Mozart “The classical period produced more instrumental than vocal music, a wealth of serious and comic operas as well as vocal religious music also appeared during this time”(Ferris, 231). One of the best composer of this time was Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In this paper I will go through his childhood, his friends and family, and of course his music. Enjoy!!! Child of the Enlightenment The world that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart entered ceremoniously in 1756 was brimming in change. Historians refer to this era as the Age of Enlightenment, one of unparalleled scientific, philosophical, and political ferment.Within Mozarts lifetime it set in motion forces that would fundamentally alter life not only in his native, Salzburg, but also around the globe. The Enlightenment was not, to be sure, a democratic movement.

In France, the absolutism of the Sun King, Louis XIV, continued under Louis XV and XVI. But in Austria, Empress Maria Theresa introduced a greater measure of tolerance and freedom among her subjects, laying a foundation for the democratic revolutions that followed. Wolfgangs father Leopold came from a family of Augsburg bookbinders. He received a solid Jesuit education, more intellectual than evangelical after a year at the Benedictine University in nearby Salzburg; Leopold stopped attending classes to pursue a career as a musician.”Leopold figured as Mozarts most important first model.

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He taught his son the clavier and composition”(Mercardo 763). Wolfgangs mother Anna-Maria brought as much talent to her 32-year marriage as did Leopold. Though deprived of a formal education, she was highly intelligent and quick-witted qualities that attracted the sober and reserved Leopold. Only two of their seven children survived infancy.Wolfgangs musically talented sister Nannerl was five years older.

Yet in this painting, the 12-year- old looks like a spinster of seventycomplete with budding double chin. Wolfgang, too, looks far older than his 7 years, and controls the action from his place at its center. The Child Prodigy Indeed, Mozart marks the beginning of the Western fascination with the child prodigy. Dressed in the festive outfit given Wolfgang in 1762 by the Empress Maria Theresa, this boy of not quite seven years old looks, for all the world, like a miniature adult who has simply skipped childhood. “Mozart was keenly aware of his exceptional ability, which had been fostered and rutted in him by his father from a very early age”(Schroter). Other nineteenth-century artists represented Wolfgangvariously said to be anywhere from 11 to 14 as a curly-locked angel.For them, how else could the divine music that poured out of a child-size body be explained? The idealization of Mozarts genius was complete by the end of the nineteenth century. Mozart composes with his violin in one hand and music has appeared miraculously on his stand in the other.

The message is unmistakable: “Mortals use quills, Mozart simply wills”(Solomon) On the Road The temptation to take his two prodigies on the road proved irresistible to Leopold, who assumed sole responsibility for Mozarts education. Between 1762 and 1766, the Mozarts appeared at almost every major court in Europe. Wolfgang dazzled audiences with his ability to read difficult music at sight and to improvise.

In London, as elsewhere, the Mozarts hobnobbed with the leading musicians. Probably the most important of these was Johann Christian Bach, the youngest son of Johann Sebastian. It is no accident that Mozarts early symphonies, composed in London, are often stylistically indistinguishable from those of J. C.

Bach. When Mozart was 13, his prowess as a keyboard player, violinist, improviser, and composer were already legendary. “When Mozart was 21 he wrote “Paris” Symphony, N31 while he was in Paris looking for a music position.He was thoroughly disenchanted with the French and their music”(Internet). From 1768 to 1775, between stays in Salzburg, he and Leopold made three further forays to Italy and Germany.

Wolfgang evolved from a prodigy into a serious composer. Public Successes A self-confident Mozart assured his father in 1782 that he would be able to support a wife and family in Vienna, As a result which he called “Clavierland. Of its earlier devastation, the dominant architectural style in Vienna is Baroque, aided in the 1700s by an influx of Italian sculptors, stucco workers, and painters. The dominant architect and architectural historian was Italian-trained Johann Fischer von Erlach(1656-1723), whose densely decorated structures still stand out today.” He planned to achieve this by writing music for the public: operas, symphonies, and concertos featuring himself as pianist.Although public performances were less frequent than today, they were for that reason on a more lavish scale.

