es and access to the “backstage” regions, share technical infor- mation and problems, of which the following is typical: 89Mar11 From ***** ** * ***> Help! Anyone familiar with a system that responds: A2: SELECT : DISPLAY: 1=TRUNK,2=SXS;INPUT:3=TRUNK,4=SXS,5=DELETE;7=MSG If you chose 1.. ENTER OLD#,(R=RETURN) At this point I know you can enter 7 digits, the 8th will give you an INVALID ENTRY type message. Some num- bers don’t work however.
(1,2,7,8 I know will) Anybody? 89Mar10 From *********> I was hacking around on telenet (415 area code) and got a few things that I am stuck-o on if ya can help, I’d be greatly happy. First of all, I got one that is called RCC PALO ALTO and I can’t figure it out. Second (and this looks pretty fun) is the ESPRIT COMMAIL and I know that a user name is SYSTEM because it asked for a password on ONLY that account (pretty obvious eh?) a few primnet and geonet nodes and a bunch of TELENET ASYYNC to 3270 SERVICE. It asks for TERMINAL TYPE, my LU NUMBER and on numbers higher than 0 and lower that 22 it asks for a password. Is it an outdial? What are some common passwords? then I got a sushi-primnet sys- tem. And a dELUT system.
And at 206174 there is JUST a : prompt. help! (P/h message log, 1988). Rebelliousness also permeates the hacker culture and is re- flected in actions, messages, and symbolic identities. Like oth- er CU participants, hackers employ handles (aliases) intended to display an aspect of one’s personality and interests, and a han- dle can often reveal whether its owner is a “lamer” (an incompe- tent) or sophisticated. Hackers take pride in their assumed names, and one of the greatest taboos is to use the handle of an- other or to use multiple handles. Handles are borrowed liberally from the anti-heros of science fiction, adventure fantasy, and heavy metal rock lyrics, particularly among younger users, and from word plays on technology, nihilism, and violence.
The CU handle reflects a stylistic identity heavily influenced by meta- phors reflecting color (especially red and black), supernatural power (e.g., “Ultimate Warrior, “Dragon Lord”), and chaos (“Death Stalker,” “Black Avenger”), or ironic twists on technology, fan- tasy, or symbols of mass culture (e.g., Epeios, Phelix the Hack, Ellis Dea, Rambo Pacifist, Hitch Hacker). This anti-establishment ethos also provides an ideological unity for collective action. Hackers have been known to use their collective skills in retaliation for acts against the cul- ture that the perceive as unfair by, for example, changing credit data or “revoking” driver’s licenses (Sandza, 1984; “Yes, you Sound very Sexy,” 1989). Following a bust of a national hacker group, the message section of the “home board” contained a lively debate on the desireability of a retaliatory response, and the moderates prevailed. Influenced especially by such science fan- tasy as William Gibson’s Neuromancer (1984), John Brunner’s The Shockwave Rider (1975), and cyber-punk, which is a fusion of ele- ments of electronic communication technology and the “punk” sub- culture, the hacker ethic promotes resistance to the very forms that create it.
Suggestive of Frazer’s (1922) The Golden Bough, power is challenged and supplanted by rituals combining both de- struction and rejuvenation. From this emerges a shared ethos of opposition against perceived Orwellian domination by an informa- tion-controlling elite: (Hackers will) always be necessary, especially in the technological oppression of the future. Just imagine an information system that systematically filters out certain obscene words. Then it will move on to phras- es, and then entire ideas will be replaced by comput- ers! Anyway, there will always be people tripping out on paper and trying to keep it to themselves, and it’s up to us to at least loosen their grasp (P.A. Message Log 1988). Another hacker summarized the near-anarchist ethic characterized the CU style: Lookit, we’re here as criminal hobbyists, peeping toms, and looters.
I am in it for the fun. Not providing the public what it has a right to know, or keeping big brother in check. I couldn’t care less. I am sick of the old journalistic hackers nonsense about or (oops! OUR) computerized ego..I make no attempt to justify what I am doing. Because it doesn’t matter.
As long as we live in this goddamn welfare state I might as well have some fun taking what isn’t mine, and I am better off than those welfare-assholes who justify their stealing. At least I am smart enough to know that the free lunch can’t go on forever (U.U. message log 1988). In sum, the hacker style reflects well-defined goals, commu- nication networks, values, and an ethos of resistance to authori- ty. Because hacking requires a broader range of knowledge than does phreaking, and because such knowledge can be acquired only through experience, hackers tend to be both older and more knowl- edgeable than phreaks. In addition, despite some overlap, the goals of the two are somewhat dissimilar.
