North Korea The United States has been presented a dilemma towards its foreign policy with the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea). North Koreas alleged launch of a new Taepo-Dong I missile on August 31, 1998 has heightened American worries and escalated an already tense situation with North Korea. The United States response towards this new missile, which could possibly be able to reach the edges of both Alaska and Hawaii , will be a factor in its decision on whether or not to continue to finance support towards North Korea. New sanctions could mean the collapse of a weak North Korean economy. Already on the brink of economic and political collapse, the loss of U.S. and KEDO aid could push them over the edge and into political ruin.
One major factor involved in the foreign policy decision is the collapse of North Korea. It could mean one of three things: Implosion (collapse of the state), explosion (war with South Korea) or absorption (reform and reunification). In May 1997, acting Director of Central Intelligence, George Tenet, stated, “One of the things that worries us most is an implosion internally.” The result of an implosion, the collapse of the state, would be hundreds of thousands of refugees fleeing to China and South Korea. China has already begun stepping up troops at the North Korean border to halt the flow of refugees should this happen. South Korea would possibly use force to deter refugees to the south. Another factor here is the humanitarian influences.
Massive floods, droughts and typhoons since 1995 have forced North Korea to accept international food aid. Widespread famine has reportedly killed hundreds of thousands of people. This acceptance is contrary to the North Korean governments policy of “juche” or self-reliance . It is feared that the government of North Korea is diverting scarce food sources from the civilian sector to its military, even at a time of humanitarian crisis . A third factor is the general flow of our foreign policy towards North Korea.
Since 1994, we have been implementing constructive engagement with North Korea. The Agreed Framework was a barter system where the United States would provide economic and food aid to North Korea. North Korea would cease production of nuclear weapons and they would make other concessions as well. Congress has recently called for the end to this. In a plenary session on September 18, the US Congress adopted a resolution, H.J.
RES. 83, to call on President Clinton to stop implementing the U.S.-North Korea Agreed Framework reached in Geneva, 1994 . On September 17, Congress also passed a resolution to cut funding to KEDO. The State Department feels that constructive engagement is still the answer. Secretary of State press briefer James P. Rubin said, “We believe that if we cant fulfill our part of the agreement, it will be much, much harder to convince the North Koreans to fulfill their pat of the agreement.
” This highlights differences within the U.S. government that may effect the outcome. Another factor is the North Korea military presence in northeast Asia. With increases technology in SCUD missiles and new longer range missiles being developed, North Korea is a source of instability in its region. It is one of the last Marxist regimes.
Unlike the other communist countries peaceful exit from the international scene, North Korea could strike out in desperation as they try to hold on to power as they slip out. North Korean military implications are important in two ways 1) the exporting and sales of missiles and technology abroad; and 2) the domestic stockpiling of troops and weapons along the De-Militarized zone. These two factors will effect the United States foreign policy to North Korea. Historical Context The United States has held virtually no relations with North Korea since the end of the Korean War. In response to the Korean War, the United States Government established severe economic sanctions towards N. Korea under the Trading with the Enemy Act in 1950.
These sanctions and additional sanctions from the West caused North Korea to fall behind technologically to its neighbor, South Korea over time. Kim Il sung dominated most political and governmental affairs since the Korean War. Both as premier and president, Kim continued to press for the reunification of Korea (under the Korean Workers Party rule of course). Domestically, he transformed Korea into one of the most repressive and strictly regimented societies in the world. The Korean Workers Party dominated all aspects of life; police forces were also used to suppress the slightest dissent or opposition . In doing this Kim terrorized his own people and thus failed to produce adequate quantities of food and consumer goods for them.
Nearly one quarter or one third of the North Korean budget has been based on the military. Much trade involved the export of military goods such as missiles. North Korea began producing advanced missile systems in 1984. They have also been producing chemical and biological weapons since the 1960s. This coupled with their exporting of missile systems to Iran, Syria and Egypt provided sufficient grounds for the United States to ignore relations with them.
The United States also feared another Korean War. If we began to bolster the military there and to begin to take more action in the east Pacific, North Korea could become unsecured and launch an attack on South Korea. North Korea became a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation treaty in 1985. Although a party to it, they did not finalize a safeguard agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency until 1992, thereby becoming a full member. During the late eighties the N.
Korea government worked to advance and distribute its missile systems. The United States was worried by this but continued their quarantine of them. The IAEA continued to inspect the nuclear program and take stock. The year 1994 started a tension point between the U.S. and N. Korea.
