Julius Caesar

.. ew days later because he thought that she had snuck Clodius in. His last wife was in 59 BC to Calpurnia and was politically motivated. Piso was Calpurnia’s father and the year after the marriage Caesar arranged for Piso to be consul. Calpurnia remained Caesar’s wife till his death in 44 BC. Caesar had many important roles and offices.

His uncle, Marius, got him his first job. Marius announced that Caesar would be the Priest of Jupiter. In those days Romans worshipped the traditional gods. Many complex rituals were binded to the worshipping to the gods. Deserving young adults were given ceremonial posts in religious institutions.

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One of his functions was to be the junior clerk for the Vestal Virgins. The Vestal Virgins were high women in Roman society who served the goddess Vesta. Caesar respected these ladies. His next high position was as one of the priests in the college of Pontiffs. He got this role when his uncle, Cotta, suddenly died.

He worked hard at this job. In 68 BC Caesar decided to run for quaestor, or officers who tended to the budget, checked expenditures, and were responsible for finances. He need an enormous sum of money to run for office, which he did not have. He needed a financier. His financier was Crassus who would turn out to be an important part of Caesar’s life. Caesar won the election easily but he owed Crassus a hefty sum of money.

Caesar did an exceptionally good job as Quaestor. At this time there were twenty other Quaestors. Quaestors were automatically members of the Senate. As Quaestors he spent money very quickly. His debts grew to 830,000 dollars but Crassus was there to bail him out.

Next, Caesar got an administrative position in Spain. He spent a while in Spain and was fascinated by the culture in Spain. He once stared a statue of Alexander the Great and started to weep saying that Alexander had died as old as Caesar was at the time Caesar continued on about how he had not accomplished anything compared to Alexander the Great. When Caesar returned to Rome he was elected aedile, or people who supervised civic affairs, such as water supply, roads, the public games, and the repair of buildings. The election cost him more than the previous one for quaestor.

Part of his job was to amuse the people of Rome. Caesar outdid anyone in history by hiring no fewer than 640 gladiators for just one performance and he armored them in silver. His debts grew even larger but he never kept accounts of the money he owed. Caesar became populare’s party leader. Then Caesar married off one of his sisters to a rich moneylender.

Soon after he became Pontifex Maximus, or the head of the College of Pontiffs who were priest. In other words he became the high priest of Rome. He had no right to become Pontifex Maximus, nobody this young had ever become Pontifex Maximus. When the role of Pontifex Maximus opened up he made a bid for it. He was not only confirmed as Pontifex Maximus it helped him to become respected by conservatives and it let him live in official residence.

People would throw stones at consuls or tribunes but to throw a stone at the Pontifex Maximus was a terrible felony. One of his enemies named Cato yelled at Caesar and called him a drunkard, everyone knew Caesar was not a drunkard, so it made Cato look ridiculous. Finally, this gave Caesar a little more popular and he was elected praetor, or a senior judge, this was an important post. As praetor Caesar distinguished himself by being a fair-minded and able judge. He worked hard and found out the leadership problems of Rome.

When his praetorship was over he was forty-one years old. Caesar then got the governorship of Spain. This was his first time being at the head of an army. As governor he always had an army at his disposal. If he did not get this governorship he would have been ruined, at that time he owed 3,250,000 dollars, the largest sum in Rome’s history.

They tried to keep him from going to Spain but once again Crassus and some other rich men bailed him out. As governor of Spain he sold prisoners of war into slavery and he took a share of the local taxes which was all considered proper to do. He made lots of money by doing these things and soon had enough to pay back all his debts. His money problems were behind him. Caesar did a very good job in Spain. He fought a small war, restrained an army of rebels in Lusitania, reached Galicia and looked at the Atlantic for the first time.

He proved himself to be a great leader and administrator. When he returned to Rome he decided to run for consulship. There were a few obstacles that Caesar had to overcome. Caesar had to get past the senate, controlled by the Optimates, who would not allow Caesar to have a triumph in spite of his victories in Spain. Second, the senate decided that consuls should not be able to get big posts after their terms. Caesar wanted to be pro-consul after his term as consul.

The senate decided he should get the role of commissioner of forests. Caesar decided to make what is now called the First Triumvirate. The First Triumvirate consisted of Caesar, Crassus and Pompey. Together they were invincible. Pompey had the army, Crassus had the money, and Caesar had the political genius.