Of a set of piano concertos, Mozart commented “There are passages here and there from which the connoisseurs alone can derive sattisfaction; but these passages are written in such a way that the less learned cannot fail to be pleased, though without knowing why”(Solomon 293). In spite of intrigues raised against him, Mozart managed to present The Abduction from the Seraglio in 1782. Of its success, he wrote proudly to his father:”People are crazy about this opera, and it does me good to hear such applause.” For the first few seasons, Mozart enjoyed an intoxicating popularity among the Viennese. In a series of academies attended by almost 300 supporters and patrons, he unveiled a string of masterful piano concertos.Emboldened by his success, he moved his family to the best part of town.

Mozart tried to take advantage of the emerging entrepreneurial opportunities in Vienna. Four of his operasThe Abduction from the Seraglio(1782), The Marriage of Figaro(1786), Don Giovanni(1787), and Cos fan tutte(1790) were premiered or performed in the prestigious Burgtheater. But the Viennese were not disposed to settle on one composer for long, even one whose talents dwarfed those of all others. Figarobegun in October 1785, only nine months after the completion of the C-major String Quartetprovides an instructive example. The play by Beaumarchais had been banned shortly after its Parisian premiere in 1784.By 1787, Mozarts star in Vienna had begun to set. In Peter Shafers play Amadeus, Mozarts failures are attributed to an infantile personality and the intrigues of court composer Antonio Salieri.

But there is no evidence that either of these wonderful dramatic conceits were true historically. Indeed, Mozart and Salieri were on cordial terms. Papa Haydn We do not know the occasion on which Mozart first encountered Joseph Haydn, though it was almost certainly around 1781, possibly at one of the gatherings organized by Baron von Swieten to hear the music of J.S. Bach. At 50, Haydn was twice Mozarts age.

By now he was also at least twice as well known. Mozart had known Haydns music for at least ten years. In Haydn he not only found a composer whose achievements were on a level with his own, but a warm and sympathetic friend in whom he could confide.This contrasted strongly with the strained relationship that Mozart enjoyed with his father. In the autumn of 1791, Mozarts health became progressively worse, and he was subject to fits of depression and presentiments of death. However, he worked feverishly to complete the Clarinet Concerto, K.622, and the Masonic Cantata and was trying to finish the Requiem.

He died on December 5, 1791, and was buried in a paupers grave”Viennese society where to blame for Mozarts lack of recognition, slow demise, and interment in a paupers grave”(Braunbehrers). The unfinished Requiem, which Mozart imagined was for himself, is numbered K.626. “His body was gone, but his magnificent music-symphonies, opera, duos, trios, quartet, violon concertos, piano concertos, vocal and choral works praising God, happiness, and all of life-lives forever”(Mirsky144) Listening example: Mozart 1 symphony (K.16) was written at the age of nine.

His symphonic compositions culminate in the “Jupiter” written in 1788 when Mozart was 32. His earlier symphonies seem to give greatest importance to the first movement. In the “Jupiter” Mozart build toward the finale with passages in a fugal style as the grand climax after the minuet (3rd Movement) Composer: W.A. Mozart Title: Jupiter Symphony Key: C Meter: In threes Form: A B A (Minuet and Trio) Terms to Review: Enlightenment: A philosophical movement of the eighteenth century that placed primary faith in the power of mankind to solve chronic problems through the application of reason and scientific method rather than faith and speculation. The Enlightenment anticipated democratic revolutions, but took place under political monarchies.

As a child of the Enlightenment, Mozart considered himself a member of the natural aristocracy but was anything but a democrat.Violin: The highest and the most glamorous member of the string family, pitched a fifth above the viola. In a string quartet, both of the treble instruments are violins. One who plays the violin (however well or badly) is known as a “violinist.” If you are contemplating taking up a string instrument and fame is your goal, then the violin is your first choice. Mozart, Leopold: (1719-1787) Father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Leopold served over four decades as a court musician to five archbishops of Salzburg.

