Othello “Tush, never tell me! I take it much unkindly/ that thou, Iago, who hast had my purse/ as if the strings were thine, shouldst know of this./” (I. i. 1-3) From the beginning of Othello, Iago is portrayed as an antagonist, a villain who acts out of only his own interest. The acts that Iago engages in throughout Shakespeare’s Othello are erroneous acts. Iago is not insane and he can comprehend the difference between right and wrong.

Shakespeare is known for his ability to focus on human flaws and teach us lessons from their misfortune.Iago’s destiny with evil is due to his own flaws, jealousy, selfishness, and deceit. Because of these insecurities, Iago will stop at nothing to get even with Othello. By the end of the play, Iago becomes blind to all other aspects of life and solely focuses on his enemy.

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By using and exploiting others’ flaws, Iago pollutes all with his deceit and lies, turning them against each other to get what he wants. This evil villain makes sure he gets what he wants by taking advantage of the gullible characters no matter what the cost. When Iago tells Othello that Brabantio will try to annul his marriage to Desdemona, Othello replies that what he has done (as general of the Venetian army) for Venice will outweigh anything that Brabantio can say, “Let him do his spite./ My services which I have the signiory/ which shall out-tongue his complaints.

‘Tis yet to know/ which, when I know that boasting is an honor,/ I shall promulgate – I fetch my life and being from men of royal siege.” (I.ii. 18-27) In the beginning of the play, Othello is clearly confident in his prowess as a respectable military general and elite man of the time.

He has no concerns with Desdemona’s father and feels he can have whatever he wants because of his status. Othello is already allowing his head to swell and overlook any possible conflict. He is not at all worried and so his demise begins. Iago’s jealousy is depicted early when he is suspicious of Othello pursuing his own wife, Emilia.Iago tries to have Desdemona’s father do the work for him, but it does not work.

Iago’s rage grows and in the end of act I, he reveals his plan. “The moor is of a free and open nature/ that thinks men honest that but seem to be so;/ and will as tenderly be led by th’ nose/ as asses are./ I hav’t! It is engend’red! Hell and night/ must bring this monstrous birth to the world’s light./” (I. iii.

380-385) Iago is filled with hate for the Moor and his whole life is now consumed with revenge.Also at the end of the first scene in Cyprus, Iago speaks of his own motivations for his deceit. He says of Desdemona, “Now I do love her too;/ not out of absolute lust, though for peradventure/ I do stand accountant for as great a sin,/ but partly led to diet my revenge/ for that I do suspect the lusty Moor/ hath leaped into my seat.” (II. i.

268-272) He desired revenge for his own suspicion that Othello has gone to bed with Emilia. It is was killing on the inside and Iago would not be happy, “Till I am evened with him, wife for wife;/ or failing so, yet that I put the Moor/ at least into a jealousy so strong/ that judgement cannot cure.” (II.i. 276-279) He reveals that he wants to kill Othello from the inside, make him succumb under his own power. Othello was married happily to Desdemona, but Iago planted some doubts in Othello’s mind concerning her “unchaste” lifestyle. Iago told Othello that his wife had been unfaithful and was “lying in Cassio’s bed” while they were married. Othello chose to believe this false story that Iago schemes up, and because of this his marriage was destroyed.

All he could think about was his sweet Desdemona having a relationship with his first lieutenant. In doing this, he was also acting out of selfishness for not being promoted as Cassio was.”One Michael Cassio, a Florentine/ a fellow almost damned in a fair wife/ that never set a squadron in the field,/ nor the division of a battle knows./” (I. i. 20-23) His selfishness is evident for he is not at all happy or pleased that his friend has been honored, he can only focus on himself. Iago easily deceived Othello, but what Othello did not realize was that Iago was good at what he did.

He didn’t know Roderigo was also helping him with his plot.He manipulated his wife Emilia to bring him the Moor’s handkerchief that he gave to Desdemona to plant in Cassio’s room. This eventually lead to Othello finding Cassio with the handkerchief and falsely verifying Desdemona’s affair with Cassio. Iago hinted all the time about his evil plan like in Act III, Scene III where he warned Othello to, “Beware, my lord, of jealousy!/ It is a green-eyed monster, which doth mock.

