Objective: I

Atom – the smallest component of an element having the chemical propertiesof the elementExample: the formation of a sodium chloride crystalMolecule – The smallest part of any substance which has the qualities ofthat substance, and which can exist alone in a free state.

Example: a molecule of water consists of two atoms of hydrogen and one ofoxygen.Organelle – A cell structure that carries out a specialized function in thelife of a cell.Example: the nucleus, chromosomes, mitochondria, cytoskeleton and vesicles.Cell – Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, independentlyor as part of multicelled organismsExample: Malaria parasiteTissue – a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having asimilar structure and function.Example: Distribution of death domain containing protein genesOrgan – A part of the body that consists of different types of tissue andthat performs a particular function.

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Example: the kidneys, heart and brain.Organ System – two or more organs interacting chemically, physically, orboth in ways that contribute to organism’s survival.Example: Nervous System and Digestive SystemMulticelled Organism – individual consisting of interdependent cellstypically organized in tissues, organs, and organ system.Example: Modern vascular plant that is similar in structure.Population – Group of individual of the same kind occupying the same area.

Example: a zebra herdCommunity – populations of all species occupying the same area.Example: the people of Bridgeport ConnecticutEcosystem – Community and its physical environment.Example: The people of Bridgeport and our surrounding.pic pic Adipose TissueHyaline Cartilagepic picSmooth Muscle CellsFibrocartilagepicDigestive SystemObjective IIAtomic Number – the number of protons in a elementAtomic Weight – the average mass of the atoms of an elementNeutron – the particle in the atomic nucleus with the mass = 1 and charge =0NeutronProtons – a component of an atomic nucleus with a mass defined as 1 and acharge of +1.ProtonsElectrons – a negatively charged component of an atom.ElectronsHydrogen – chemical element that exists as a gas at room temperatureHydrogenCarbon – nonmetallic chemical element known by the symbol C that is thefundamental building block of material in living organismsCarbonOxygen – symbol O, colorless. Odorless, tasteless slightly magnetic gaseouselement OxygenSodium – sodium Na, Highly reactive, silvery white extreme soft metallicelement.

SodiumChlorine – symbol CI, greenish – yellow gaseous element.ChlorineIsotopes – atoms that are vary in neutron numbersIsotopes – C14 Isotopes – C12IonsChloride IonSodium Ion11p+10e-BondingIonic Bond – an association of two ions that have opposing charge.NACICovalent Bond – sharing of a pair of electronsMolecular HydrogenPolor Covalent Bond – atoms of different elements don’t exert the same pullon shared electrons.Polarity of the water molecule water’s temperature – stabilizing effectswater cohesionWater solvent propertiesHydrogen Bonding – weak attraction between an electron negative atom andtaking part in a second polar covalent bond.picFunctional GroupAldehydesAlcohol -OHKetoneOrganic AcidAminoPhosphateMolecules and Macromoleculespic Hydrophilicpic Hydrophobic Tailpic CondensationpicHydrolysisCarbohydrates – A chemical compound composed of carbon, hydrogen andoxygen.

Starch, sugar and cellulose are the most common carbohydrates thatsupply energy.Monosaccharide – simple sugars consist of a single sugar molecule andcannot be further decomposed by hydrolysis.Disaccharide – Sugars formed by the combination of two simple sugar units.Polysaccharides – Complex sugars, consisting of multiple linked simplesugars.

pic pic GlucoseFructosepicGalactosepicpicpicpic SucroseStarchpicCelluloseLipids – Hydrophobic that’s the one property they have in common. Thisgroup of molecules includes fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids andsome other related compounds.pic Fatty Acids picpic picpic pic SteroidspicBile- liver secretion required for fat digestion.Emulsification – of chime a suspension of fat droplet coated with bilesalts.Proteins – organic compound of one or more polypeptide chains folded andtwisted into a globular or fibrous shape overall.picAmino AcidR Groups – side chains that have functional groups each type of side chainscontributes in a major way to distinctive properties of each amino acidPrimary Structure – when a cell synthesizes a protein, enzymes link aminoacids, one after the other by peptide bond.Denaturation – breaking weak bonds of a protein or any other large moleculedisrupts its three dimensional shape.

Enzymes – the type of protein or one of the few RNAs that catalyzereactions between substances, most often at functional group, enzymes alsobreaks down the food in our body.Nucleic acid – single or double stranded chain of four kinds of nucleotidesjoined at their phosphate.pic DNA pic RNA picObjective IVLife originated in water.

Many organisms still live in it. Cell shape andinternal structure depend on it.Without water there would be no oceans, no lakes, no rivers, no rain, snow,hail clouds, polar ice caps. Water is every where it defines our planet.

It is involved in just about every process on earth one way or another.