Natural Resource Aspects NATURAL RESOURCE ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN LEBANON AGRICULTURE Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies The Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and The Rural Development and Natural Wealth Directorate are most responsible for agriculture. National and International NGOs and UN organizations are also active. Programmes and Projects In terms of rural development, MoA is implementing a $5.5 million internationally-supported integrated rural development programme in the Baalbeck-Hermel region to provide small- and medium-scale farmers assistance which would lead to sustainable human development through startup activities. These activities include improvement of health, social services, education and income-generating non-agricultural activities. Challenges Three broad areas exist where agriculture practices are having adverse effects: Misuse of water – the present use of irrigation water is inefficient with high losses and wasteful applications to most crops.
Misuse of agrochemicals – agrochemicals misuse constitute a serious health hazard with an urgent need for pesticide control through law enforcement; fertilizers pose a less serious health hazard, but their use appears to be haphazard and may be contaminating water resources. Soil erosion from land abandonment and overgrazing. Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising Farmer capacity and awareness building is on-going. In rural areas support for groups like women is provided to help prevent migration to urban areas. Additionally, through UNDP, international assistance to local NGOs is helping vulnerable groups such as women and the disabled.
NGOs like the YWCA have programmes of their own with similar goals. YWCA-USA has provided YWCA Lebanon with a $50,000 fund for rural area support. * * * This information is based on Lebanon’s submission to the 5th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development, April 1997. Last update: 1 April 1997. For country reports on Plant Genetic Resources, click here. To access the FAOSTAT Data Base for information by country, item, element and year, click here: Click here to link to the Biosafety Information Network and Advisory Service (BINAS), a service of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), which monitors global developments in regulatory issues in biotechnology.
Click here to link to Country and Sub-regional Information on Plant Genetic Resources of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Click here to go to Web Site of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which includes information on the Codex Alimentarius and the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Click here to access the Web Site of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Click here to access the sixteen international agricultural research centers that are members of the CGIAR. | Lebanon | All Countries | Home | ATMOSPHERE Decision-Making: Coordinating Bodies The Ministry of Environment (protection of the environment), Ministry of Energy, and Hydraulic Resources (management of energy and energy resources).
Other ministries are responsible the management of related issues. For instance, the Ministry of Public Health is responsible for health and health related issues, the Ministry of Interior to enforce regulation pertaining to car emissions, and the municipalities for all enforcement at local level. The Ministry of Environment drafts decrees/laws that are forwarded to concerned Ministries (Ministry of Energy, Hydraulic and Electrical Resources, Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Health, etc.) for review and comment, and then to the Council of Ministers for final approval and activation. In the case of laws, draft laws are sent to the Parliament where they will be subject to an in-depth study by the Environment Parliamentary Committee. The approved law/decree will be disseminated through the Official Gazette.
In the case of implementing internationally funded projects, e.g. the Ozone Office (a UNDP Project executed at the Ministry of Environment), the Ministry of Environment along with the Ministries of Finance, Industry, Education, gave consent to implement the Ozone Country Programme. In early 1994, a National Working Committee on Ozone Depleting Substances was formed to support the Ministry of Environment in the ODS issue. This Committee has representatives from the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Industry and Petroleum, Ministry of Education, Department of Customs and Chamber of Industry and Commerce, Association Libanaise pour la Maitrise de lEnergie (ALME), Lebanese Universities (research institutions) and Industry Association. The role of the National Working Committee is to be the main consultative body in ODS and Montreal Protocol related issues in Lebanon and is responsible for the preparation of governmental/publicly supported measures to phase out the ODS in Lebanon.
The same procedures were applied during the execution of the Climate Change Project, and now for the project on Alternatives to methyl bromide, these two projects are UNDP projects executed at the Ministry of Environment. Finally, the Council for Development and Reconstruction prepared a Five Year Development Plan (2000 2004) with the aim to address social issues, achieve balanced development through concentration on less developed regions, and upgrade productive sectors. The rate of air polluting gases and deforestation were adopted as main indicators for planning and execution of projects during the defined period. Authorities for decision-making are linked to central government. Local decision-making takes place through Mohafazats (Governorates) that provide municipalities with decisions and laws required to be implemented. Then local authorities have the full right to enforce the application of these laws through the municipal police. The Ozone Office was established to implement obligations required by Montreal Protocol.
The project targeted the public sector for introducing appropriate regulatory and legal mechanisms, the private sector for phasing out ODS, and public at large to be aware of ODS negative consequences. Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations The Decision 52/1 (1996) issued by the Ministry of Environment, and pertaining to specifications and rates relative to reducing pollution of air, water and soil. Four Annexes were included with relevant interest to the protection of the atmosphere (Article 1), these are: – Annex 11: Maximum value allowed for the emissions of air pollutants resulting for used burned oils; – Annex 12: Maximum value allowed for the emissions of air pollutants resulting from domestic waste incineration; – Annex 13: Maximum value allowed for the emissions of air pollutants emitted from cement factories; – Annex 14: Maximum value allowed for ambient air pollutants. The Law 6603 (issued 1995, Ministry of Environment) defines in its article 1 the conditions for use of large vehicles (trucks), buses, diesel operating vehicles, in addition to monitoring the acceptable average and quality for smoke emissions. This law defines the maximum allowed main pollutants emitted by these vehicles according to the following rates: Type of pollutants Maximum allowed Carbon monoxide 10 mg/m3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide 0.1 mg/m3 Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Hydrocarbures 0.16 mg/m3 Hydrocarbres (HC) Smoke 0.075 mg/m3 smoke (TSP) Also the article 2 of the same law defines Diesel specifications as follows: – sulfur should not exceed 0.5%; – Lead free; – Water free; – Residues free. Decision 15/1, 2000 (amending decision 23/1, 1995) pertaining to banning the use and import of vehicle fire extinguishers containing halons. Currently, work is proceeding on promulgating decisions pertaining to licensing system for import and export, banning importing equipment containing ODS, and specifically CFCs.