/ The meet it feeds on. That cuckold lives in bliss/ who, certain of his fate, loves no wronger;/ but O, what damned minutes tell he o’er/ who dotes, yet doubts – suspects loves!/” (III. iii. 164-170) Iago was well aware of what he was doing with Othello.His actions here are completely for his own benefit and he has been blinded by his rage. Othello told Iago at the beginning of the play that he loved Desdemona. Explaining to Iago why he deserved her, Othello said that he loved her so much that he had given up some precious freedom. He said, “But that I love the gentle Desdemona,/ I would not my unhoused free condition/ put into circumscription and confine/ for the sea’s worth.

” (I. i. 25-28) The idea is that both the value of his freedom and the strength of his love would be great and would not die.

After Iago lied to Othello he saw Desdemona as an unfaithful wife. The person, whom he loved and was married to, he did not believe. Iago’s deceptiveness is perfectly executed here and Othello obviously has no clue as to what is really going on.

Othello has now placed more trust into Iago then into his own wife. Iago is able to expose Othello’s tragic flaw, naiveness, and easily is able to fog Othello’s mind. Iago knew that pulling off his scheme would be difficult and said on the eve of Othello’s plan to kill his wife and Iago to kill Cassio, “This is the night/ that either makes me or fordoes me quite./” (V.

ii. 129-130) As Iago speaks to Roderigo, he reveals some interesting points. “Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago./ In following him, I follow but myself;/ heaven is my judge, not I for love and duty,/ but seeming so, for my peculiar end;/ for when my outward action doth demonstrate/ the native act and figure of my heart./” (I. i. 59-62) Iago reveals that he has lost all respect and loyalty to Othello and is only concerned about the consequences that will await him by God.

He believes that he is doing well, that God will reward him for acting nobly and for his cause. This is an excellent example of his selfishness because Iago doesn’t care about what happens to anyone else or whom he hurts to get what he feels he deserves.A great puppeteer, Iago is a deceitful man driven by selfishness. He is the one who runs the show making the characters say what he wants to hear with his cunning ways. He deceives the Othello and Roderigo who he claims to love.

By noticing and using others’ flaws, Iago successfully avenged his grudge against Othello, Roderigo, and Desdemona. He steps over everything and everyone in his way to get what he wants and his ways will in turn ultimately end the play in tragedy.English Essays.


Othello, Moorish commander of the armed forces of Venice, had secretly married Desdemona, the much younger daughter of the respected Senator Brabantio. Capitalizing on this news, Othello’s ensign, Iago, who had earlier professed his desires to Desdemona without receiving her love in return, sought revenge. Also passed over for promotion as Othello’s new lieutenant chief of staff, the Moor having chosen instead a loyal Florentine, Michael Cassio, Iago now devised a scheme to rid himself of these sorry reminders of his own failings.

He dispatched his inexperienced follower, Roderigo, to inform Brabantio of the illicit marriage. The thought of a beguiling Moor’s marrying his beloved daughter without consent, led the Senator with his guards to Othello’s house. However, violence was postponed by the report of an imminent attack on Cyprus from armed Turkish galleys. The Duke of Venice summoned Othello to the senate chambers. When Desdemona appeared and professed her love for Othello, the Duke cleared him of wrongdoing, saying to Brabantio, “If virtue no delighted beauty lack, / Your son-in-law is far more fair than black.” Then the Duke directed his courageous commander to lead the Venetian forces to Cyprus in its defense. With his honor intact, and through Desdemona’s pleas to remain with her love, Othello gained permission to have her sail with him.

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For the voyage, Othello entrusted Desdemona to the care of Iago’s wife, Emilia, who did not suspect her husband’s treachery. Before the soldier band could reach its enemy, a storm destroyed the Turkish fleet and dispersed the Venetian vessels. Fortunately, all of Othello’s ships returned safely to Cyprus and Othello and his bride were reunited. Iago’s hateful plan turned now to lies and innuendo. Seeing the infatuation his pawn Roderigo had for Desdemona, Iago engaged Rodcrigo in conversation, promising that he could secure for him Desdemona’s love: I hate the Moor. My cause is hearted: thine both no less reason.