As a consequence, each group constitutes a separate analytic category. Phreaks. Running numbers is not only fun; it’s a moral impera- tive! (Phreak credo). Phreaking broadly refers to the practice of using either technology or telephone credit card numbers (called “codez”) to avoid long distance charges. Phreaking attained public visibili- ty with the revelation of the exploits of John “Cap’n Crunch” Draper, the “father of phreaking” (Rosenbaum, 1971).
Although phreaking and hacking each require different skills, phreaks and hackers tend to associate on same boards. Unlike hackers, who attempt to master a computer system and its command and security structure, phreaks struggle to master telecom (tele-communica- tions) technology: The phone system is the most interesting, fascinating thing that I know of. There is so much to know. Even phreaks have their own areas of knowledge. There is so much to know that one phreak could know something fair- ly important and the next phreak not. The next phreak might know 10 things that the first phreak doesn’t though.
It all depends upon where and how they get their info. I myself would like to work for the telco, doing something interesting, like programming a switch. Something that isn’t slave labor bullshit. Something that you enjoy, but have to take risks in order to par- ticipate unless you are lucky enough to work for Bell/ AT/any telco. To have legal access to telco things, manuals, etc.
would be great (message log, 1988). Early phreaking methods involved electro-mechanical devices that generated key tones or altered phone line voltages to trick the mechanical switches of the phone company into connecting calls without charging, but the advent of computerized telephone- switching systems largely made these devices obsolete. In order to continue their practice, phreaks have had to learn hacking skills in order to obtain access to telephone company computers and software. Access to telecom information takes several forms, and the possesion of numbers for “loops” and “bridges,” while lying in a grey area of law, further enhances the reputation and status of a phreak. P/hackers can utilize “loop lines” to limit the number of eavesdroppers on their conversations.
Unlike bridges, which connect an unlimited number of callers simultaneously, loops are limited to just two people at a time. A “bridge” is a techni- cal name for what is commonly known as a “chat line” or “confer- ence system.” Bridges are familiar to the public as the pay-per- minute group conversation systems advertised on late night television. Many bridge systems are owned by large corporations that maintain them for business use during the day. While the numbers to these systems are not public knowledge, many of them have been discovered by phreaks who then utilize the systems at night. Phreaks are skilled at arranging for a temporary, pri- vate bridge to be created via ATT’s conference calling facili- ties. This provides a helpful information sharing technique among a self-selected group of phreak/hackers: Bridges can be extremely useful means of distributing information as long as the %phone% number is not known, and you don’t have a bunch of children online testing out their DTMF. The last great discussion I partici- pated with over a bridge occurred about 2 months ago on an AT Quorum where all we did was engineer 3/way %calls% and restrict ourselves to purely technical in- formation.
We could have convinced the Quorum operators that we were AT technicians had the need occurred. Don’t let the kids ruin all the fun and convenience of bridges. Lameness is one thing, practicality is an- other (DC, message log, 1988). Phreaks recognize their precarious legal position, but see no other way to “play the game:” Phreaking involves having the dedication to commit yourself to learning as much about the phone system/ network as possible. Since most of this information is not made public, phreaks have to resort to legally questionable means to obtain the knowledge they want (TP2, message log, 1988). Little sympathy exists among experienced phreaks for “teleco ripoff.” “Carding,” or the use of fraudulent credit cards, is anathema to phreaks, and not only violates the phreaking ethic, but is simply not the goal of phreaking: Credit card fraud truly gives hacking a bad name. Snooping around a VAX is just electronic voyeurism.
. .carding a new modem is just flat out blue-collar crime. It’s just as bad as breaking into a house or kicking a puppy! %This phreak% does everything he can (even up to turning off a number) to get credit infor- mation taken off a BBS. %This phreak% also tries to remove codes from BBSes. He doesn’t see code abuse in the same light as credit card fraud, (although the law does), but posted codes are the quickest way to get your board busted, and your computer confiscated. Peo- ple should just find a local outdial to wherever they want to call and use that.
