Napoleon

Napoleon From 1800-1815 one man held the center of the European stage. Coming to the head of affairs in a France stirred to its depths by tremendous upheaval of the Revolution, Napolean Bonaparte was able for fifteen years to direct France back to its feet. For about ten years he met with continual success and displayed combinations of military and adminisrative which has probably never been equalled. In the end he was destroyed by the same force that had brought him into his high power (the force of national patriotism), that from 1800-1808 made the armies of France unstoppable, but from 1808-1815 raised up, first in Spain, then in Austria, Russia, and finally in Germany. Napolean was the first Consul of France. The Constitution of the Year 1800 provided for three consuls and a tribunate and legislative body designated by the Senate from the general election list.The first Consul ran the administrative and foreign policies, was in charge of the army, and proposed all the laws. This Consul was the real power.

Napoleon was this Consul. Napoleon immediately gave all his attention to the foreign problem of the Second Coalition. Napoleon got Russia to withdraw and revive an Armed Neutrality against Great Britain.Napolean’s win at Marengo in Italy and Moreau’s win at Hohenlinden in Germany forced Austria to sue for peace.

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The Treaty of Luneville in 1801 strengthened Campo Formio. Even though Great Britain had won the Battle of the Nile in 1798 and had broken up the Amed Neutrality in 1801, she couldn’t conquer France, so she signed the Treaty of Amiens in 1801, which was really only a truce. With the foreign problems settled for now, Napoleon turned his attention to internal reforms. The reforms under the Consulate are the most permanent of all Napoleon’s contributions.Napoleon guarenteed equal rights, equal justice, equal opportunity, and the continued abolition of privilege.

It was only in the political sphere that Napoleon dinied liberty. The government was completely centralized with its division of departments, arrondissements, and prefects making its officials directly responsible to the central government at Paris.

Napoleon

Evaluate Napoleon – Was he a success or a failure? Support your thesis with five well-developed examples. Despite his Italian origin and short stature, Napoleon Bonaparte rose to become not only the greatest leader of France but also one of the most innovative and successful military commanders in all history. The emperor was beloved by his military and respected by his citizenry.

After his education at Brienne and cole Militarie, Napoleon initiated his military career as an artillery officer. Eight years later he became a brigadier general with the success of the recovering of the port of Toulon from England, thus holding the power to control hundreds of soldiers at the youthful age of 24.At the Battle of Austerlitz, Napoleon demonstrated his overpowering military tactic of “Divide and Conquer.” Through the use this technique, Napoleon was able to overcome the far more massive and far more powerful armies of Russia and Austria. This tactic dictates that the army must separate the enemy into two or more groups but fight as one distinct army.

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In this way, Napoleon defeated two larger armies causing the enemy to have many more casualties than his own military.Napoleon along with his colleagues overthrew the French government and helped to establish the Consulate where he would be seated as the first consul. The Consulate served to abolish hereditary privilege, which many of the Revolutionaries fought sought. After the abolition of the Consulate and the establishment of the Napoleonic Code Napoleon stated, “without distinction of birth or fortune” would anyone ever receive a political position. Rather, citizens would receive consideration for positions of high office based solely on merit.

Also, under the new law, everyone was equal. In this way Napoleon was successful; for, the Third Estate was pleased in that their goals for the Revolution and the Cahiers de Dolences were finally redressed. However, Napoleon upset those of noble blood, because, rather than simply inheriting a position, they would now have to compete with hose of lower class in order to assume the office.The soldiers under Napoleon most definitely appreciated the empire and its military conquest. Upon his return from exile on Elba, Napoleon was marked an outlaw by the Congress of Vienna. The Congress and the restored French monarchy ordered that Napoleon be apprehended by the French military; however, Napoleon’s soldiers remained loyal to their former commander.

Instead of seizing the outlaw, the soldiers returned the emperor to his throne, executing Louis XVIII.The loyalty expressed by the soldiers is similar to the situation in which the army under Napoleon was suffering great losses in Russia. Rather than risking the loss of their military commander in their own flight, Napoleon’s elite French guard, on horseback, sacrificed themselves to the oncoming Russian attack to protect their leader in escape.Overall, because Napoleon suffered defeat due to one erroneous decision, to continue through Russia, despite the approaching winter, he is often considered a failure; however, this military genius intercepted France from its downward spiral towards oblivion and restored it to a world power and a military threat. All of these tasks were completed with the loyalty of the military and the respect of the people.

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