Let s be conjunctive in our revenge against him. If thou canst cuckold him, thou dost thyself a pleasure, me a sport. But then evil Iago demanded a price for Desdemona: Roderigo would have to engage Cassio in a fight during the lieutenant’s night watch. Iago further fanned Roderigo’s readiness to kill Cassio by claiming that Cassio was Desdcmona’s latest love. That night Iago succeeded in getting Cassio drunk, and the brawl turned to riot. By way of reprimand, Othello was forced to demotc Cassio, a severe blow to the high-ranking officer. Desdemona nobly appealed to her husband on Cassio’s behalf, in an attempt to revive their friendship.

This innocent act provided Iago with yet another idea – a way to convince the Moor of his wife’s “natural attraction” to the handsome young Florentine. Iago approached the despondent Cassio and convinced him that a meeting could be arranged between him and Desdemona; and she could use her influence to have Cassio’s position restored. When the meeting took place, Iago drew Othello aside to cause him to see Cassio in the act of “soliciting” his wife. He also began his line of subtle allusions to gossip of a prior romance between the two. His clever suggestions continued, daily planting seeds of jealousy in Othello’s heart. Meanwhile, Desdemona could sense her husband’s growing despair. Othello’s jealous rages grieved not only her, his ill-starred wife, but also all those under his command.

Emilia, Desdemona’s loving caretaker, swore of her mistress’ fidelity, but the tormented Othello would not listen. Iago’s plan was promoted even more when he obtained a handkerchief Othello had given to Desdemona as a love token. It had been found by Emilia, who intended to return it to her mistress. Instead, Iago secretly planted it in Cassio’s bed. Tortured over the weeks, and weary of Iago’s incessant insinuations, Othello finally demanded proof from Iago of Desdemona’s unfaithfulness: Villain, be sure thou prove my love a whore, Or by the worth of man’s eternal soul,Thou hadst been better have been born a dogThan answer my wak’d wrath …

Iago swore to have heard Cassio speak words of love to Desdemona in his sleep. As additional evidence he cited having seen Cassio wipe his beard with the missing scarf, which Cassio had since discovered in his quarters. Iago’s cunning plan was working; Othello was finally convinced: Othello: Get me some poison, Iogo, this night Iago: Do it at with poison.

Strangle her in her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated. Othello: Good, good. The justice of it pleases. Very good. Iago: And for Cassio, let me be his undertaker …

Overwhelmed with madness, Othello at once accepted Iago’s words, making him his new lieutenant and charging him with his first order of business: Kill the deceitful Cassio. In treacherous obedience to his commander, Iago enlisted Roderigo to ambush Cassio. With Iago hiding in the night’s darkness, Roderigo confronted Cassio in a duel, but was wounded himself. Then, in the scuffle, Iago leaped out and wounded Cassio. In order to keep Roderigo from talking, Iago next turned on Roderigo, fatally stabbing the unfortunate lackey.

A crowd quickly gathered, including a harlot who claimed wounded Cassio as a friend. Iago, reasoning that a broken and a shunned Cassio would be an even sweeter revenge than a dead Cassio, decided this woman could be used to further defame his enemy. Pretending to have been a passer-by coming to Cassio’s aid, Iago, along with some other Venetian gentlemen, assisted the wounded ensign toward Othello’s home. That same evening, Othello ordered Desdemona to excuse her servant early and retire to bed. In an anguished fit of passion, he then entered her chamber and kissed her: Othello: Have you pray’d to-night, Desdemon?Desdemona: Ay, my lord.Othello: If you bethink yourself of any crime Unrecoucil’d as yet to heaven and grace, Solicit for it straight .

… I would not kill thy unprepared spirit ..

. Othello then spelled out the evidence that accused her of her crime, and demanded a confession. Desdemona denied any impropriety; Cassio must have found the handkerchief .

.. But Othello spoke up, reporting that Cassio, her very lover, had already been justly assassinated. Desdemona burst into tears.

“O strumpet! Weep’st thou for him in my face?” the husband cried. And then, despite her pleadings, he smothered her with a pillow. The act completed, Othello was interrupted by Emilia at the door. She entered and told him that Roderigo had been killed, but Cassio yet lived. Distraught, and trying to justify his wife’s murder, Othello disclosed to Emilia how he knew of his dead wife’s infidelity – ” .

. . Thy husband knew it all … My friend, thy husband, honest, honest Iago,” he had made the accusation.