In 1756, the year that Wolfgang was born, he published the first edition of his Violin School, which soon brought him international fame. In 1800, more than a dozen years after Leopolds death, his treatise was still being reprinted. As Wolfgangs only formal teacher, he exercised a pivotal influence on his sons development.

Opera: A drama set to music. Opera was the dominant form of Western public music from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries, parallel in importance to our modern cinema. Baroque: Period in musical history extending from ca.

1600 to 1750. The music of the late Baroque (ca. 1690 to 1750) is best known today. Its major representatives were Johann Sebastian Bach in Germany, Georg Friderich Handel (another German) in England, Antonio Vivaldi in Italy, and Jean-Philippe Rameau in France.

Mozart was born as the late Baroque drew to a close.As an adult, he came to know and admire the music of Bach and Handel. Piano Concerto: One of the public forms of instrumental music cultivated by Mozart in Vienna. Mozart can, for all practical purposes, be credited with the invention of the Classical piano concerto. Antonio Salieri: Italian composer (1750-1825) who spent most of his career in Vienna and became one of its most influential musicians. So fond was the emperor, Joseph II, of Salieri that he became known as the “musical pope.” Salieri was first and foremost an opera composer, though a considerably less innovative one than Mozart.

Both Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert studied with Salieri. Joseph Haydn: Austrian composer (1732-1809) whose eighteenth-century fame eclipsed that of Mozart. Unlike Mozart, Haydn was a relatively late bloomer, composing most of his important music after the age of 35 (at which age Mozart was dead).Haydn played a seminal role in the development of the symphony and the string quartet. His friendship with Mozart from ca. 1781 on was crucial to the musical development of both composers.

Summary: The world that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart entered unceremoniously in 1756 was awash in change. Historians refer to this era as the Age of Enlightenment.Indeed, Mozart marks the beginning of the Western fascination with the child prodigy. The idealization of Mozarts genius was complete by the end of the nineteenth century. Between 1762 and 1766, the Mozarts appeared at almost every major court in Europe. Wolfgang dazzled audiences with his ability to read difficult music at sight and to improvise Four of his operasThe Abduction from the Seraglio(1782), The Marriage of Figaro(1786), Don Giovanni(1787), and Cos fan tutte(1790) were premiered or performed in the prestigious Burgtheater.

Then Mozart met Haydn; we do not know the occasion on which Mozart first encountered Joseph Haydn. In Haydn, he not only found a composer whose achievements were on a level with his own, but a warm and sympathetic friend in whom he could confide.In the autumn of 1791, Mozarts health became progressively worse. He died on December 5, 1791, and was buried in a paupers grave.


Mozart Mozart was born on January 27th, 1756. He was born to Leopold and Anna Maria Mozart.

He had a sister named Maria Anna Mozart, who was also musically talented. Mozart was a young boy who showed talent from the beginning of his life. He never attended a proper school, which was a custom for children of that time.Instead of going to school, he was taught by his father who was a respectable man in Salzburg. His father held many professions such as concertmaster for the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg; violinist, composer and author. At the age of six, Mozart had become a performer on the clavier, violin, and organ. He was also skilled in sight-reading and improvisation. There are have piano pieces that were composed by Mozart when he was six years old and are still frequently played today.

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One of the pieces are Twinkle Twinkle. When he’s sister was at the age of ten and he at the age of six, their father took them to Munich and Vienna to play a series of concerts. In 1763, Leopold Mozart took a leave from his position at Salzburg court to take his family on a tour of Western Europe. Mozart and his sister performed in the major musical centers, including Stuttgart, Mannheim, Mainz, Frankfurt, Brussels, Paris, London, and Amsterdam. The family did not return to Salzburg until 1766.During that period of time touring, Mozart began to compose longer pieces with more structure and skill in them. He completed his first symphony at the age of nine and publishing his first sonatas in the same year. In 1769, Mozart and his father left the rest of the family to tour Italy for more than a year.