North Korea had been under constant watch by the United Nations and the United States due to their experimentation with nuclear energy. The International Atomic Energy Agency, who had been the main group responsible for observing and keeping track of North Korean nuclear progress, reported that it had become impossible to determine whether nuclear fuel had been diverted from nuclear reactors near the city of Yongbyon. Any misplaced atomic fuel could possibly be used to produce plutonium, the basis for nuclear weapons. The volatile and hostile nature of the North Korean government could use nuclear weapons to a maximum advantage for terror. This gave grounds for the United Nation to impose sanctions towards North Korea. President Clinton and the United States pressed for the sanctions. The North Korean government responded by threatening to declare war.
In response to the situation, Former-President Jimmy Carter met with Kim Il-Sung in mid-June and helped to ease the growing tension. His negotiations were cut short by the death of the Korean leader in early July. But the talks resumed and on October 21, 1994, after much talking, the United States and North Korea agreed to sign the “Agreed Framework.” In this, North Korea pledged to: 1. Freeze operations at, or cease construction of, all of these reactors and cease operating the Yongbyon reprocessing plant, with the freeze to be verified by the IAEA; 2. Not separate plutonium from the spent fuel removed from the 5-Mwe reactor in May 1994 (the status of the fuel to be monitored by the IAEA.
3. Ship the spent fuel out of North Korea; and 4. Thereafter dismantle all facilities of nuclear proliferation concern. In exchange, North Korea will be provided with two less proliferation-prone light-water reactors (LWRs) and a number of other energy-related inducements as well as security assurances. (See appendix A for full text) This gave way for better relations between the United States and North Korea.
President Clinton took positive steps by signing an executive order in January 1995 to reduce some sanctions towards North Korea by allowing private US firms to sell foodstuffs to them at market prices. The international community sought to further be involved in North Koreas new developments. On March 5, 1995, the United States, Japan, and South Korea formed a multinational consortium, called the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), to supply North Korea with the two promised light water reactors from the Agreed Framework. This group would become the liaison between Washington and North Korea. It is the principle agent in implementing the Agreed Framework of 1994.
One of KEDOs first breakthroughs came on December 15, 1995 when they and North Korea signed a Supply Agreement for the actual financing and supply of the reactors. 1996 started a year of ups and downs in the US-North Korean relationship. In April, the two countries held a two-day talk discussing the North Korean ballistic missile program. The United States wanted North Korea to stop development of long range missiles and missile exports. In exchange, the US would lift additional sanctions that were imposed on DPRK.
May saw these talks go sour as North Korea failed to comply and the US imposed additional sanctions. Things turned even worse for North Korea when on September 18, 1996, a North Korean reconnaissance submarine was discovered grounded off of South Koreas coast. Its crew had reportedly gone to shore and killed South Koreans while conducting a limited form of guerrilla warfare South Korea called for a limited halt on KEDO implementation of the Agreed Framework until the North issued an apology. Japan and The United States agreed, putting significant pressure on the North Korean government until December 29 of that year when a formal apology was administered. Clinton issued a statement saying, ” I am pleased that Pyongyang has pledged to prevent the recurrence of such an incident and has expressed its willingness to work with others for durable peace and stability on the peninsula.” The situation was resolved. The next day the US rewarded them by approving a license sought by Cargill, Inc., a US firm, to negotiate a commercial deal to sell N.
Korea up to 500,000 tons of grain. 1997 was no exception to the struggle between North Korea and the members of KEDO. When the Taiwan Power Co. announced it would ship 200,000 barrels of low-level nuclear waste to Pyongsan, the United States and Japan fiercely protested fearing that the waste would be used as a source from which the N. Koreans could extract plutonium.
The North Koreans were still wary of the United States. Washington pressured the Taiwan Power Co. and the North Korean government until they agreed to postpone shipments until further times. KEDO went along as planned. Domestically, North Koreas economy was collapsing; massive floods and typhoons from 1995 destroyed many areas of food production and cause widespread famine and disease.
Production ground down to a minimum. This put large amounts of pressure on a government that still stressed self-sufficiency. The launching of Pakistans first nuclear weapon in April 1998 caused many in the US chagrin. The source of the missiles and technology transfer that they applied to the weapon was also a source irritation: North Korea. The United States condemned this.
Sanctions were again applied as the US became aware of transfers made from the North Korean Mining Development Corporation. Since the North Korean economy is state run the sanctions applied to the government and forbade any arms or arms technology sales to them. This leads us up to August 31, 1998 when the Democratic Peoples Republic of North Korea launched what appeared to be a missile test of their newest missile, the Taepo-Dong I. Immediate Aftermath In the next few days after the August 31 launch, the world, especially the members of KEDO were in shock. They raced to find out just what it was that the N. Koreans had launched with their new missile.
The fact they had developed the new missile was of concern as well. Its new long-range capabilities would be sought after on the international arms market. Older ties with Iran, Egypt, Pakistan, and Syria could bud new agreements that would spread the use of these missiles outward into Asia and the Middle East. The US denounced N. Koreas government for the lack of them to notify Washington of the launch. Our surprise turned into a month of ups and downs with the State Department and the Defense Department, and Congress. Congress wanted US involvement in North Korea to halt (anything above the liaison office level) due to the failed cooperation with nuclear inspection on part of the North Korean government.
