Section 1

13 Section 1 1. Looking Backward- Novel that made socialism seem like an attractive alternative to the current industrial society. Wobblies- Labor union made by Debs and De Leon. Ida Tarbell – Famous women muckraker. John Dewey- Argued that the value of government actions should be measured by the good they do.

Oliver Wendell Holmes- Wrote that the law should not be an absolute set of principles but a tool to meet the needs of society. Muckrakers- Journalists who dug up the mud on a topic. 2. Social gospel- Theory that the church should work to improve society. Pragmatism- Approach to problem solvings that questioned the truth of science.

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3. A. Corruption in city government. B. Corrupt business C.

Child labor D. Racial discrimination E. Railroads domination of wheat farmers Section 2 1. Gallveston- Costal town that was hit by a massive big juicy hurricane. 17th ammendment- Gave women right to vote. Charles Evans Hughes- Lawyer who uncovered the bribery and huge salaries Payed to family members in the insurance industry. Upton Sinclair- wrote a book called The Jungle that uncovered the unsanitary conditions of the meat processing industry.

Muller Vs Oregon- Case that argued that working long hours damaged a womens Health. John Spargo- Wrote a book that depicted the horrible working conditions in child labor. WCTU- Union formed by christian women to enforce temperance. 2. direct primary- Preliminary election where voters vote for who will run for office.

Initiative- Allowed a group of citizens to introduce legislation. Referendum- Allowed approved legislation to be submittedto the voters for approval. Recall- Allowed voters to remove an official from office. 3. The food and drug administration, the WCTU and the muckrakers all helped the country become a better place by creating new and trying to enforce old laws to make the USA a less corrrupt and more sanitary place to live and work. Section 3 1. Plessy Vs Ferguson- Case in which the supreme court ruled that segregation was constitutional as long as separate facilities were equal. Booker T Washington- Founded the Tuskagee institute to teach blacks a vriety Of traits.

W.E.B. Duboise- Editor of the NAACPs magazine called the crisis. 2. literacy test- Test taken by immigrants to prove that they could read english. 3. Some progressive reforms worked to limit the political power of immigrants by working to get congress to establish laws that would require immigrants to take literacy tests in order to vote.

Chapter 14 Section 1 1. Pierpont Morgan- Owned a banking firm that indirectly controlled the Anthracite mines. Expedition Act- Act that supported expeditions to conserve the natural resources. Forest Reserve Act- Act that more than tripled the amount of land set aside for national forests. Hepburn Act- Act that abolished the free pass that the railroad corporations granted to politicians and other important people. Square Deal- A belief that all people have an equal opportunity to succeed through strong personal ethics.

2. Conservation- The planned preservation of natural resources to prevent destruction or neglect. 3. Roosevelt preferred regulation to trust busting because regulations left the honest companies alone and trust busting did nothing to prevent monopolies. Section 2 1. Payne Aldrich Tariff- Tariff that contained high duties on iron ore, coal, and Coal. Richard Ballinger- Reopened for private purchase some of the lands withdrawn while Roosevelt was president.

Joeseph Cannon- Anti conservationist who used his power to delay national parks. New Nationalism- A new set of policies declared by roosevelt. The Insurgents- A group of progressive republicans. 2. income tax- Taxes on the income of citizens.

3. A. He didnt want to be president B. He didnt dramatize issues to gain the publics support. Section 3 1. Bull Moose Party- A nickname for the progressive party.

New Freedom- Philosophy that viewed monopolies as enemies of free competition. 2. Inheritance Act- Tax on a persons inheritance. 3. Roosevelt left the republican party and formed the progressive party because the progressive party demanded reform and a visible government, rather than an invisible government and a country ran by buisness.

Section 4 1. Underwood tariff- Represented the first substantial drop on import duties since 1857. Federal Reserve board- Had over all power of federal banks. Federal trade commision- Commission that regulated and investagated business practices. 2. Rediscount- A small fee paid to the federal reserve by other banks. Price cutting- Where a company deliberatley sells goods at a loss to eliminate competition.

Interlocking directorate- Where the same people direct different companies.