If you only make local calls from an outdial, it will never die, you will keep out of trouble, and everyone will be happy (PHRACK, 3(28): Phile 2). Experienced phreaks become easily angered at novices and “lamerz” who engage in fraud or are interested only in “leeching” (obtaining something for nothing): Sub ->Carding From ->JB (#208) To ->ALL Date ->02/10/xx 02:22:00 PM What do you people think about using a parents card number for carding? For instance, if I had a friend order and receive via next day air on my parents card, and receive it at my parents house while we were on va- cation. Do you think that would work? Cuz then, all that we have to do is to leave the note, and have the bud pick up the packages, and when the bill came for over $1500, then we just say.. ‘Fuck you! We were on vacation! Look at our airline tickets!’ I hope it does.. Its such a great plan! Sub ->Reply to: Carding From -> (xxx) To -> X Date ->02/11xx 03: 16:00 AM NO IT’S NOT A GREAT IDEA! WHERE’S YOUR SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY TO YOUR FAMILY? ARE THEY ALL IN AGREEMENT WITH YOU? WOULD YOU WANT ANYONE TO USE YOUR PRIVATE STUFF IN ILLEGAL (AND IMMORAL) ACTIVITIES WITHOUT YOUR KNOWLEDGE? DIDJA EVER HEAR ABOUT TRUST BETWEEN FAMILY MEMBERS? IF YOU’RE GOING TO BE A THIEF (AND THAT’S NOT NEAT LIKE JAMES BOND IN THE MOVIES), TAKE THE RISKS ONLY UPON YOURSELF! Sub ->Carding From -> (#208) To -> (#47) Date ->02/12/xx 11: 18:00 AM Why not? We have a law that says that we have the right to refuse payment to credit cards if there are fraudulent charges.
All we do and it is settled… what is so bad about it? I’m going for it! Sub ->Reply to: Carding From -> (xxx) To ->J.B. Date ->02/13/xx 02:08:00 AM APPARENTLY YOU MISSED THE MAIN POINTS I TRIED TO MAKE TO YOU . . . YOU’RE A THIEF AND A LIAR, AND ARE BETRAYING THE TRUST OF YOUR FAMILY AS WELL AS INVOLVING THEM IN YOUR RISK WITHOUT THEIR KNOWLEDGE.
THAT MEANS YOU ARE A FAIRLY SCUMMY INDIVIDUAL IF YOU GO THROUGH WITH IT! NOW AS TO YOUR “DEFENCE” ABOUT $50 MAXIMUMS AND ERRONEOUS BILLINGS. LAW MAKES A CLEAR DISTINCTION ABOUT THEFT BY FRAUD (OF WHICH YOU WOULD BE GUILTY). AND IN A LARGER SENSE, YOUR THEFT JUST MAKES IT MORE COSTLY FOR YOU YOU AND EVERYBODY ELSE TO GET CREDIT, AND DO BUSINESS WITH CREDIT CARDS. YOU’RE GOING TO DO WHATEVER YOU DO ANYWAY…DON’T LOOK FOR ANY APPROVAL IN THIS DIRECTION. Ironically, experienced phreaks are not only offended by such disregard of law, but also feel that “rip-off artists” have no information to share and only increase the risk for the “tech- no-junkies.” Message boards reflect hostility toward apprehended “lamerz” with such comments as “I hope they burn him,” or “the lamer probably narked %turned informant% to the pheds %law en- forcement agents%.” Experienced phreaks also post continual re- minders that some actions, because of their illegality, are sim- ply unacceptable: It should be pointed out however, that should any of you crack any WATS EXTENDER access codes and attempt to use them, you are guilty of Theft of communications services from the company who owns it, and Bell is very willing and able to help nail you! WATS EXTENDERS can get you in every bit as much trouble as a Blue Box should you be caught. Ex-phreaks, especially those who are no longer defined by law as juveniles, often attempt to caution younger phreaks from pursuing phreaking: ZA1: One thing to consider, also, is that the phone co.
knows where the junction box is for all of the lines that you are messing with and if they get enough com- plaints about the bills, they may start to check things out (I hope your work is neat). I would guess that the odds are probably against this from happening though, because when each of the people call to complain, they’ll probably get a different person from the oth- ers. This means that someone at Ma Bell has to notice that all of the complaints are coming from the same area..I don’t think anybody there really cares that much about their job to really start noticing things like that..anyway, enjoy!!! My guess is that you’re under-age. Anyway, so if they catch you, they won’t do anything to you anyway. ZB1: Yeah I am a minor (17 years old) I just hope that they don’t cause I would like to not have a criminal or juvenile record when I apply to college. Also if they do come as I said in the other message if there are no wires they can’t prove shit. Also as I said I only hook up after 6 p.m.
The phone company doesn’t service peo- ple after 6 p.m. Just recently (today) I hooked up to an empty line. No wires were leading from the two plugs to somebody house but I got a dial tone. How great. Don’t have to worry about billing somebody else.