It was formed in 60 BC, the next year Caesar was elected consul. He pulled some strings and instead of becoming his assigned role of Commissioner of Forests he became pro-consul for Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria for five years. Soon after he became pro-consul for Transalpine Gaul. By 56 BC most of Gaul had been subdued. His five years as pro-consul for Gaul were extended five more years. The Senate would prosecute Caesar for many crimes if he entered Italy, so he stayed out of Italy until he could be elected consul and be immune from prosecution.

The Senate decided Caesar would have to disband his army by a certain date or he would become a public enemy. When Caesar got the news of what the Senate decided he pondered for many days on what to do. He finally came to a conclusion, he decided he would march on Rome. This was the toughest decision Caesar ever made in his entire life. He knew a civil war would be a sure bet but the events may lead him to being a dictator. What he was going to do would destroy the Roman republic.

If he did not do it his career and life would be doomed. The Rubicon river was the southern boundary line of his control. If he passed it he would be a public enemy. The Rubicon is not an impressive-looking stream. The water was brown and muddy.

Yet this river could change the course of history. In 49 BC Caesar and his men crossed the Rubicon. It is said that as Caesar crossed ghosts appeared on the coast of the river and flames shot up in the sky, it is even said that the gods could be heard moaning but Caesar paid no attention. Caesar was greatly outnumbered and was at a major disadvantage. Caesar took control of Italy in an incredible six weeks. Caesar walked into Rome and the frightened senate named him dictator.

He resigned from his dictatorship after only eleven days and made himself consul as he originally planned. Caesar had five triumphs in his lifetime. After one of his victories he was again appointed dictator the length of the term was undefined. Then in 46 BC he was elected to a third dictatorship, meanwhile he served four terms as consul and was also tribune. All this time he had held his position of Pontifex Maximus. Caesar was the first person in Roman history to get the permanent title of Imperator which meant victorious general.

As dictator he made many reforms. Caesar redistributed state lands in Italy and founded new colonies overseas. This gave land to thousands of ex-soldiers who had no land. He began such public works projects as building roads and buildings and draining marshes around Rome. This gave jobs to thousands of Romans who had not been able to find work. He planned and paid for gladiatorial games that were free to the public.

This kept the poor and the idle from turning into angry mobs. He doubled the size of the Senate. This made each senator less powerful but it also gave business people a chance to become senators. He cut back the activities of publicans. He gave Roman citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards, and Gauls.

He adopted a new calendar based on the Egyptian calendar. Caius Cassius was the ringleader in a conspiracy against Caesar. Cassius gathered a small group of citizens to join him in a plot to murder Caesar. In those days the killing of a ruler for patriotic reasons was not a crime! In February of 44 BC he was appointed dictator for life. This pushed his assassinators over the edge. Caesar wanted to lead armies again in new and glorious conquests.

He made plans to leave Rome for two years and lead an army. He was to leave on March 19. This meant the assassination had to take place soon, Cassius had to make final plans. Caesar knew something was wrong he had spies everywhere and a soothsayer openly said that he would be killed. He refused to take precautions and even dismissed his bodyguard.

This whole time he refused to be crowned king. Caesar was scheduled to attend a meeting on the Ides, or fifteenth, of March, that was the day the conspirators would attack. On March fourteenth Caesar’s wife had terrible dreams of her husband’s death. In the morning his wife pleaded with him not to go. Caesar postponed the session.

One of the conspirators named Decimus Brutus came to Caesar’s house and persuaded him to come to the session. He gave in and came to the session. His wife’s try to save him failed. When Caesar entered the Senate a group formed around him and stabbed him to death. He was stabbed 23 times then fell on a statue of Pompey.

So Caesar died. Caesar had a great life and then was stabbed because people were jealous of him.

