.. ceed in registering complaints. However, reflecting the institutionalized gender bias that pervades the criminal justice system, women alleging rape are often disbelieved and treated with disrespect, indeed harassed outright, by officials at all levels. They must contend with abusive police, forensic doctors who focus on their virginity status instead of their injuries, untrained prosecutors, skeptical judges Human Rights activists in Pakistan have called for the criminalization of all forms of domestic and familial violence against women and the establishment of clear guidelines for police intervention and protection in such cases. There should also be a repeal of Pakistan’s rape law, which allows marital rape, does not establish the crime of statutory rape, and which in some cases does not permit the female victim to testify. MARRIAGES Another significant aspect of the daily life is that of family.

Closely related to religion, marriages in Pakistan, in all the four provinces are arranged. The groom’s relatives visit the girls house and offer the proposal. If the proposal is accepted the mangni takes place, it is known as Sangoabandhi or engagement. Mangnis of Punjab and the Frontier are Mangnoo of Sind. When the marriage date is fixed, the groom, with friends and relatives, goes to the house of the bride where the Nikah is performed and the dower money fixed. Nikah is performed by Nikah Registrar and is recorded on a legal Performa singed by both the parties.

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This is followed by Walima. In Sindh the groom stays in the brides house for a night where as in other provinces, he leaves with the Doli of the bride after the Nikah. It is the family structure and lack of education that has lead to increased fertility rates. Fertility Rates Pakistan has shown strong resistance to change when it comes to birth rates. During the early 1960s a national policy was introduced to attempt to curtail this growing problem.

Known as the Family Planning Service This program however has had little or no affect whatsoever on the current birth rate in Pakistan. Current indicators point that only 18% of all Pakistan women are using contraceptive methods. Recognizing the need to provide better services, the Family Planning Association of Pakistan developed the concept of the Family Health Hospital, for women and their families providing primary reproductive health care and referral to specialized services. There have been eleven of these family health hospitals. They provide services for everyone within a 50 Km region. It was believed women would benefit directly if these services were provided and the overall welfare of the family would also improve. Although effective in some areas this program for the most part has been plagued with corruption, mismanagement and in general offering poor services to its cliental.

The average women in continues to be approximately five births per woman. It has only been since the 1990s that methods of contraception have begun to take hold. Contraceptive use rose much more rapidly in the urban areas, many feel due to education levels in the city versus the rural area. Many claim that the program is beginning to have an impact yet it will take years to see the spreading of these ideas into rural Pakistan. Considering that only 33 percent of Pakistans population lives in urban areas it will take some time to slow the rapidly growing population. One issue that the Family program has not addressed is that of abortion.

In rural areas abortion is the most commonly used method of birth control in Pakistan. Despite recent changes in the fertility rate, change is not coming quickly enough. During the 1950s and 60s the rate of growth in economic terms as well as population increased significantly. Technical advancements such as the green Revolution increased food production, as well as medical advancements which lead to increased life expectancies. While these advancements have slowed, the rate at which the population is growing has not.

With a growing rural population many peasants are migrating to the cities, leading to over-urbanization. Massive unemployment levels and a larger percentage of poverty are important issues that must be addressed. Wages for unskilled laborers continue to decline yet the amount of unskilled workers continues to rise. Broad economic and social changes in Pakistan have shed new light on how its fertility rate, which is affecting every aspect of this nation. Yet change may be coming too slowly.

Religion Perhaps the most important aspect of life for the average citizen of Pakistan is that of religion. Religion is actually how Pakistan came into existence. Ninety eight percent of its population consists of Muslims. The basics of this religion are very clear. There is only one God and He is the creator of all the things. The prophet Muhammad was sent in the world to convey the message of the God to people.

The Prophet Muhammad is the most significant figures for a Muslim. It is only trough his teachings that Islam spread from Spain to India. The Quran Islams Holy Book teaches the philosophy of how to live for Islam. It is seen as the book of guidance for a Muslim. Religion plays a very active role in the lives of Pakistanis and Islam affects every aspect of society.

Women in Islam are made to cover their bodies according to religious teachings. Islam is the official religion of Pakistan but there are many other religions which are an important part of daily life. Some of the other major religions in Pakistan are Christianity as well as Hindus, and Buddhists. The freedom of worship is one of the most important aspects of Islamic law. This paper has examined some of the many complex issues regarding Pakistan as a growing nation.

While I found it quite difficult to find specific data on hospital, crime rates, and social safety nets that may be in place for Pakistan. I also was hoping to look at such issues as political corruption, as well as the exploitation of the poor. Yet it seems that there have been many studies looking at its cultural, religious and economic makeup of this perhaps prosperous country. It is unlikely that Pakistan will be able to adapt quickly enough, due to deep religious convictions, and a clear lack of education in how to push this country ahead in the worlds economy. Bibliography Bibliography 1 D.N. Wilber et al., Pakistan: Its People, Its Society, Its Culture.

New Haven: HRAF Press, 1964 (DS 379.w5) 2 R.D. Stevens et al. (eds.), Rural Development in Bangladesh and Pakistan. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1976(HN 690.6 .A8 R87) 3 S.M.H. Zaidi, The Village Culture In Transition. Honolulu: East-West Center, 1970 (HN 690) 4 W.H. Wriggings (ed.), Pakistan in Transition. Islamabad: University of Islamabad Press, 1975 (HN 690.5 .A8 P24) 5 /pk.html Cia World Fact-book Anthropology.