Julius Caesar was the self-elected dictator of Rome in 44 B.C, for only one year, before being killed. He was born on the 13th of Quintilis, which is now July in 100 BC to Gaius Caesar, which became part of his full name, Gaius Julius Caesar. When Caesar was born, the city of Rome was flourishing, becoming a rich culture, and an advanced form of government. When Caesar was born, the government was a democracy.Nobility governed the state. Nobles were people who claimed consuls or other high officers as their ancestors.
Caesars birth was very interesting. His mother did not have a vaginal birth, but had the first Caesarian C-section, hence the name C-section.
Caesar was born into a well-bred family called the Julian clan. As he started to grow up, he understood that his family was important and that he had to appreciate the historical importance of the parents claim, of being of a Noble birth. Since he was a noble child, he was to take his fathers place in Romes government.
Until the age of seven, Caesar was in the care of his mother. His education was done at home in his big, elegant home. There he was taught the traditional Roman way of living. Some of the things he was taught were endurance, sympathy for others, religion, and the right way of doing things. He was also told a story about Roman war heroes and through that was taught to respect the achievements of his Uncle Marius, a general and a senator.
When Julius Caesar was seven, he attended a public school in the towns business district. The school was a very hard school Caesar had to memorize and dictate back to his teacher many things with the threat of being beaten if he made a mistake. He had to memorize Roman law, and had to learn how to be a public speaker.
Julius Caesar was popular in school, making friends with many of the other noble students. He was also very interested in his fathers work. He would always go to political events with his father. When he went, he learned on how the Roman government worked. This would help Caesar when he would eventually take over the Roman Empire.
When Caesar was 15, the king of Rome, Marius died and Lucius Cornelius Cinna replaced him. Caesar had made strong connections with him through the family marriage alliance. Then, in 85 BC, Caesars dad died and Caesar had to become the ruler of the house. Caesar was offered to become a religious man by the rest of the clan, but he wanted to go with a political life instead of a religious life. He then made the first step in becoming politically involved.
In 84 BC, Caesar married Cornelia, the daughter of Cinna. It wasnt the best move he had ever made because his political career ended before it started when his father-in-law, a very important ruler of the Roman counsel, died by his own solders. When this happened a new leader was self-elected called Sulla, who initiated a reign of terror.
A list of the citys enemies was posted in the middle of the town. Sulla believed that anybody who had political status and owned land was a threat to him. Caesar, according to those standards, was a threat. Caesar was spared of being killed because he was young and inexperienced. Sulla did however force him to divorce Cinna and marry someone in the political system. Caesar denied the decree, however, and was forced to become a fugitive with some other slaves and he ran to the Italian hills.
His mother talked to the officials and was won the assurance that allowed Caesar to come back safely, on one condition; however. He had to go before Sulla, which was a terrifying experience for the 19-year-old boy. Sulla started to criticize the way Caesar dressed and took care of his hair. Nevertheless, Caesar became a free man again and made a good decision to stay out of his way.
Caesar was then assigned a position to help rule over Asia. As soon as he got there, he was given a very important position, because he was a Nobel son. He was to go to a northern Rome client state called Bithynia. There he was treated like royalty and invited to a banquet with the king of Bithynia, where he made a terrible mistake that would stick with him forever.
At the banquet, Caesar wanted to make a joke by acting like he was a cupbearer, (which were normally young, homosexuals) of the king. It was considered to be improper for a Nobel boy to behave that way. It also showed that Caesar was being ignorant. Caesar did not intent to behave this way, and he did not know that it was wrong. One of Caesars political enemies took the upper hand in the situation and called him every womans husband and every mans wife.
Then, Caesar was given a new assignment, where he saw his first glimpse of battle. He did great, for his first time, because he was awarded somewhat of a congressional metal of honor, or in the Rome, a wreath crown. We dont know why he was given the medal. When he received the crown and when he wore it, people were supposed to stand as he walked by. Caesar was also allowed to sit next to the senate members whenever there was a sporting event.
In 78 BC, Sulla had died and Caesar then came back to Rome. When he got back, the government was debating what kind of government to be used next. Caesar wanted no part in the debate. What he wanted to do was to practice public speaking by accusing people of the town of crimes and to prosecute them in court.
In 77 BC, Caesar charged the former governor of Macedonia, of having money he demanded from people of his province. The base of the trial was to gain exposure and to make friends with the Macedonian people. Caesar got partially what he wanted. His speech was so effective, that the Romans published it.
Still, Caesar was not convinced that his public speaking was good enough to begin a political life, so he went off to a Roman island called Rhodes. During the trip, pirates captured him. He paid the ransom they wanted and came back with men and started a surprise attack where he had the Pirates killed.
Caesar finished the journey to Rhodes and learned to be a better speaker. He then heard that his mothers cousin, a member of the counsel, had died. His seat in the senate had been left open for Caesar, who took the job and came home.
Soon after he came home, the government was debating what kind of government they should have, but Caesar did not want any of it. He wanted to practice what he learned by accusing people of crimes and becoming a prosecutor.
In 69 BC, his Aunt Julia and his wife, Corniela died. Caesar gave both his aunt Julia and his wife a ritual eulogy, which was a procession through Rome and a band of musicians, a choir, and mourners. At his aunts funeral, he gave a very powerful speech that was applauded. At his wifes, he was given a new job as a quaestor, a two-year term official. He was given an assignment where he had to go to Spain and be an assistant of a Spanish governor.