When Iago, Cassio and the nobles arrived, Emilia urged her husband to refute Othello’s claim. Upon seeing the falseness reflected in Iago’s eyes, however, and beholding his vain attempts to absolve himself, the general suddenly realized the tragic error he had made. His trusted ensign had orchestrated the entire affair. The missing scarf, the meeting between Cassio and Desdemona, the cause of his insane grief – all was Iago’s doing. Emilia became sickened at the reality of her husband’s villainy.

Amid sobs of grief, she began to rebuke him. Impulsively, Iago drew his dagger and stabbed his frenzied wife. Othello lunged at Iago, wounding him, but was restrained by the nobles from finishing the deed.

Faithful Emilia died, still calmly defending Desdemona’s innocence and proclaiming her love for the virtuous woman. Othello, on the other hand, mad with guilt and sorrow, pleaded with his true friend, Cassio: … When you shall these unlucky deeds relate,Speak of them as they are. Nothing extenuate,Nor set down in malice. Then must you speakOf one that lov’d not wisely but too well;Of one not easily jealous, but, being wrought,Perplex’d in the extreme, of one whose hand.

.. threw a pearl away … This said, Othello raised his dagger and thrust its blade into his own heart. As he lay dying, he could only be content with the promise that wicked, traitorous Iago would be tortured to death at the hands of the governor-general of Cyprus.

CommentaryShakespeare’s Othello epitomizes the playwright’s masterful ability to weave his characters’ intricate motives and acts into one smooth plot. Of at I his villains, Iago seems to be the most complete and sadistic, with no greater motive than wounded pride for his wickedness. Indeed, the drama might well be named “Iago,” since he is the character most prominent throughout.

But the character most discussed by critics continues to be Othello. Is he an honorable, tragic hero who is ennobled by the unsuspecting confidence he places in his advisor, Iago? Or is he nothing more than a vulnerable, murderous and tragic fool? Othello himself recognizes this extraordinary paradox when, at the end of the play, he describes himself as “an honourable murderer”; as “one that loved not wisely but too well.” In contrast, we experience the authentic bond of love between two faithful women.

And ultimately, love triumphs – even if only in death over pride, envy, hate and evil.


Sexuality in WisebloodThat Heinous Beast: SexualityIn the novel Wiseblood, by Flannery O’Connor, one finds an unpleasant, almost antagonistic view of sexuality.

The author seems to regard sex as an evil, and harps on this theme throughout the novel. Each sexual incident which occurs in the novel is tainted with grotesquem. Different levels of the darker side of sexuality are exposed, from perversion to flagrant displays of nudity.

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It serves to give the novel a bit of a moralistic overtone.The “Carnival Episode” illustrated Hazel’s first experience with sexuality. The author depicts an incident surrounded by an aura of sinfulness. Indeed, the show’s promoter claims that it is “SINsational.” In his anxiousness to view the sideshow, Haze resorted to lying about his age. He was that eager to see it. When he enters the tent, Haze observes the body of an obese naked woman squirming in a casket lined with black cloth. He leaves the scene quickly.

This first bout with sexuality was certainly a grotesque one, and one which, perhaps, helped fortify his resolve not to experiment with sex for years to come. Haze reacted to the incident on different levels. Before watching the “show,” he was filled with curiosity. So badly he wanted to view this “EXclusive” show.

After glancing at the body, he first thought that it was a skinned animal. When he realized what it was, he at once left the tent, ashamed, and perhaps frightened of the object before his eyes. Hazel’s reaction was not unnatural. The sight with which he was confronted would invoke both fear and embarassment within most ten-year-olds. Not only was the body nude, but it was inside a casket as well. The author parallels this vulgar display of sexuality with death itself.

But Hazel reacted to more than just the sight of the object. He at once realizes that he was not supposed to watch the naked lady, that it was sinful to do so. He feels ashamed for having gone inside the tent, and punishes himself. Here, it is evident that the author means to show that Sexuality is a sinful creature. This moral tone is reinforced by the behavior of his parents during the episode. Whilst inside the tent, Hazel hears his father remark appreciatively about the nude body: “Had one of themther built into ever’ casket, be a heap ready to go sooner.” After returning home, Hazel’s mother realizes that her son has experienced something that he should not have, and confronts him about it. Though he does not admit what he has done, he proceeds to punish himself.