Julius Caesar

When the name Julius Caesar is heard, it can only trigger the image of a great leader that led Rome into prosperity. Caesar’s military excellence brought more power and more land; that lead to the increase of size and strength in Rome. His dictatorship helped the stability and prosperity in Rome. Caesar’s assassination lead to a monarchy that was ruled by Octavin. His death lead to a domino effect ending in the ultimate collapse of the Roman Empire. Many people of the 21st century follow the path of Julius Caesar and try to be as great as he was. The assassination of Julius Caesar was a tragedy due to the contributions he made to Rome’s prosperity during his life, and the chaos that occurred in Rome after his death. The contributions that Caesar made towards the strength of Rome’s success, and the chaos and collapse of Rome after his death made the assassination of Julius Caesar a tragedy. Julius Caesar was assassinated by his own senate on March 15 44 BC; also known as the Ides of March. As he was walking in to the senate house, a man told him to beware the Ides of March. He ignored this statement and walked into the senate house. At this time some of the Senate members surrounded Caesar in a stealthy manner and tugged on his toga. As he looked around he was stabbed by many of the senate members multiple times. He collapsed to the ground and lay on the marble floor dead, next to the feet of Pompey’s statue. (Nardo 94) Caesar’s military eminence helped Rome prosper into one of the greatest and most memorable civilizations in history. His campaigns helped Rome grow larger in size and in power. His victories in Egypt, Pontus, Gaul, Africa, and parts in the Asia Minor were some of Caesar’s greatest honors, (Bruns 99) and is considered “the most powerful national leader in history”(Nardo 73) because of his conquests. The major reason for his strong army was due to the fact that the senate favored him. The senate gave him three provinces for the span of five years, instead of one province for one year. With this ruling, he had “a chance to build a stronger personal army”(34). The strategies and tactics used by Caesar made his death even more tragic because of his excellent leadership and planning. Caesar planned wars by legionary battles. He would not just send his entire army in all at one, but instead send a minimum amount of soldiers in the initial fight. Then he would send relief replacements to support the fighting force and finally reserve troops outside the battlefield for support, or for a final assault with fresh troops. (Fuller 91) With the planning Caesar made, his military campaigns were very successful. Due to Caesar’s excellent campaigns, his assassination was a major loss to Rome. The political power Caesar possessed helped in the prosperity and happiness of Rome. His perception of prosperity in Rome dealt with mostly the Plebeians. He increased the number of senators from five hundred to nine hundred, and to fill the vacant seats he selected many of the plebeians. Due to the new jobs that Caesar gave the poor, they became faithful supporters (Caesar: The causes for his assassination) He also helped the poor by checking the spread of luxury throughout Rome to ensure that no one was living too richly or too poorly. (Fuller 63) The people of Rome loved Caesar, and that was one of the qualities that made him such a powerful leader. Caesar knew how to use the power he had and knew when he was abusing it; his power was used mostly for the good of Rome. An example of the use of his power would be the problem with the veterans. He gave thousands of Veterans pieces of land so that their family could farm and make money. (Fuller 63) This was also another way to make his soldiers fight better, because they had their land, family, and leader to fight for. This is the type of power Caesar used helped the prosperity of Rome. With his power, he also corrupted the Senate. He ordered that all transactions were to be made public, and summaries of all debates and proposed bills were posted in the forum for all to see. (Fuller 65) With this act Caesar made Rome a prosperous, open, and trustworthy place to live. With the political power Caesar possessed, and the way he used it for the benefit Rome, his death was tragic because of the power and leadership Rome lost. After the assassination of Julius Caesar the Senate lost what they were trying to protect – a democratic society. The outcome of Caesar’s death lead to a monarchy lead by the first emperor, Octavin, Caesar’s nephew. This was easy for Octavin to obtain, because the people of Rome were looking for a new form of Government, due to the fact that the people thought the Senate was corrupt. Their love for Octavin “gave him more dictatorial power than they would have given Caesar”. (The Roman Emperors, 10) With the power Octavin possessed, his ability to control Rome could prove to be prosperous or dangerous. For Octavin, he used his power the same way Julius Caesar used his dictatorial power. In every branch of his empire he created a new Roman Peace, in which all the classes, except for the richest classes, benefited improved communications and flourishing commerce. (The Roman Empire, 15) By doing this “Octavin brought stability, security and prosperity to Rome for over two hundred years.” (The Roman Empire, 15) The death of Julius Caesar does not seem to be so tragic if his nephew formed peace in Rome for over two hundred years. Octavin is “generally described as one of the most energetic, talented, and skillful administrators the world has ever known. (The Roman Emperors. 15) With this in mind, Octavin was not far behind the greatness of his Uncle, Julius Caesar. With the death of Julius Caesar, Octavin formed a monarchy and prosperity reigned for many centuries throughout Rome. Although the monarchy of Octavin’s reign proved to be prosperous, the power the people gave to the later emperors made it easy for the Emperors abuse it. The assassination of Julius Caesar started a domino effect, leading to the end of the Roman Civilization. This was due to the fact that the people trusted their Emperors too much. Caligula was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, and he was diagnosed with “a case of both mental and physical sickness, noting that the emperor suffered from acute insomnia, was sometimes scarcely able to move his limbs or think”. (The Roman Emperors. 28) Even with his illnesses, he still reigned for a four-year period. Now with the monarchy the people asked for, and received what they wanted, Caligula abused the Roman Citizens and his power. (Roman Emperors. 30) Without a council of two people who could veto each other, the emperor could do anything he wanted and had no one could oppose him. The abuse of power grew larger as each emperor reigned, and eventually led to the fall of Rome. The people of Rome wanted a monarchy ruled by Caesar, but received a monarchy ruled by more abusive Emperors. Thus the downfall of Rome was hastened by the people who loved Julius Caesar and wanted to crown him king. Many leader of the 20th century follow the same path of Julius Caesar. One of the largest icons of politics is Bill Clinton. He leads a life parallel to Caesar. One of the biggest similarities between Caesar and Clinton is the fact the people love him and the politicians hate him. Clinton’s army is vast, strong, and is one of the largest in the world. The same properties are seen in Caesar. His army was extremely large and trained to be very strong. The people wanted to claim Carsar king and the Senate wanted him out of the Senate House. Clinton too was nearly impeached so that he would no longer be the leader of the United States. The only reason that he was not was the fact that the people did not want him to go. With this in mind Caesar’s death was a tragic loss for Rome, but his reign was proved useful for the many people who still try to live in his footsteps and follow his path of prosperity. With the death of Julius Caesar, Rome’s civilization ended with a domino effect due to the contributions he made during his life and the chaos that occurred after his death. His strength in both military eminence and political strength made Rome prosper into one of the greatest civilizations in history. With the violent way his life ended, his death was the key stone for the end of the Roman civilization. The monarchy formed by Octavin proved to be successful for a short time and slowed down this effect, but the inevitable was eventually going to happen, this being the fall of the Rome. Leaders after Octavin were left with an overwhelming control of power that they could not handle, thus abusing it for their own enjoyment. With the fall of Rome and the lasting impact of Julius Caesar, many leaders of today follow his path of prosperity throughout their own lives. The assassination of Caesar proved to be a tragedy and was one of the biggest losses of Rome, but none the less his death remains a significant mark of the Roman Civilization.