They spent sufficient time in Rome, Milan, Florence, Naples, and Bologna. Mozart got to experience the taste of another culture. During those years, Wolfgang completed an opera called Ro di Ponto, which was celebrated in Italy. The same year, Mozart was appointed concertmaster to the Archbishop of Salzburg, and later in the same here, the Pope made him a chevalier of the Order of the Golden Spur.

He also completed his first German operetta called, Bastien une Bastienne, in the same year. At the age of fourteen, Mozart was commissioned to write a serious opera. This work was called, Mitridate, re di Ponto. While Mozart was touring in Italy, the Archbishop of Salzburg died, and Hieronymus, count von Colleredo was the successor. This man cared little for music, and looked down upon Mozart.After five years of composing music for almost no money, Mozart obtained a leave of absence for a concert tour. In 177, he left with his mother for Munich. The courts of Europe ignored the twenty-one year old composer in his search for a more congenial and rewarding appointment.

This was hard for Mozart, and at the same period of time his mother fell ill. His father, Leopold order his wife and Mozart to go to Paris.In Paris on July 1779, his mother died.

He returned to Salzburg in 1779 and composed two masses and numerous symphonies, sonatas, and concertos. His work started to gain a unique style, and a completely mature understanding of musical media. In 1781, Mozart has a success of an Italian opera series called, Idomeneo, re di Creta, prompted the new successor to the Archbishop of Salzburg to invite Mozart to his palace in Vienna. A series of court intrigues and his exploitation at the hands of the court soon forced Mozart to leave.

Friends rented the house in Vienna for him, Mozart hoped to sustain him by teaching. During this time, he composed a singspiel called, The Adduction from Seraglio, which was requested by Emperor Joseph the Second in 1782. When the Mozart family made their tip to Italy in 1769, they were introduced to the Webers.

Franz Weber was a musician from Austria, living in Italy. He has a wife and two children who were named Constanze and Aloysia. Mozart loved this family, but his father disliked them for some reason.

Mozart’s father didn’t want Mozart to be around this family, but Mozart dismissed his father’s wishes for and consorted with the two girls often. Being old enough to go off on his own, the trips made to Italy were partly because of the Weber girls. After many letters between Mozart and the Weber girls, Mozart decided to ask Aloysia Weber for her hand in marriage. Mozart’s father was furious at him and saying that the Weber girls would bring nothing but grief to his son, grief to his whole family. Mozart didn’t care about what his father said and asked Aloysia to marry him, and she said yes.

The wedding day of Aloysia and Mozart came along, and many people came to the ceremony; including Aloysia’s sister Constanze, and Mozart’s father who came against his wishes. The wedding was looked like it could have gone perfect until Aloysia rejected the issued vows. Mozart was embarrassed, more so because his father had been proven right than because of his personal losses.

For many years the Weber and Mozart families did not speak to each other. A year after the marriage incident, Mozart beings to once again visit the family, who have now moved to Vienna.On December 15th, 1781 Mozart informs his father on his marriage plans, and his father was enraged. He never liked his son’s acquaintance with the Webers. Mozart thinks his father is being unfair about the whole matter, and leaves Salzburg for Vienna to be married.

On August 4th, 1782 Mozart marries Aloysia in St. Stephen’s Cathedral. Mozart’s father refuses his son’s invitation to the wedding, so does Aloysia. The couple moved into a house in Vienna together and had six children, two of which survived.The two surviving children were named Franz Xavier, and Karl Thomas Mozart.

Sickness and poverty plague the family until the day of Mozart’s death. Seven years after Mozart’s death, Constanze married another man. Mozart and his family moved often in Vienna. Prior to his marriage, Mozart moved to the house called, Zum roten Sabel, where he had lived as a twelve-year old. A few months later, he lived at Wipplingerstrasse 14, at Kohlmarkt 7, and at Judenplatz 3-4.

In 1784, Mozart moved to one of the most representative houses in Vienna called, Trattnerhof. At the ceremonial hall of the Trattnerhof house, Mozart’s piano concertos K449, 450, and 451 were premiered. Mozart’s only home in Vienna preserved until today is the Figarohaus, which is located behind St. Stephen’s Cathedral. Mozart lived there from October 1784 until April 1787. It’s where he played his most mature compositions.