It is inferred that Hazel respects his mother’s attitude toward the matter. O’Connor seems to propose that Hazel must do penance for what he has done, or, on a larger scale, for witnessing vulgar displays of sexuality. Perversion reaches its height when O’Connor introduces the reader to Enoch Emery. During Enoch’s various dealings with women, one witnesses vulgarity in all its forms. The events surrounding the first of these incidents is tinged with a bit of mystery.

O’Connor paints the portrait of a Peeping Tom, an adolescent Enoch Emery watching a topless woman sunbathe while hidden in between abelia bushes. Strangely enough, the woman has a “long and cadaverous” face, with a “bandage-like bathing cap.” Ironically, the woman also has pointed teeth, with “greenish-yellow hair.” The woman is portrayed as a corpse-like figure who is surprisingly similar to Hazel’s one-time mistress, Leora Watts. Sexuality comes in the form of a corpse, an allusion not to be missed.

The narrator depicts Sexuality as being analogous to spiritual death.In this episode, however, one sees more than just the grotesque. Enoch Emery introduces us to the grimmer side of sexuality, a side in which a predator spies on an unknowing woman, and gains pleasure from it.

The meaning behind the scene is somewhat masked by the lascivious behavior of a typical eighteen year old, but its aim is clear. Here is sexuality at its darker side: one in which women are violated unbeknownst to them. Enoch’s other dealings with women are also on the perverse side. He enjoys making “suggestive remarks” towards them.

The fact that they do not respond to him results from two things. Firstly, the women do not find him appealing in the least bit. At the “Frosty Bottle,” the waitress refers to Enoch as a “pus-marked bastard,” and a “son of a bitch.” Secondly, the author points out that sexuality and perversion in all its forms is evil.Perhaps one of the most grotesque representations of sexuality in the novel is found in Mrs.

Leora Watts. The circumstances surrounding Haze and Leora’s first encounter are rather distasteful. Hazel discovers her address while inside a public bathroom, an incidence not to be taken lightly. The author blatantly states her attitude toward prostitution: that it originates within the most disgusting and disgraceful locales of society.The creature, Mrs. Leora Watts, is quite hideous, and grotesque in most every manner. She is a large woman, with “yellow hair and white skin that glistened with a greasy preparation.” Her teeth were “small and pointed and speckled with green and there was a wide space between each one.

” When Hazel first meets her, she is cutting her toe nails, a task not the most pleasing to witness. The room in which Leora Watts lives is quite dirty. The atmosphere is not unlike that of a public bathroom.Haze’s first sexual experience is an unpleasant one. It is almost as if he has been captured and used by this monstrosity, when it was he who initiated it. It is all the more ironic that it is a female prostitute who is manhandling the male. The ceremony begins as Haze reaches for Leora’s big leg.

It is a rather strange action in that he does not making any overt sexual advances towards her. He does not find her appealing, he merely wants to have sex. Through the course of the episode, Hazel behaves as if he were pained by his own actions. When Leora grips his hand, he almost reacts violently.

In fact, “he might have leaped out the window, if she had not had him so firmly by the arm.” As she makes advances towards him, he moves rigidly toward her. Hazel’s behavior is similar to that of a person doing penance for sins committed.

This is reminiscent of Hazel’s actions as a child. O’Connor manages to convert an often joyous and pleasurable experience into a painstaking one. Here, once again, we witness her moralistic attitude toward sexuality: sex for pleasure ought to be painful, for it is wrong.

Through the depiction of Mrs. Leora Watts and Hazel’s first sexual encounter, it is more than evident that the novel treats the subject of sexuality in a distasteful manner. Leora Watts is the physical manifestation of the author’s disdain for sexuality and prostitution. She is both repulsive and grotesque. Sexuality is treated as an ugly thing, and sex for pleasure is seen as immoral. In the novel Wiseblood, the reader is confronted with an antagonistic and adverse view of sexuality.

The novel represents sex as an evil, one which encourages the basest forms of human behavior. Through individuals like Leora Watts and Enoch Emery, the author depicts people whom have reached the depths of perversion and the grotesque.


