Plato And Aristotle Plato, a Greek philosopher was among the most important and creative thinkers of the ancient world.
He was born in Athens in 428 BC to an aristocratic and well-off family. Even as a young child Plato was familiar with political life because hes father, Ariston was the last king of Athens. Ariston died when Plato was a young boy. However, the excessive Athenian political life, which was under the oligarchical rule of the Thirty Tyrants and the restored democracy, seem to have forced him to give up any ambitions of political life.
In 388 BC he journeyed to Italy and Sicily, where he became the friend of Dionysius the ruler of Syracuse, and his brother-in-law Dion.The following year he returned to Athens, where he devoted his time to research and instruction in philosophy and the sciences. Most of his life thereafter was spent in teaching and guiding these activities. In 347 BC Plato died, while hes published writings all still live. They consist of some 26 dramatic dialogues on philosophy and related themes.
The philosopher Socrates was a close friend of Plato’s family as well as his teacher.Plato’s writings attest to great influence on him. This could be a good explanation to why Plato uses Socrates to voice his own opinions about his Ideal State.
Book I of Platos Republic, beings with Socrates, Cephalus, Polemarchus and Thrasymachus discussing justice. Each give their own meaning of justice or dikaiosyne. Cephalus says justice is truth telling and debt paying.
He views justice this way because he is an honest and just businessman.Polemarchus, who is Cephaluss son, agrees with Cephaluss definition, but continues by saying justice, is giving each his own due. By this he means, helping ones friend. Finally, Thrasymachus, who is a sophist, defines justice as the advantage of the stronger. Justice is not to the advantage of everyone but to the advantage of the rulers. Socrates proves that justice brings unity to any group of people, because it allows them to trust and rely on one another.
The discussion of justice is continued in the beginning of Book II.Glaucon enters the conversation and he divides all things into three categories: 1) Those that are pleasurable for themselves and their results, 2) Those that bring good results, but with difficulty, and 3) Those that bring no results, but are pleasurable. Glacon then asks Socrates which category justice falls within. He replies by placing it in the first category. I myself put it among the finest goods, as something to be valued by anyone who is going to be blessed with happiness, both because of itself and what it comes from (Republic, Book II 358a). Glaucon claims that the general view of justice lies in the second category, the mean between two extremes.
Glaucon defends his argument by using the example of the Ring of Gyes, a magical ring that turns its wearer invisible. He continues to argue that if humans were given the opportunity to be unjust without getting caught or without suffering any punishment or loss of good reputation, they would naturally choose a life of injustice, in order to maximize their own interests. Now the issue at hand is to prove whether it is more beneficial to lead a just or unjust life.
In an attempt to provide a satisfactory definition of justice, Socrates tries to make an analogy between the justice of an individual human being and of an entire society or city. He then begins to build and imaginary city. Socrates defines the basic city as the Health City opposed to a Feverish City.Socrates states that the fundamental needs of human beings in the society are food, shelter, and necessary clothing and things needed for production.
However, Socrates is aware that the people of this city will want more then just the bare necessities. He continues to build this political correct city by manipulating a number of different things such as; adding a specialized class of soldiers, adding guardians, controlling any false information (censoring), creating men and women equal, and balancing their education between philosophy and physical training. Finally, Socrates just city is built. Now that Socrates has built his just city he must now give his definition of justice.First he divides the human soul into three parts: the appetitive, the spirited and the rational. This all corresponds to the city: the rational part is compared with the wise rulers of the city, the spirited part to the aggressive auxiliaries, and the appetitive part to the desires for satisfactions found both within society and the individual. Plato illustrates his tri-partite psyche by picturing them as a charioteer with two horses.
The horses are called Appetite and Spirit, while the charioteer is called Reason. Reasons function is to hold the reins and steer the horses, leading them to where they should go and in what fashion they should proceed.The horses are to pull the chariot, acting as a drive. These drives are controlled by reason. Appetite stands for food, sex, money or anything you desire, Spirit stands for the spirited part of self, passion, and Reason stands for the rational part of the soul Now Socrates must define justice within the individual. Virtue is what one does well or ones excellence, therefore there are three virtues in the stable state: wisdom, courage, and sophrosyne.
The rulers possess wisdom; they have knowledge of the forms.It is guardianship, and it is possessed by those rulers we just now call complete guardians (Republic Book IV 428e). Wisdom is said to be god like, knowledge in the widest sense. Courage lies within the guardians, this is because they know what to fear and what not to. (courage is a kind of preservation (Republic Book IV 429c).
Sophrosyne, moderation or self-control falls within the producers and all citizens. Moderation is surly a kind of order (Republic Book IV 430e). The producers need to have moderation of appetite in order to be able to share their produce among the city as a whole.
Warriors use moderation in their temper, this is done to truly protect their citizens. When these three virtues are properly distributed among the city, justice arises. Each part of Platos soul has a specific virtue that makes it perform well. The virtue of Appetite is sophrosyne, virtue of spirit is Courage, and the virtue of Reason is wisdom.
Plato has now defined the just city and the just person. Aristotle was born in 384 BC, in ancient Stagira in Greek Macedonian.Macedonian is located in northern part of Greece and was not considered to be a true part of Greece by the southern …