In 67 BC, Caesar re-married, this time to Pempeia, a wealthy grand daughter of Sulla. Through this marrage, he met many rich people, including Marcus Lucinius Crasus, who helped get Caesar a new position in 65 BC as a curule aedile, or a important person who ran the buildings, streets, sanitation, and public games.
Caesar used this new role to invent some new games. He created a racing sport called Chariot racing, where horse driven carriages were pulled around a course where there wheels could get tangled together. The other sport involved slaves and condemned criminals to fight to the death. This was called the Gladiator sport. These new sporting events made Caesar a very popular man.
In 62 BC, Caesar was elected praetor, a state judge. This was a very distinguished position that was only given to eight people for each term. What made this role very special was when the term was over; the praetor was given a providence and was elected the governor.Caesar was very pleased because he then could get rid of a debt and receive a lot of power. Now Caesar was a chief priest, a praetor, and a member of the Senate. Following his term as a praetor, Caesar got Further Spain and was the Governor. As the Governor, he battled for new land for Rome and won it. But in 60 BC, he gave up Further Spain and came home. Now he had dreams of being the ruler of Rome.
Caesar saw that in order to be the Roman Ruler, he had to be a military official. Since Caesar did not have much experience, he started to set up a military campaign. Even though the campaign would take many years to complete, Caesar, being a man that was very energetic, he still went through the campaign. He started the campaign by conquering Gaul, a large, unconquered land for Rome. And in 58 BC, Caesar was proclaimed the governor on Gaul, as well as Illyricum, Cissalpine Gaul, and Narbonese. He then conquered these lands and in 57 BC, he defeated the Nervil tribe. Caesar was rewarded a fifteen day celebration in his honor. His military status was rising, but his political status was falling.
In 55 BC, Britain looked like a threat to Rome, so Julius left Gaul with his men to fight Britain. They sailed the British Channel, and landed in Dover, where they left the ship and fought the surprised and scattered British army. The Romans looked like a sure win, but in a few days, the British started a gorilla like counter attack. In 18 days of arriving, Caesar decided to leave to Gaul to regroup. Then in the spring of 54BC, Caesar sent 4,000 men, 600 transports, 28 warships, and 200 private-owned ships. But in a few days, the Roman ships were ruined by the British weather.
Caesar then returned to Rome and politics. His return to politics was very demanding, so he dropped his military status and tries to run for consulship. The elections were held in 49BC. Caesar thought the election would be no problem, but it was. In order to run for counsel, you had to be a private citizen living in Rome. Caesar was not private, so he returned to the army and was a general. His next assignment was with Egypt, to try to conquer Egypt. Him and his men arrived in Alexandria.
Then, Caesar met the queen of Egypt, Cleopatra, and instantly fell in love with her. Caesar saw to become the new leader of Egypt. His relationship with Cleopatra had become more intimate, as the two became lovers. Caesar, a 52 year old man, and Cleopatra, a 21 year old women.
Still, the war between Egypt and Rome continued. Then in 47 BC, Rome got a break when the reinforcements came in. And in March, a big battle for Rome took place, where many of the Egyptian army was killed. Caesar then killed the ruler of Egypt, Ptolemy. Now Cleoparta was the new leader of Egypt.
In the spring of 47 BC, Caesar and Cleoparta went on the famous Nile River trip. It was a very big procession with many escort boats and boats from the Roman Army. There were even boats that just had gold and other riches! But, in June of 47BC, Caesar left Egypt and Cleoparta and returned to Rome, where he will become the new ruler of Rome.
When Caesar returned from the Battle in Egypt, he was given a heroic welcome with flowers as he walked in the streets. He was not being given the welcome for Egypt, but for all of the battles he won for Rome. The entire celebration took 10 days!
Then, in 44 BC, Caesar did something that no Roman ruler had ever done. He became the self-elected dictator of Rome. Now, everybody had to do what he told the people to do.
Then, in March 44 BC, a secrete meeting of 60 men met to discuss assassinating Caesar, which included Caesars close friend, Brutus. Then, at one of the Counsel meetings, all 60 men drew their daggers and started to stab him. After 23 blows, Caesar could not take any more and collapsed, to die. His reign was less that a year. Ironically, he died at the foot of the Pompey statue.
After reading about Caesar, I realize that to get power, you have to earn it. The author shows that concept because he shows many cases where Caesar had to struggle to get to where he got. In order to get to some of his legal positions, he had to fight very hard, including in battle. Many times, Caesar wanted something very bad, so he worked for it.
Another thing that Caesar did was had a very hard child life, and the author goes into detail about that too. First he was born into a Nobel family, which meant he had his father, uncle and grandfather in some kind of political power, so he felt he had to fill in that position. His mother home taught him, so that is taught because he could be asked a question about school, and he would be expected to know it. Then to make it even harder, he went to a public school, where he had to do some very hard things like memorize many laws, and if he could not, he was beaten.
The author shows that Caesar had some very tragic life as well. I agree because Caesar was faced with many of his loved ones die, including his mother, father, uncle, and two wives.
Overall, Caesar led a very interesting life full of adventure and disappointment. But through it all, he fought and prevailed the Leader of Rome.
Schilesinger, Arthur M., Caesar
Grant, Michael, Caesar