Joseph Haydn paid visited here; Mozart dedicated six string quartets to him.Mozart Becomes a Freemason In December 1784, Mozart became an apprentice in the Masonic lodge called, Zur Wohltatigkeit. In this lodge, he became a visiting brother. After a month, he became a journeyman.

His Masonic compositions are his contributions to certain Masonic celebrations. From January 1786, Mozart was a member of the lodge called, Zur Neugekronten Hoffnung.The Death of a Genius: Mozart was an extremely talented man who died at a very young age. Many different rumors were circulated about his death. Many of people even accused his long time rival Aontonio Salieri of murder. These allegations were not pursued, but to this day, no one knows the cause of his death. Some scientists say that he had Typhoid fever, others claim that rheumatic inflammatory fever was the cause of his death; but the secret of his death will never are known.The key to Mozart’s death was buried with him on December 5th, 1791, in an unmarked grave, as was customary for those of his social standing, in Vienna.

Maria Anna Nannerl Mozart: Born: Salzburg, July 30/31 1751 Died: Salzburg, October 29, 1829 Maria was a gifted musician whose abilities were quickly overshadowed by her younger brother, Mozart. At first, Maria was seen as the musical equivalent of Wolfgang, half of a sister-brother act that toured the capitals of Europe. In 1765 in London, she received top billing in concert advertisements written by her father. That changed when the children grew older. Because Mozart was the younger of the two, and because he preformed his own compositions, Mozart became the star and Nannerl the supporting player. Mozart thought highly of his sister’s ability.

In September 1781 he wrote to her from Vienna: ..believe me, you could earn a great deal of money in Vienna, by playing private concerts and giving piano lessons. You would be very much in demand — and you would be well paid. But it was not to be. Nannerl indeed became a piano teacher, but in this dull Salzburg, as she called it. In the wake of her brother’s perceived rebellion, she surrendered control of her life to her father — even her choice of suitors who, one by one, were turned away by Leopold.In 1784, she married the magistrate John Baptist Franz von Berchtold zu Sonnenburg and moved to St.

Gilgen; but she returned to Salzburg to give birth to her first son, and left the newborn there in Leopold’s care. Nannerl eventually grew more distant from Mozart, especially after his marriage to Constanze Weber. Their next time they met where after Leopold’s death, there affections for each other had all disappeared. Mozart’s brief letters to her dealt almost exclusively with the disposition of their father’s estate. After her husband’s death, Maria Anna returned to Salzburg and supported herself once again by giving piano lessons. When she died she was buried in the family plot next to Leopold where 13 years later Constanze would join her.

Leopold Mozart: Born: Augsburg, November 14, 1719 Died: Salzburg, May 28, 1787 History has not been nice to Leopold Mozart.Biographers criticize him for being an overprotective and exploitative parent. Psychoanlysis detected a darker pattern of manipulation in Leopold’s relationship with his children, especially his relationship with his son. On stage and screen, scriptwriters present a picture of a narrow-minded, domineering old man. On Whit Monday the 28th, in the year 1787, early, died our Vice Kapellmeister Leopold Mozart, wrote family friends Dominicus Hagenauer in his diary. He was born at Augsburg and spent most of the days of his life in the service of the Court here, but had the misfortune of being always persecuted here and was not as much favored by a long way as in other, larger places in Europe.

Musicologists are less willing to criticize Leopold. If his famous son had not overshadowed him, he would still be remembered as a talented composer and a gifted teacher.His treatise on musical instruction, Volinschule, was first published in 1756, eventually translated into several languages and became a standard test throughout Europe. He was also Mozart’s first and most influential mentor. Everything he knew, he taught to his son.

Leopold was born on November 14, 1719, the son of Johann Georg Mozart who was a bookbinder, and his wife, Anna Maria, in the city of Augsburg. Leopold received his early education from the Jesuits in the Gymnasium and Lyceum. He may have been destined for a career in the church; but he abandoned it upon the death of his father and in 1737 enrolle …


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