Johann Sebastian Bach
A Great Contributor Of Music
Philosophy Final test review
What is the problem of evil?
Augustine said, If god is all good, all powerful, and all knowing then there can be no evil.

If god is all good, then god would not want evil to exist.

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If god is all powerful, then god would be able to stop evil.

If god is all knowing, then god knows about evil.

God is either not all good, all powerful, and all knowing.

Natural evil- the suffering experienced by human and animals due to natural causes. Disease, earthquake.

Moral evil- bad actions and their unfortunate consequences for which humans are responsible.

Theodicyis the defense of Gods goodness and omnipotence (all powerful) in view of apparent evil.

Contrast theodicy- Good would not exist- or at least we would not be able to appreciate the good, if evil did not exist.

On natural evil, Augstine said that there is no independent existence for evil. Evil is parasitic on good. For example, Disease is a lack of health.

On moral evil, Augustine said that Free will is a good thing but it can be used for either good or bad. Moral evil is a product of free will. Free will is worth the evil that springs from it. Free will is a justification for evil. Its better that god gave us free will than making us robots and perfect.

Sin= loving more that which is of lower value
God——angels——-soul (human)——physical objects——nothingness
Does gods knowledge coerce us?
If god knows where we are going and what we will be doing, we do not have free will.

Free will is compatible with gods divine foreknowledge.

If god knows that Im going to freely choose, then it must be free choice.

Refutation of SkepticianPyrrho said nothing can be known with absolute certainty.This statement is a Self referential inconsistency.

Augustine agreed with the skeptics, when they said:
1)I can make intellectual mistakes
2)I maybe mistaken about my sense belief.

Refutation of Skeptician The only thin Augustine knows for certain are:
1)I exist
2)I know
3) I feel glad knowing I exist
How do we acquire knowledge, according to Augustine?
First, we have external senses (5 in total), then the data is processed by the inner senses (common sense).

Reason enables awareness of intelligible objects, but reason alone wont give us internal truth, we need Divine Illumination.

Divine Illumination is required for us to know necessary and eternal truths.

Time and God-
God is outside of time. God is atenporal, not constrained by time. Time is a contract of the human mind.

1) Past is the present of things past. It is no longer. Memory
2) Present is the present of things present. Attendance to direct experience.

3) Future is the present of things future. It is not yet. Expectations
All that exist is present instant. Like god we are above time, but unlike god we are in time and subject to it.

Conversion experiencewe need God to grant a gift of grace in order to be saved.

Early in Augustines life, the Pelagians accepted Augustines emphasis on human free will and responsibility. Each person has an equal chance of earning the reward of eternal life with god.

But later in his life, Augustine said that the Pelagians misunderstood him. Augustine now said that, man is helpless in the grip of evil. Pelagian views make the world of Christ inessential.

Against the Pelagians:
Augustine asserts the need for Gods grace. He also says, our salvation is a gift of gods grace.

Is turning to god something weve done or is it something God has done through us? Paradoxical combination of Gods grace with a determination to will whats right.
Father of Modern Philosophy.

He looked for a solid foundation for knowledge. His epistemological view is called:
Foundationalism- we must discover properly basic beliefs and then use them as a foundation for other beliefs. What he means by properly basic is, cannot possible be false.

Throughout the history of music, many great composers, theorists, and instrumentalists have
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