Julius caesar

Cassius
If there were to be a villain in the Tragedy of Julius Caesar Cassius would be it. Cassius is the character who first thought up of the conspiracy against Julius Caesar. His motives werent as noble as Brutus but he made Brutus believe they were. Cassius did whatever it took to get Brutus to join in the conspiracy. We can clearly see Cassius true nature by what he does and says in the play.


Cassius is a sly, deceitful and an untrustworthy character. Caesar described him best. He said (act1, scene 2, line 195), Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look; He thinks too much. Such men are dangerous. Cassius is very superstitious. This is shown when he says (act 5, scene 1, line 75) you know I held Epicurus strong, and his opinion. Now I change my mind, and partly credit things that do presage. He believes in omen and signs that foretell events to come. Cassius is conceded. This is shown when he says to Brutus (act1, scene 2, line 116), And this man is now become a god, and Cassius is now a wretched creature, and must bend his body if Caesar careless but nod on him. Cassius continues on saying about times when he saved Caesar from drowning and when he saw Caesar with a fever and he started to shake. All this tells us that Cassius thinks he is just as good or even better than Caesar.
Cassius first shows his character of deceit when he put false notes from people in the window of Brutus. This was so Brutus would think a lot of people would be with him if he killed Caesar. He also tries to make Brutus jealous of Caesar. Cassius says to Brutus (act 1,scene 2,line 43), Brutus and Caesar. What should be in that Caesar? Cassius continues to flatter Brutus but that didnt work on Brutus honorable soul.

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Cassius knew that the people would kill him if he had killed Caesar alone so Cassius tricked Brutus in to joining the conspiracy. Cassius is a good friend of Brutus and he knew that if Brutus was in the conspiracy that the people might think there was a good cause because Brutus had a reputation of being noble and honorable. Cassius was a good judge of character. This is what Cassius thought of Brutus (act 1, scene 3, line 301), Well, Brutus, thou art noble; yet I see thy honorable mettle may be wrought from that it is disposed. Therefore it is meet that thy noble minds keep ever with their likes; for who so firm that cannot be seduced? . Without Brutus there wouldnt have been a conspiracy.
Cassius was the character who originally thought up the conspiracy. He was more motivated by jealousy than for the freedom of Rome. Cassius is a sly, deceitful and an untrustworthy character. However, he is not all bad. He is also sensitive and caring. He shows this when he went with Brutus to fight in Phillipi even though he was against it. Cassius did this because Brutus wife had just killed herself.

In my opinion there wouldnt be any story without Cassius. If it werent for him the conspiracy wouldnt have been thought up and there would be no tragedy in The Tragedy of Julius Caesar.

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