The North Korean nuclear reactor at Yongbyon, near Pyongyang, has long been a target of the International Atomic Energy Agency, which has complained about Pyongyangs”uncooperative attitudes” towards nuclear inspection. The House stresses that nuclear inspections should be thorough and complete and the IAEA inspectors should have the freedom to conduct any and all inspections that it deems necessary to fully account for the stocks of plutonium and other nuclear materials in North Korea. The House also attempted to pass a resolution on September 17, 1998 that would kill KEDO funding in 1999. The State Department replied to Congress stating that KEDO was vital to US interests on the Korean Peninsula as a foundation for stability. Without US funding in whole, the United States portion of the Agreed Framework would not be able to be carried out completely.
Charles Kartman, the Special Envoy for the Korean Peace Process and the U.S. Representative to KEDO (from the State Department) testified before the House International Relations Committee on September 24 defending the United States interests in North Korea through KEDO. He verified that the Agreed Framework “also provides a means to engage North Korea on other key concerns as terrorism, MIA remains and missile activities.” The State Department basically stated that through constructive engagement with KEDO, we could open new doors to negotiations with military and economic ideals. He also cited the benefits of the use of United States humanitarian aid towards North Korea as an enhancer of relations. The Department of Defenses news briefing on September 8, 1998 seemed to be pessimistic towards the North Koreans claims of the purpose of the launch; to place a North Korean satellite in orbit.
At that time SPACECOM had not observed any new object in orbit around the earth that could comply with the North Koreans claims. Also no radio transmissions were picked up from the frequency in which the North Koreans claimed their satellite was transmitting. The Defense Department seemed rather amused at the notion of a North Korean attack on any troops abroad. Kenneth Bacon, a DOD representative and briefer stated, “I think any country that would contemplate using weapons to attack United States troops abroad would have to expect a very swift and decisive, maybe even massive, response. Im sure the North Koreans are aware of that.
If theyre not, they should be aware of it now.” James Rubin followed up on this with a State Department briefing the next day. He reflected the notion that they were still assessing data on the launch. He also reported progress on talks that were currently taking place in New York concerning the Agreed Framework and the DPRKs nuclear program. These Four Party Talks (Japan, United States, South Korea and North Korea) had been taking place since the beginnings of KEDO. Another was to take place at the beginning of October.
In the briefing, however, Mr. Rubin stated, “We have no illusions about dealing the North Korean government, and we do not trust North Korea.” A reporter later asked Rubin whether or not he was aware that a South Korean spokesperson said that S. Korea, Japan and the US had reached a consensus that the missile was a failed satellite launch. Rubin again stated that the US was still looking at all possibilities and that additional launches should not be repeated. He also stated that KEDO would attempt to proceed with the implementation of the Agreed Framework. Talks resumed on October 1 about United States doubts in the North Korean missile programs. James Rubin praised the resumption of the talks.
He also reiterated the point that the United States was very interested and worried about the North Korean missile programs and exports. The new technological advance could spark an arms race in missiles in the region. Rubin also stated in this briefing that the United States does believe that the August 31st incident was a failed satellite launch attempt. CNN reports, however, show that little progress was made. The talks, held behind closed doors in Geneva, gave way to North Korea demanding the immediate removal of 37,000 U.S. troops from South Korea.
Washington reportedly rejected this. Recent developments in North Korea have been focused mainly on the massive famine that is plaguing the country. With North Korea only able to produce two-thirds of the minimum supply of food it needs, it has been reported that thousands of people are dying of hunger and diseases. A CNN report on November 9, 1998 stated that the North Korean government asked the United States for cash as a condition of allowing an American mission visit to Pyongyang for talks on a suspected underground nuclear site. Spokesman James Rubin responded to this, “And given that kind of posture (referring to the offer of money for visitation rights), its why we dont expect to see this resolved, because we dont intend to pay money to see whether they are living up to their expectations under the Agreed Framework.” Access to two disputed underground sites that are reported to be nuclear development sites is a key point in the US arguments.
Latest reports do show that the United States has sent 300,000 tons of grain to North Korea through the World Food Program. Hopes are that the humanitarian aid will help inspire North Korea to cooperate. Decision Options Towards North Korea The United States is presented with a difficult situation in North Korea. The country falls deeper into depression and famine each day. Undoubtedly, if funds were diverted from the military into agricultural assistance, the situation would be eased.
This is unlikely seeing that military exports account for such a significant portion of foreign revenue. Therefore, several options are presented to us: 1.) Increasing United States leadership responsibilities and bolstering the military presence in the Pacific. Also, c …