. himself alone and unloved. Hemingway points out his narrators desertedness when Romero leaves Brett, and she sends to Jake for help. Her telegrams end only with her name while he signs his response, LOVE JAKE. But, in his return to Brett, Jake demonstrates that he has learned from his failure and, in that, displays his ultimate heroism and recuperation of his morality.The final lines of the novel indicate his new perspective as a man reborn with nothing but a heightened understanding of how he must live his life. He has reconciled with his loss of sexuality and knows that he must search for gratification in unique ways, like bull-fighting, rather than in the crass sexuality intimated by a policemans raised baton: Oh Jake, Brett said, we could have had such a damned good time together.
Ahead was a mounted policeman in khaki directing traffic. He raised his baton. The car slowed suddenly pressing Brett against me.
Yes. I said. Isnt it pretty to think so. The idea of Jake Barnes representing a male hero in spite of both his emasculation and the huge ethical mistake he commits in learning to handle it still seems to run contrary to the commonly-held image of a Hemingway man. Essentially, Barnes is male only in genetic code, and he even allows himself to be dominated by a woman for much of his story. However, the author often explores the disconnection of sexuality and true male morality in his work.
One particularly good example of this study occurs in his 1937 novel To Have And To Have Not. Here, he imagines an old, worried grain broker, lying aboard his yacht in the Caribbean and finding his humanity: And where he was now was lying in a pair of striped silk pyjamas that covered his shrunken old mans chest, his bloated little belly, his now useless and disproportionately large equipment that had once been his pride, and his small flabby legs, lying on a bed unable to sleep because he finally had remorse. Hemingway obviously separates physical from moral manliness in this passage. His broker is, as he quips a page earlier, well-endowed, but his penis proves useless in his quest for spirituality. So the authors personality should not prohibit Jake Barnes’ development as a hero.
Hemingway best establishes this point in The Sun Also Rises, however, with his portrayal of the nearly perfect man, Pedro Romero. The nineteen-year-old bull-fighting prodigy shares all of Jake Barnes stereotypically male qualities: his coolness, his knowlegabilty, his bravery and his ability to relate to other men. But even at such a young age, Romero also possesses the component of a man which Barnes cannot hope to achieve, extreme sexual vitality. Inevitably, Lady Brett Ashley decides that she must sleep with Romero. Bretts desire for Romero appears so genuine that it mocks her earlier expression of craziness for Jake.When she rejects Jakes advances in the taxi early in the novel, she skirts his question of her love in stereotypical boyfriend, love-equals-sexuality, fashion.
She responds, Love you? I simply turn all to jelly when you touch me. On the other hand, Ashley admits her love for Romero using the loaded word itself the day after she meets him: Im a goner. Im mad about the Romero boy. Im in love with him, I think Ive lost my self-respect.Bretts lack of self-control, however, distinguishes Romeros task from Barnes and cheapens the young fighters heroism while aggrandizing the narrators. Life gives itself to Romero. He is beautiful, talented, and he loves his dangerous work.
In far less than the normal amount of time required to master any trade he ascends to the top of the glorious profession of bull-fighting because he, never made any contortions; he remains, like his cape-work, straight and pure and natural in line. Pedro Romeros innate talents allow him to live his life instinctually. He stays static and unchanging before any trouble, whether he must rise repeatedly under Cohns practiced jabs or stand motionless in front of a charging bull. Even when obliged to face death in the bull-ring with the weight of the boxers bruises on his face and Bretts love on his heart, Romero reacts in textbook fashion.He kills the bull, and, as Jake recalls, he did it all for himself inside, and it strengthened him, and yet he did it for her [Brett], too. But he did not do it for her at any loss to himself. He gained by it all through the afternoon.
He does no wrong. Pedro Romero even maintains his composure during his first encounter with Brett: He felt there was something between them.He must have felt it when Brett gave him her hand.
He was being very careful. That night, he sleeps with her. Romero accomplishes the task which Jake can never match, but he conquers a smitten Brett whereas Jake would have to deal with a calculating woman. However, though all of the bull-fighters successes would challenge a normal man, such as Jake, Romero exists as a god on earth.When nature, Cohn and Brett, flaw him, Pedro succeeds with even greater glory. Hemingway creates in Romero an acknowledged idol who, had the greatness, but did not earn itrendering his heroism either synthetic or fleeting. In his essay on The Sun Also Rises, Arthur Waldhorn theorizes that Romero has simply not met his challenge yet.
He refers to Romeros battered bullfight, noting, moments before Romero thrills the crowd, the aging, fistula-plagued matador Belmonteonce as stirring in the arena as Romero, now a silent harbinger of Romeros futuredraws catcalls for his cautious handling of the bulls. If Pedro Romeros destiny contains such indignity, such emasculation, then he will fall to humanity, like Jake, Belmonte, and, the first man, Adam, and then he will receive his opportunity to become a hero. Romero cannot become a man until he copes with an unfair obstacle to his life and his morality. Consequently, the storys end presents even flawed Jake Barnes as a more complete man than Pedro Romero.
When Brett gives Romero trouble after they run off together, he leaves willingly and strongly.Jake, on the other hand, finally finds himself able to master the woman in the novels final scene. With this cycle, the author seems to assert that, at one point, all men are perfect, and all men suffer such injuries as give their lives meaning and heroism. The only other man in The Sun Also Rises able to manipulate Brett, Count Mippopopolous, provides an ultimate end-point, beyond Barnes resurrection, to this sequence of growth from Pedro Romero to Jake Barnes. The count is older and wounded (by arrows no less) as badly or worse than the others, but he still finds himself able to enjoy Lady Bretts company without being overwhelmed by her. He has already become a man by the early chapters, as evidenced not only by Ashleys readiness to tell him, I love you, count, but more by his quick retort, You make me very happy, my dear.But it isnt true.
Count Mippopopolous foreshadows Jakes development during their conversation with a bit of seemingly trite wisdom that the narrator initially disregards as part of the common idiom of old men. Barnes cannot know that the counts assertion that, it is because I have lived very much that I can enjoy everything so well That is the secret. You must get to know the values, will form the moral of the rest of his tumultuous summer. Ultimately, The Sun Also Rises represents every mans bildungsroman in the persons of Jake Barnes, Pedro Romero, and Count Mippopopolous.Ernest Hemingway undertakes the enormous task, required of all great Christian authors from Dante, Spenser, and Milton on, of recreating the fall and resurrection of man.
The simple-minded, quasi-romantic conceptions of the Hemingway hero and the emptiness of being so loosely applied to characters and ideas within the novel robs the text of much of its impact. Rather than lolling in the shallow boozery of the so-called lost generation, which the author himself enshrines in The Sun Also Rises inscription, he advocates a search for meaning as the route to male heroism. Hemingway does not create impossible idols as forbidding reminders to give up on life, just as he does not leave Steins, You are all a lost generation, alone at the front of his book.
Instead he follows the sad quotation with an ever-hopeful passage from Ecclesiastes which notes the cyclical nature of all things in creation and bears him his title.One generation passeth away, and another generation cometh; but the earth abideth forever The sune also ariseth, and the sun goeth down, and hasteth to the place where he arose The wind goeth toward the south, and turneth about unto the north; it whirleth about continually, and the wind returneth again according to his circuits All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return.