The play, Othello was written by William Shakespeare in the later years of his career. Giraldi Cinthios, Tale of a Moor, based Othello on a story that was a mellow Drama, about a moor and his doubts about his wife’s fidelity. In Shakespeare’s play the Moor (Othello) convinced by his jealous aid (Iago) that his wife (Desdemona) is not Being faithful. Iago’s jealousy is motivated by his anger when he learns that Cassio of Florentine has been appointed Governor of Cyprus. He felt that he deserved this promotion and vowed to seek revenge against Othello.Othello being a Moor commanding the armies of Venice is a celebrated general and heroic figure whose “free and open nature “ will enable Iago to twist his love for his wife, Desdemona into a powerful jealousy. Iago is Othello’s ensign, and Shakespeare’s greatest villain.

His public face of honesty and bravery conceals a satanic delight in manipulation and destruction. .The crucial moment in the play is the scene where Iago deceives Othello and induces him to fall.

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He does this by expanding the tactics used in prior scenes. Iago plants the seed of doubt in the Moor’s mind when he says, “Ha! I like that not “ (III, iii) as they came upon Cassio and Desdemona talking. He then retreats into a guise as “honest Iago” as he did in the brawl (II, ii).When he was the reluctant truth teller who must have unpleasant news dragged from him by a determined Othello. The honesty by him being reluctant to speak is reinforced by the moralizing tone he takes with his commander. Iago actually lectures Othello about his jealousy “the green-eyed monster” and insisting that he’ll not speak slander “he that filches from me my good name / Robs of that which not enriched him / And makes me poor indeed” (III, iii). At the same time he is playing upon Othello’s insecurities by lecturing him on how Venetian women are deceitful and treacherous by nature.The seizure of the handkerchief is a great achievement for Iago in his quest to destroy Othello and was aided by his wife, who apparently has no scruples about betraying her mistress in small matters.

Shakespeare will eventually transform Emilia into a voice of moral outrage, and by the final scene the audience will applaud her role in Iago’s destruction, but for now she is Iago’s accomplice. It will take a great shock to inspire outrage against him-a shock that comes to late. Othello’s accusations and refusal to accept Desdemona’s denials are brutal and unfair, but his language recovers some of the nobility that it had lost in previous scenes. Iago’s like sorrowful laments for what has been lost replace curses, and the audience is reminded of the heroism and dignity that Othello possessed at the beginning of the play. His cry ”o, thou weed, / Who art so lovely fair, and smell’st so sweet, / That the scene aches at thee-would thou hadst ne’er / been born!” (IV, ii) is a powerful expression of the love that he still holds for his wife, which has been ruined for ever by Iago’s poisons. Othello is terribly wrong, but what Shakespeare demands that we sympathize with his error. Othello’s words as he prepares to murder Desdemona reveal the extent to which he has allowed Iago’s logic to dominate his own thinking. His fury has abated, but he is left with a sense of being an instrument of divine justice.

Desdemona must die, because she has betrayed him. Othello’s self-delusion is so strong that he believes himself to be merciful. He will not scar her body and he will allow her to pray because he says, “I would not kill thy soul” (V, ii). The actual murder is one of the most painful scenes in all of Shakespeare’s plays, because of Desdemona’s manifest innocence, beauty, and purity. She proclaims to continue are love for Othello to the grave and beyond, returning to life only to gasp out exoneration for her husband.

He rejects are last gift, but his illumination arrives quickly thereafter, and the audience’s anger at the Moor dissipates as he is completely undone by the realization of his terrible error. There is no need to punish him, his horrible self-awareness (“O Desdemona! Desdemona! Dead!” is punishment enough. Then Othello passes judgment on himself with the courage we would expect from a military hero and loyal general, and he kills himself just as he once killed the enemies of Venice. Shakespeare allows him a final word, too, after this speech and Othello, dying, reaches for Desdemona, reminding the audience of what a great love has been destroyed.As for the destroyer, he too comes undone in this scene. His parting words are “what you know, what you know,” denies us the explanation that we crave. The audience can take some satisfaction in watching Emilia roused from cynicism to righteous vengeance; bring down her husband as he brought down the victims. Iago’s fury at Emilia might just as well be a fury for himself, who spent the entire play manipulating Brabantio, Roderigo, Cassio, Othello, and Desdemona.

In the end all is undone by the person he least expects, his wife, Emilia.Bibliography:


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