Sean Hoang

Research PaperBy checking the slapshot speed, we can determine whether a wood stickor a graphite hockey stick shoots faster. Also, we will also be observingthe differences in brand and if they matter. The puck will also beresearched, in order to calculate the physics of the shot.Ice hockey originated in Canada in the 1800s, and the first modernindoor hockey game was played in Montreal in 1875. By the 1890s it hadbecome extremely popular and had spread to the United States. Since 1917the National Hockey League (NHL), with teams in both countries, has beenthe primary professional association.

The rival World Hockey Association(WHA), launched in 1972, ceased operation in 1979; several of its 12 teamsgained entry to the NHL. The NHL’s current 30 teams play in twoconferences, the Eastern and Western, each with three divisions. Thoughmost NHL players have always been Canadian, an increasing number of playersfrom the United States and Europe have appeared since the 1980s. Teams viefor the Stanley Cup-originally donated to the Canadian Amateur HockeyAssociation (1893) by Sir Frederick Arthur Stanley-the NHL’s championshiptrophy and the symbol of world professional supremacy.A wood hockey stick has many ties to hockey’s very creation.

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Theearly Ice Hockey sticks were carved from Hornbeam trees (OstryaVirginiana), which are native to Nova Scotia and provide a very durablehardwood. One of the tools used in the carving of Hockey sticks was knownas a “Crooked Knife”. Hornbeam is also known as ‘Ironwood’ because of itsdurability, and ‘Stinkwood’ because of its unpleasant odor when cut.Because of the huge numbers of ice hockey sticks made using these methodsby many makers, local supplies of Hornbeam were largely depleted and thecompanies then turned to the yellow birch, another hard wood whichpossesses the same characteristics.

Wood sticks are traditional sticks andare usually less expensive than modern composite sticks. Also, with woodsticks, one is able to fine tune his/her stick by cutting or sanding it tomake it more comfortable. Wood sticks break easier, are heavier, and tendto be stiffer than other materials. There is an upside; however, the woodstick’s stiffness can really help out in leverage. This helps propel thestick harder and cause a greater force in the slapshot. Composites like graphite are what many of the new sticks are made oftoday.

The most common out is graphite. This is because of itscombination of strength and durability, while retaining a relatively lightweight and providing maximum and most efficient output force. Graphite canbe used many ways in stick construction. It can be used to coat orreinforce a wooden core; it is sometimes mixed with kevlar to form theshaft; and it can also be used entirely on its own. Graphite is moreexpensive than fiberglass and aluminum, but less expensive than kevlar andtitanium.

Graphite sticks are considered strong and lightweight .They usereplaceable blades, so when the head breaks, the whole stick doesn’t go towaste. The blades are usually made of wood and attached to the compositestick with glue. Some blades have Kevlar wraps on them, for addedendurance. The cheaper varieties result in plastic blades. A curved bladeallows you to lift the puck and put spin on it but makes it more difficultto shoot or pass backhand. A blade with a smaller curve gives you lowershots and better control. Shooting power is equal to the energy transfer and whip of a hockeystick.

The shooters weight, height and strength determines how much theycan physically flex the shaft of a hockey stick. Therefore, the strongerthe player the stiffer the shaft ; the lighter the player, the need formore flex increases. I think it is impossible for a 90 lbs. player to havethe same shooting power using the same shaft as a 170 lbs. player, becausea 170 lbs.

guy has more weight shifted into his shot. The stiffness, orflex, of a stick’s shaft is important in determining control andperformance. The lower the flex number the more flex it has, and the higherthe flex number the stiffer the stick is. Every stick is designed based ona player’s height, weight, strength, and hand size. Every hockey stick hasa different shaft construction and individual flex pattern. There are somany flex patterns for each company. For example Easton’s flex ranges fromjunior which goes to 50 flex and 65 flex. Intermediate flex is 75 flex andsenior flex is 100 and 110 flex.

All stick brands use this same flexpattern. Defensemen should choose a stiffer, heavier stick, while forwardsshould choose a lighter, more flexible shaft.The puck is made of various materials. Depending on puck type, size,and weight, the puck will react differently with the stick. The mostcommonly used pucks are made of a hard rubber. These are always a uniformsize, so the weight of the puck will always depend on material and density.Rubber pucks create friction, but upon an ice surface, they move quitewell. It is because of the oppositely charged ions in each of the productsthat make it move.

The rubber has a slight charge similar to that of theelectronegative ice. This causes a repelling effect, causing the puck tomove quite easily. Rubber pucks are light and easy to slap around.

Theirdownside comes in their lightness. Because of that, it is sometimes hardto control where it goes, because sometimes it will just fly around in theair from a whack of an inexperienced player. Some other pucks arecomposites, made of graphite, silicone, and kevlar.

These are much heavierand cause the puck to receive more force in order to go the same distanceand speed that the rubber was traveling. This is good for seasoned playersbecause control is a lot better with this kind of puck. Also, with a goodhard hit, they tend to fly faster and farther because of the inertiacarried.

In hockey the shoulders are used a primary focal point in the exertionof force. When swung down, the long stick will amplify the force made andthus smacking a puck. When this happens, kinetic energy is transferred andthe puck goes flying in the direction opposite of which it was hit.

Thefaster the lever drops the more air it cuts. This causes less resistanceand thus a harder and farther hit. Also, the weight of the primary motionsetter plays a big role. When the weight is greater, a stronger forcecauses the puck to be shot forward. Thus, if the initial starter is of aheavier weight, there is more power to be exerted in the beginning.

Thestick, regardless of graphite or wood, will increase in amplification ofpower once the length of the stick is increased. The wood will give a moresolid shot because of the structure wood is made. Wood is dense andprovides shock absorption, thus allowing the player to create a strongerhit.

Graphite does the similar, but is less heavy and of a lightweightvariety so the effects are not as great. But, it has a more stronger solidsurface so when the puck and stick make contact, the tension between thetwo is higher.When the puck is heavier, it requires more force to propel, but inreturn it carries more inertia. With more inertia, the puck can travelfaster and harder forward. The lighter pucks will only do so much becausethe air resistance will stop the lightweight.

Heavy pucks will keep ongoing due to the force it is hurling forward.Bibliography:Lapointe, G. “Simple motions can be further enhanced byweights.” Journal ofEnvironmental Physics 5:2 (2002): 16-25.”Hockey.” World Book. 2003 ed.Origin of Hockey.

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08 Jan. 2004, Garth. “”MicMac” Hockey Sticks.

” MicMac Hockey Sticks MicMac Inc..08 Jan. 2004