.. 993 report by the American Psychological Association stated: – Viewing violence increases fear of becoming a Victim of violence, with an increase in self- Protective behavior and an increase in mistrust. – Viewing violence increases desensitization to Violence, resulting in callused attitudes Toward violence. – Violent programming increases the viewers Appetite for becoming involved or exposing Themselves to violence.
Not only is the mentality of the child affect but also the physical conditions of the viewer (Bok 54). The basic physical needs of children such as developing healthy hearts and lungs are directly endangered by the number of hours spent in front of the television set (Bok 54).The more time a child spends watching television the more likely they are to be overweight and in poor physical condition (Bok 54).
Since television is frequently used by parents as a babysitting device there is a lack of interaction between child and parent (Ledingham 1993). On average between 1960 and 1992 children lost ten to twelve hours per week of parental time (Bok 54). Children who are more closely identified with either parent they are less aggressive, when a child is given the opportunity to spend quality time with their parents their level of aggression is reduced (Leone pg.41). A clear-cut answer would be to eliminate violent programming from television, yet violence sells (Leone 26).From the business prospective violence sells and the more viewers means higher ratings (Leone 26).
This is especially the case during prime time, within one hour you can witness 8 -12 acts of violence (Leone 26). This is not just the case for adult programming. The Annenberg School of Communications found that violence in children’s programming is at an all time high, with 32 acts of violence per hour (Leone 26) A clear-cut casual relationship is beyond the realms of social science; there are too many factors to come to a definite answer (Leone 54). Though the abundance of circumstantial evidence points to a damaging relationship (Leone 54).Professor Centerwald of the University of Washington predicted that is television was never invented there would be 10,000 few homicides, 70,000 fewer rapes and 700,000 fewer assaults in the U.S. (Leone 54). Video Games Within the years prior to adolescence, changes in their cognitive functioning changes the child’s ability of understand and decipher situations in the media (Herr 292).
Before the age of eight a child is most likely to interpret situations based on the obvious face value (Herr 292). For younger children contextual variables appear important in determining the impact of the exposure to violence (Herr 292). When violent actions are either rewarded or not punished, which is the case in electronic games, the probability of imitating the behavior increases (Herr 293). Electronic games differ from other forms of media in that they are interactive, repetitive and there is a reward (Herr 293).Especially in the recent years computer and other such electronic games have become quite popular (Smith 56). There have been many concerns brought up about the influence of these games and whether or not the games should be censored. In order to aid parents in determining whether or not a specific program was suitable for their child, a rating system was developed (Herr 296): Commercial for Electronic Games Category Description Early Childhood (EC) Titles rated EC are suitable for children ages three Older and do not contain any material that parents Would find inappropriate.
Kids to Adult (K-A) Titles rated K-A are suitable for persons ages six And older. These titles will appeal to people many Ages and tastes.They may contain minimal Violence, some comic mischief, or some crude Language. General Audience (GA) This designation indicates the content is suitable For all ages. Teen (T) Titles rated T are suitable for persons aged 13 And older. Titles may contain violent content, mild Or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. Mature (M) Titles rated M are suitable for persons aged 17 and Older.These products may contain more intense acts Of violence or language.
In addition, these titles include Mature sexual themes. Adults Only (AO) Titles rated AO are suitable for adults only. These products May contain graphic depictions of sex and violence. Not Intended to be sold or rented to persons under the age Of 18.There have been two prominent theories which have been stated in relationship to the effects of violence. The Catharis Hypothesis was developed by Feshbach and Singer (Singer 367). This theory says that by viewing violent programming the individual is able to release previously built up tension an anger (Singer 367).
This theory explains why people take pleasure in viewing brutal violent acts, though they never would commit such actions they view it as to test their reaction to mortal danger without actual risk (Bok 28). Another theory which is widely accepted is the one developed by Percy Tannenbaum and Leonard Berkowitz.The Stimulating Effect, states that exaggerated violence and an increase in emotional arousal cause and aggressive behaviour, and the presense of weapons will heighten arousal (Singer 367). Though both theories are widely acknowledged, researchers tend to aggree with the later of the two (Singer 367).
Conclusion Throughout the world cultural, social and economic patterns of transformation are now driven by communications technology (Dyson 142). Never before have children been targeted as a lucrative market for entertainment violence (Bok 25). Turn on your T.V. virtually anytime during the day and you can bring a carnival of murder, mayhem and bloodshed into your living room (Leone 25).
The nineteenth and twentieth centuries were teaming with murders and mayhem, yet when violence involves people against people, it challenges peoples ideas around the subject of violence (Russell 103).In regard to the effects of media violence on children and young adults, such works challenge our instinctive denial of our most primative layers of fear and aggression (Bok 28). Bibliography and Consulted Bok, Sissela. Mayhem. Massachusetts: Perseus Books.
1998. Dyson, Rose A. Mind Abuse:Media Violence in an Information Age. Montreal: Black Rose Books. 2000.Herr, Kathryn G., ed.
Electronic Games:Violence is in the Eye of the Beholder. Ohio: Sage Publications Inc. 1993. Ledingham, Jane E. The Effects of Television on Children.
Ottawa: National Clearinghouse on Family Violence and Prevention Division. 1993. Leone, Bruce. Violence in the Media. San Diego: Greenhouse Press.
1995. Morse, Jodie. Ne year Later: Can We prevent another Columbine?. [www.newsweek.
com] 24 April 2000. Rosenblatt, Roger. Works of the Trench Coat. [www.
newsweek.com] 2000.Russell, Nick. Morals and the Media: Ethics in Canadian Journalism. Vancouver: UBC Press. 1995. Singer, Benjamin D.
ed. Communications in Canadian Society.Toronto: International Thomson Pub.
1995. Smith, Nigel. Violence in Society. Turin: Wayland Publishers Limited.1995.