Pyramids The Egyptians believed that their kings were gods.

Even after they had died, the rulers continued to affect daily life through their supernatural powers. In his new life in the underworld, the king would need everything he needed while alive, and he needed his home to last for eternity. While alive, Egyptian kings lived in palace of mud-brick, wore linen roves, and slept in wooden beds. In their gentle climate, more substantial comforts were not needed.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

But eternity last a whole lot longer than life. So the tombs of the kings needed to be durable and well-supplied. The tombs also needed to protect the body and its supplies and gifts from thieves. They also were the focus of the Egyptian religion and so needed to be extremely visible.

The massive stone pyramid met all these criteria. However, there was still the problem of supplying the king with essentials. Since entombing a never-ending supply of food and servants was not very practical, the Egyptians decided on the principal of “substitution by means of a representation.” Since the dead king now existed in spirit, rather than physical form, he was not bound by physical limitations.A picture or word could feed him as well as a real slab of meat. Servants did not have to be killed and laid around his tomb; statues could take their place. Because the king was a god to his people, they needed to be able to come and worship him. But if his body were accessible to the whole nation, the king and his treasures would be too accessible to robbers.

So, instead they built a statue resembling the king which they placed in a temple open to the public. His ka, or spirit could leave the tomb and come live in his statue for awhile. This way, the people’s prayers and gifts could still be delivered while keeping him safe.2 Herodotus, a Greek who wrote about the building of the pyramids long after they had been built, claimed that the Great Pyramid took tens of thousands of men and in just twenty years to make. But even if those figures are not accurate, the construction of the pyramids was an amazing feat. The Egyptians had not learned to use the wheel or the pulley and so lifted all of the stones using ramps. The cut stone was edged along the ramps on rollers, lubricated by only milk or water.

We do not know how many people died as laborers for the pyramids, but we do know that most Egyptians would have been eager to participate in the building: because the king would become a god who could bless or curse their lives; they wanted to make sure he was comfortable and cared for and able to come back and help them. On the rocky plateau of Giza, ten miles southwest of the center of Cairo, stands the Great Pyramid, the most majestic and most mysterious monument ever erected by the hand of man (Adams). The Great Pyramid is the largest stone building on earth, and the last surviving wonder of the ancient world.Its base covers just over thirteen acres, and it is composed of some 2.3 million blocks of granite and limestone, weighing from 2.5 to seventy tons apiece, which rise in two hundred and three layers to the height of a forty- story building. The Pyramid was originally covered with twenty one acres of polished, marble-like casing stones, which, shining resplendently beneath the sun’s rays, earned for it the ancient title “The Light.

” The Pyramid is an unrivaled feat of engineering and craftsmanship. It is aligned with the four cardinal points more accurately than any contemporary structure, including the Meridian Building at Greenwich Observatory in London. The three hundred and fifty foot long descending passage is so straight that it deviates from a central axis by less than a quarter of an inch from side to side and only one tenth of an inch up and down.

The casing stones, some of which weighed over sixteen tons, are so perfectly shaped and 3 squared that the mortar-filled joint between them is just one fiftieth of an inch.Egyptologist Sir Flinders Petrie described such phenomenal precision as the “finest opticians work on a scale of acres”; work of this caliber is beyond the capabilities of modern technology. The casing stones show no tool marks and the corners are not even slightly chipped.

The granite coffer in the King’s Chamber is cut out of a solid block of hard red granite. Manufacturing engineer Christopher Dunn rejects the theory that it could have been cut and hollowed using bronze saws set with diamond cutting points, because when pressure was applied, the diamonds would have worked their way into the much softer copper, leaving the granite virtually unscathed. In his opinion, the evidence shows that the Egyptians possessed ultra-modern tools, including an ultrasonic tubular drill that could cut granite five hundred ties faster than modern drills (Stecchini).In addition to the Great Pyramid, there are two other large pyramids and six small ones on the Giza plateau. Most Egyptologists believe that the Great Pyramid was built about four thousand and six hundred years ago by Khufu, the second king of the fourth dynasty. His son and successor, Djedefre, is thought to have begun the pyramid at Abu Roash, five miles northwest of Giza; little remains of it today. The next king, Khafre, another of Khufu’s sons, is believed to have built the Second Pyramid of Giza, the second largest stone building in the world, and Menkaure, the smaller Third Pyramid.

Although these two pyramids are very impressive, they do not match the craftsmanship of the Great Pyramid. Menkaure may have been preceded by Nebka, who is thought to have planned the large, unfinished pyramid at Zawyat Al Aryan, a few miles south of Giza (Edwards).The Great Pyramid of Giza is so enormous and yet of such immaculate workmanship that its construction would tax the skills and resources even of today’s technology to breaking point.

Standing on the boundary of the Sahara Desert and the fertile Nile, this colossal monument has been called ” a masterpiece of technical skill and 4 engineering ability”, “the greatest single building ever erected by mankind” (West). The conventional belief that the Pyramid was built in just twenty years by tens of thousands of peasants using only simple tools to serve as a grandiose tomb for a megalomaniac pharaoh, King Khufu, who lived about four thousand and six hundred years ago. To complete the Pyramid in only twenty years would require laying one block of stone every two minutes. Closely connected with the mysteries of the Great Pyramid is the Great Sphinx, the most spectacular sculpture on earth.Carved out of the natural rock of the Giza plateau, the Sphinx is two hundred and forty feet long, sixty six feet high, and thirteen feet and eight inches at its widest. Orthodox Egyptologists believe that it was carved during the reign of Khafre, around 2550 BC. It is supposedly a portrait of him, though some people think it has more of a female appearance, or that the features resemble those of sub-Saharan Africans. There is now strong scientific evidence that the Sphinx predates the reign of Khafre by many millennia (West).

Following a detailed examination of the severe, undulating erosion on the body of the Sphinx, Dr.Robert Schoch, together with other geologist and geophysicists, concluded that the Sphinx has been weathered Mainly by rainfall before the Sahara became a desert, and must therefor be at least seven to nine thousand years old. The great pyramids of Egypt were built following a second migration to Egypt some eighty to hundred thousand years ago (Dick). Blavatsky quotes an ancient Commentary which says that the great pyramids were built at the beginning of a processional cycle, “when Dhruva was at his lowest culmination, and the Krittika looked over his head to watch the work of the giants”, and she identifies the polestar in question as Polaris. Dick interpreted this obscure statement to mean that the first pyramids were built when Polaris, the polestar at the time the Commentary was written, was furthest 5 from the actual pole at the time the Pyramid was built, and was on the same meridian both with the latter and Alcyone, the latter being higher than the pole (Dick). He calculated that the last time such an event occurred was eighty six thousand, nine hundred and sixty years ago, during the Age of Cancer, in which it appears a total of three times.

This is in agreement with Blavatsky’s statement that “the Egyptians have on their Zodiacs irrefutable proofs of records having embraced more than about eighty seven thousand years” (Purucker). Calculations by Stellar reveal a number of potentially significant astronomical alignments for the great pyramids during the processional cycle that began eighty six thousand, nine hundred and sixty years ago. There appears to have been a master plan from the very beginning, because in the case of pyramids that seems to have been bui …