An EIA decree is currently under preparation by the Unit of Planning and Programming, a World Bank project executed at the Ministry of Environment. This decree would indirectly contribute to the protection of the atmosphere by regulating industrial and development projects to take place and requiring appropriate mitigation measures for the implementation of any plant inducing air pollution. An EIA chapter is provided in the Code of the Environment. The project for Strengthening the Permitting and Auditing System for Industries (SPASI) is aiming at strengthening the permitting, monitoring and auditing system for industries through the development of necessary legislation and the introduction of adequate tools. In this respect, environmental quality standards will be prepared as one of the objectives set by the project.
SPASI is funded by EU-LIFE Third Countries, managed by UNDP and executed at the Ministry of Environment. Finally, the Code of the Environment (that is still in the Parliament for review since 1998) proposed by the Ministry of Environment stipulates in the Chapter 2- Section 14 the mechanisms needed for environmental monitoring on the regulatory and technical aspects. Chapter 5, section one, puts in place the basis for establishing national standards, adopting measures for reducing consumption and importing items and gases listed in the annexes pertaining to the conventions ratified by Lebanon, developing alternatives to fuel, conserving and developing green cover, in addition to enforcement rules and regulations. Proposals to amend Law 6603 suggests incentives and measures such as adopting lower prices for unleaded fuel prices compared to leaded fuel. Regulatory measures would include the obligatory use of catalytic converters, annual inspections of car exhausters, etc. Decision-Making: Strategies, Policies and Plans A national GHG mitigation strategy has been elaborated by the team of experts of the Climate Change Project (GEF/UNDP funded project) in 1999, and introduced in the Technical Annex to Lebanons First National Communication Report to UNFCCC, which assesses and evaluates in details feasible options for GHG emission reduction in the following sectors: – Electricity supply; – Building sector relative to building equipment and energy use industry; – Transportation sector; – Forestry sector; and – Waste sector.
The above-mentioned strategy includes small, medium and large term goals. Conserving and increasing greenhouse gas sinks; The establishment of protected areas and increasing the vegetation cover is a main priority of the Ministry of Environments programme for the following years. In addition, all reforestation activities and initiatives undertaken by NGOs and local communities are highly supported. Mitigating ozone depletion; The following programme was developed based on the overall strategy of Montreal Protocol: Phase I: 1998-2000: Total ODS phase out in aerosol industries; Total ODS phase out in foam industries; Total ODS phase out in production of commercial and industrial refrigeration industries; Implementation of reduction, recovery and recycling programme during refrigeration and commercial units maintenance. Implementation of Methyl Bromide alternatives Demonstration Project.
Phase II: 2001-2003: Total phase out in production of commercial refrigeration and foam sectors. Retrofitting of all commercial and industrial refrigeration units, Continuation of the reduction, recovery and recycling programme Implementation of Methyl Bromide Investment Projects. Halon Bank. Rules, bans and regulations. Phase III: 2003-2005: Progressive decrease of ODS due to the reduction in the number of mobile air conditioners and household refrigerators using CFCs (20% less per year) Total phase out of ODS Monitoring and evaluation.
The Methyl Bromide Alternative Demonstration Project was an outcome of the Ozone Office. Managed by UNDP and executed at the Ministry of Environment, the project aims at demonstrating the efficacy of various chemical and non-chemical methods as technical and economical alternatives to methyl bromide. The non-chemical methods include the soil solarization, bio-fumigation, and use of resistant varieties where available. A national strategy to implement methyl bromide will be formulated at a last phase of the project implementation upon obtaining of all results of the demonstration sites. The proposed scenarios were elaborated based on 1994 data.
Two plans were proposed (1) a short term plan (1994-2004) and (2) the long term plan (2005- 2040). These projections are linked to what the government has announced in terms of policies and priorities, e.g. commitment to full restoration of the generation, transmission and distribution networks. The project outcomes will be sustained through the network of focal points that encompass all concerned ministries and institutions. Another project the Top-Up Project for Climate Change will assist in reinforcing this step by assessing the technology needs required to assess greenhouse gas emissions in the different sectors.
The implemented strategy in Lebanon is the overall strategy adopted by Montreal Protocol in phase of ODS consumption and production (Lebanons mandate is based on regulating the consumption patterns since the Country is not a producer). This strategy which is implemented by the Ozone Office (GEF/UNDP), a programme executed at the Ministry of Environment, includes among others formulation of required law …