Robert Graves And Wilfred Owen Although the poems “Recalling War” by Robert Graves and “Mental Cases” by Wilfred Owen are both concerned with the damage that war does to the soldiers involved, they are different in almost every other respect. Owen’s poem examines the physical and mental effects of war in a very personal and direct way – his voice is very much in evidence in this poem – he has clearly seen people like the ‘mental cases’ who are described. It is also evident that Owen’s own experiences of the war are described: he challenges the reader with terrifying images, in order that the reader can begin to comprehend the causes of the madness. Graves on the other hand is far more detached. His argument is distant, using ancient images to explore the immediate and long-term effects of war on the soldier. The poem is a meditation on the title, Graves examining the developing experiences and memories of war with a progression of images and metaphors.
“Mental Cases” is a forceful poem, containing three substantial stanzas which focus on different aspects of Owen’s subject. The first stanza is a detailed description of what the ‘mental cases’ look like. Their outward appearance is gruesome, “Baring teeth that leer like skulls'”, preparing the reader for the even more horrifying second stanza. The second verse concentrates on the men’s past experiences, the deaths they have witnessed and the unimaginable nightmares they have lived through: “Multitudinous murders they once witnessed.” The last stanza concludes the poem, explaining how the men’s lives are haunted by their experiences, they go mad because the past filters into every aspect of their present lives, the men retreat away from the memories and into madness. The form of Owen’s poem is, therefore, built around three main points: the appearance of the men, their experiences, and the effect this has on their lives.
In Graves’ poem the form is also key to understanding the poem, but perhaps in a less obvious way. “Recalling War” has five stanzas, in a form that corresponds to the psychological emotions and physical experience war provokes. The first stanza describes how Graves expects the war to be remembered twenty years after the event: the wounds have healed and the blind and handicapped men forget the injuries the war caused, as their memories are blurred by the distance of time; “The one-legged man forgets his leg of wood”. In the second stanza Graves moves on to question the nature of war. This verse is a description of the atmosphere and setting of war. “Even when the season was the airiest May/ Down pressed the sky, and we, oppressed, thrust out”. The third stanza focuses on the battle itself, and the fourth explores the aftermath of battle and the unbearable nature of the war.
The fifth and final stanza returns to the ideas expressed in the first stanza, of war being an unreal memory. The form of this poem is crucial to its understanding. The progressions marked by the stanzas highlights the argument Graves is making. “Mental Cases” and “Recalling War” are both poems that rely on the atmosphere and tone they create, indeed this is a key source of their power. Owen creates a terrifying atmosphere throughout the poem, which is clearly a reflection of his subject matter. Not only does Owen describe in awful detail the shocking appearance of the men, he also includes horrific images of war.
The tone is very powerful, with Owen asking questions in the first stanza, “but who are these hellish?”, a device which cleverly establishes direct contact with the reader and an engaging discourse. This connection with the reader is exploited in the second verse, in which the reader experiences the full force of Owen’s imagery. The final stanza opens with a tone that is factual: “-Thus their hands are plucking at each other”, summarizing the fact that these men behave the way they do because of the events they have and are experiencing. Owen ends the poem by insisting on the complicity of both himself and the reader in the fate of these men, an accusation which, after the powerful prelude, is hard to deny. Whereas Owen’s poem is powerful as a result of its consistently horrific atmosphere and tone, Graves’ poem changes tone from stanza to stanza, emulating the different stages of feeling a soldier experiences.
The poem opens with a tone that is factual yet distant, as though an old tale were being told “As when the morning traveller turns and views/His wild night-stumbling carved into a hill”. This tone emphasizes Graves’ description of dimly remembered suffering which is fading into the distance: “Entrance and exit wounds are silvered clean”. The second stanza moves into a different tone, war is described as not only a war between countries, but a universal disaster “No mere discord of flags/ But an infection of the common sky”. The tone and atmosphere created are ominous, there is a feeling of anticipation and fear reminding the reader of soldiers waiting for battle: oppressed, thrust out Boastful tongue, clenched fist and valiant yard. Natural infirmities were out of mode, For Death was young again The third stanza does not immediately change tone, however the feeling of fear increases as Graves dwells on thoughts of premature death and little on “valiant yard”. However, roughly half way through the stanza the tone does change dramatically. The poem becomes not fearful but simple and clear, the necessities of life are described and the tone reminds the reader of an adrenaline filled soldier, thrilled with the battle and instinct of survival, “A weapon at the thigh, surgeons at call.”.