But I still have to disconnect cause the phone bills should be coming to the other people pretty soon. HEHEHEHE ZX1: Be cool on that, especially if you’re calling oth- er boards. Easiest way for telecom security to catch you is match the number called to the time called, call the board, look at users log or messages for hints of identity, then work from there. If you do it too much to a pirate board, they can (and have successfully) pressured the sysop to reveal the identity under threat of prosecution. They may or may not be able to always trace it back, but remember: Yesterday’s phreaks are today’s telecom security folk. AND: IT’S NOT COOL TO PHREAK TO A PIRATE BOARD..draws attention to that board and screws it up for everybody.
So, be cool phreaking…there’s safer ways. ZC2: Be cool, Wormburger. They can use all sorts of stuff for evidence. Here’s what they’d do in Ill. If they suspected you, they’d flag the phone lines, send somebody out during the time you’re on (or they suspect you’re on) and nail you.
Don’t want to squelch a bud- ding phreak, but you’re really taking an unnecessary chance. Most of us have been doing stuff for some time, and just don’t want to see you get nailed for something. There’s some good boards with tips on how to phreak, and if you want the numbers, let me know. We’ve survived to warn you because we know the dangers. If you don’t know what ESS is, best do some quick research (P/h message log, 1988).
In sum, the attraction of phreaking and its attendant life- style appear to center on three fundamental characteristics: The quest for knowledge, the belief in a higher ideological purpose of opposition to potentially dangerous technological control, and the enjoyment of risk-taking. In a sense, CU participants con- sciously create dissonance as a means of creating social meaning in what is perceived as an increasingly meaningless world (Milo- vanovic and Thomas, 1989). Together, phreaks and hackers have created an overlapping culture that, whatever the legality, is seen by participants as a legitimate enterprise in the new “tech- no-society.” Conclusion The transition to an information-oriented society dependent on computer technology brings with it new symbolic metaphors and behaviors. Baudrillard (1987: 15) observed that our private sphere now ceases to be the stage where the drama of subjects at odds with their objects and with their image is played out, and we no longer exist as playwrites or actors, but as terminals of multiple networks. The public space of the social arena is re- duced to the private space of the computer desk, which in turn creates a new semi-public, but restricted, public realm to which dissonance seekers retreat.
To participate in the computer un- derground is to engage in what Baudrillard (1987: 15) describes as private telematics, in which individuals, to extend Baudril- lard’s fantasy metaphor, are transported from their mundane com- puter system to the controls of a hypothetical machine, isolated in a position of perfect sovereignty, at an infinite distance from the original universe. There, identity is created through symbolic strategies and collective beliefs (Bordieu, cited in Wacquant, 1989: 35). We have argued that the symbolic identity of the computer underground creates a rich and diverse culture comprised of jus- tifications, highly specialized skills, information-sharing net- works, norms, status hierarchies, language, and unifying symbolic meanings. The stylistic elements of CU identity and activity serve what Denzin (1988: 471) sees as the primary characteristic of postmodern behavior, which is to make fun of the past while keeping it alive and the search for new ways to present the un- presentable in order to break down the barriers that keep the profane out of the everyday. The risks entailed by acting on the fringes of legality and substituting definitions of acceptable behavior with their own, the playful parodying of mass culture, and the challenge to au- thority constitute an exploration of the limits of techno-culture while resisting the legal meanings that would control such ac- tions.
The celebration of anti-heros, re-enacted through forays into the world of computer programs and software, reflects the stylistic promiscuity, eclecticism and code-mixing that typifies the postmodern experience (Featherstone, 1988: 202). Rather than attempt to fit within modern culture and adapt to values and def- initions imposed on them, CU participants mediate it by mixing art, science, and resistance to create a culture with an alterna- tive meaning both to the dominant one and to those that observers would impose on them and on their enterprise. Pfuhl (1987) cogently argued that criminalization of comput- er abuse tends to polarize definitions of behavior. As a conse- quence, To view the CU as simply another form of deviance, or as little more than “high-tech street gangs” obscures the ironic, mythic, and subversive element, the Nieztschean “will to power,” reflected in the attempt to master technology while challenging those forces that control it. The “new society” spawned by com- puter technology is in its infancy, and, as Sennet (1970: xvii) observed, the passage of societies through adolescence to maturi- ty requires acceptance of disorder and painful dislocation. Instead of embracing the dominant culture, the CU has creat- ed an irreducible cultural alternative, one that cannot be under- stood without locating its place within the dialectic of social change. Especially in cou.