However, by the next stanza the battle is over and the experience of war assumes a hopeless guise. Everything good in the world has turned to ashes “Extinction of each happy art and faith” and the duty to fight turns into “the duty to run mad.” The tone of the poem is tragic, having seen hope turn to fear, exhilaration and finally collapse. The powerful climax of the poem in the fourth stanza is further emphasized in the last verse, as the tone returns to one of unreal memory. The poet’s voice is ironic with child-like naivet: Machine-guns rattle toy-like from a hill. The last lines of the poem change in tone again as the poet describes a future of despair if the past cannot be remembered with accuracy and acceptance: When learnedly the future we devote To yet more boastful visions of despair. Both poets use a very descriptive and revealing choice of vocabulary. One particular feature of Owen’s poem is the use of alliteration to emphasize the image he is trying to create: Memory fingers in their hair of murders, Multitudinous murders The repetition of the ‘m’ sound serves to increase the impact of the image, reminding the reader of a stammering, shell-shocked soldier. “Thus their heads wear this hilarious, hideous” is another example of alliteration.
Owen’s choice of words such as “slob”, “baring”, “swelters”, “hideous” and “flesh” all help to increase the reader’s horror as theses words describe so well the nightmares the men are experiencing. Graves’ words also have a strong impact on the reader: his words highlight the differences between the stanzas. The second stanza describing the wait for the battle uses words like “sagged”, “ominously”, “oppressed”, “clenched” and “pressed”. In contrast to this the last stanza includes words such as “piecrust”, “nibbling”, “rattle” and “dandelions”, emphasizing the child-like memories of war. The contrast between the third and fourth stanzas are even more noticeable.
The second half of the third stanza aims to highlight the simple and uncomplicated feelings the soldiers experience while they are in combat, this is reflected by words like “roof”, “call”, “wine”, “rage” and “lack” , these are all monosyllabic words stressing Graves point. In the fourth stanza Graves’ vocabulary changes and becomes more complex: “foundering” “sublimities”, “protesting”, “Extinction”, “unendurable”, again these are words which reflect the fact that the soldiers are now questioning and trying to solve a problem or paradox. The contrasts in the two poets vocabulary is intriguing. Owen’s vocabulary is far more raw and hard hitting, thought about but not agonized over. Graves’ choice of vocabulary reflects the fact that he is making a more complex series of points; the words are perhaps rather contrived.
The images in “Mental Cases” by Owen are perhaps the most shocking aspect of the poem. There are three central images within Owen’s poem, contained within the three stanzas. The first images are those which describe the ‘mental cases’. Owen uses simile and metaphor. “from jaws that slob their relish”, the men are described like animals, drooling with “Drooping tongues”. These images imply that the experience of war for these men has taken away their humanity. Owen then describes the men as having “teeth that leer like skulls’ teeth”.
This simile not only creates a clear picture in the mind of the reader, it also serves to show how these ‘mental cases’ are not lucky to be alive, in fact, they suffer more than their dead comrades: not only do they look like death and behave like animals, they also continue to suffer the miseries of the living world, that of memory, nightmares and madness: “What slow panic/Gouged these chasms round their fretted sockets?”. This image is continued to the end of the stanza as Owen claims that seeing these mad men would make anyone think they were in hell because of the ghastly picture they create. This again strengthens Owen’s argument that, although these men survived the war alive, the scars they suffer are worse than any death we can imagine. Within the second stanza Owen progresses to create images of the living hell which the mental cases experienced and are now reliving. This is the climax of the poem as line upon line brings new horrors. The first line of the stanza shows more explicitly the idea that the men are suffering perhaps more than even the dead men: “There are men whose minds the Dead have ravaged”.
This explores the feeling that the mad men owe their lives in someway to the death of their comrades. The image of their fellow soldiers who are now dead haunts them, this is a parallel with the sentiments Owen develops at the end of the poe …