.. found allot farther inland. A few centuries later the lives of these peaceful inhabitants was abruptly disturbed by the savage, war-like carib indians.

They began to brutally conquer all of the natives of the other islands as well. But, one day it got even worse for the poor Arawaks. Christopher Columbus, under the Spanish flag, landed there in 1492.This occurrence eventually led to the extinction of the Arawak people in Jamaica. Columbus arrived on May 5, 1494 at St. Ann’s Bay with his three ships, the Santa Maria, the Nina and the Pinta. As he landed he remarked “the fairest island that eyes have beheld .

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.. all full of valleys and fields. He named the country “St.Jago” or “Santiago” after Spain’s patron St. He named St. Ann’s bay Santa Gloria “on account of the extreme beauty” Nine years later, Columbus returned once again to Jamaica.

This time he and his crew were in not such a good condition as during their first visit. His ships were battered and worm- eaten and could not sail the Atlantic without repair. He tried to sail for Hispaniola but they got no farther than St.Ann when they were stranded close to shore.

The ships filled with water and settled in the soft sand of the bay. Here he stayed for a duration of 12 months tormented by hardships, hunger, and sickness. Eventually, two of his men, Diego Mendez and Bartoleme Fieschi voyaged to Hispaniola where they were able to attain a new caravel from a Spanish colony there. By June of 1504, the mates returned with the vessel. On the 29th Columbus left with the rest of his crew totalling about 100 to Hispaniola and then onward to spain.He died three years later. Spanish colonists first arrived in Jamaica in 1510.

The first governor was Juan de Esquivel. The colonists named their settlement at St. Ann’s bay Sevilla la Nueva or “New Seville.

” It included a fort, a castle, and a church.But the site was abandoned because of swamps. The colonists then moved to the south side of the island which is now called Spanish Town. The new settlement was convenient, healthful, had ample water, fertile surroundings and good protection from sea attack.

It had approximately 400 to 500 houses, 5 or 6 churches and chapels, and one monastery. The Spaniards enslaved the Arawaks and so overworked them that within a few decades the 100 000 or so Arawaks had been wiped out.They also had very little resistance to the European diseases that entered into their country from the Spanish colonists. Many had been killed by Spanish christian missionaries who tried forcefully to convert the Arawaks into christians. Today the only remains of the Arawaks in Jamaica are artifacts; a small group of words, like barbecue, hurricane, hammock, tobacco, and canoe.

The Spanish began to snatch people from Africa and enslave them when there were no more Arawaks to use. They transported the enslaved Africans in terrible conditions on ships to Jamaica.It is estimated that millions of the Africans were killed on the trip from Africa to the Caribbean and North America. The first Africans began arriving in 1517. The Island was largely un- important to spain and eventually became a badly governed and largely overlooked outpost. Almost nothing was done to develop the natural resources. The colonists devoted themselves to pastoral and agricultural duties. The Spaniards introduced all the citrus fruits, bananas, and plantain.

The brought on their cargo ships of death and suffering, horses, cattle, and pigs. Although the island was officially under the rule of Spain, it was basically 0xlf governing. The Spanish governor ruled with help from a council of appointed members. As in the colonies of North America, the church had a strong influence on the politics in a colony. End of Spanish Rule During the last years of Spanish control of the island, internal political fighting had weakened the colony.The governors were not supported well by Spain and constant attacks by pirates did not make the situation any better. On may 10th, 1655, a large English expeditionary fleet landed at Kingston Harbour. It consisted of 38 ships and 8000 men.

After a short skirmish the British had successfully snatched Jamaica from Spanish hands. The spaniards fled from Jamaica leaving the enslaved Africans there with arms to wage guerilla warfare on the British until the Spanish could return with a strong fleet to retake Jamaica. In June of 1658, under Governor Christobal Arnaldo de Ysassi the Spanish tried to retake Jamaica.

A large force of mainly mexicans landed and dug at Rio Nuevo.As soon as Colonel D’Oyley, the English commander received the news, he called 750 of his best men to sail around the coast and attack the Spaniards. The battle took place on June 27th and the British won a decisive victory killing 300 Spanish men. Ysassi hid in the mountains awaiting the Spanish relief force which never came. He escaped to Cuba in a canoe some time later. The island was officially ceded to British crown in 1670 under the Treaty of Madrid.

Thus, the Spanish influence in Jamaica ended forever as they left very little traces of their occupation. Buccaneers and Pirates During Colonel D’Oyley’s term as governor, a few small uprisings occurred under colonels Raymond and Tyson. But D’Oyley acted quickly and soon both of the colonels were publicly executed. In 1872 the capital was moved from Spanish town to Kingston. The British began to harass the spaniards from Jamaica.They supported the buccaneers who were a group of runaways, castaways, and escaped criminals from Spanish colonies.

They attacked Spanish ships and soon became a strong naval power. Soon these men were given regular commissions from France and Britain and became technically legal. They were now called privateers. The buccaneers named Port Royal as their main city for trade of spanish loot, facilities for repair, and headquarters.

Soon the wealth of this city had increased so much that it had earned the title of the richest and wickedest city in the world.In the late 1690’s the French engaged in a war with Jamaica. A large force under the command of Admiral Jean du Casse landed on the eastern part of the Island.

It was successfully defended against the attack but many of the settlers were killed and many goods were stolen. The war ended in 1697 with the Treaty of Ryswick. Pirates began to attack Jamaica in growing numbers.Nicholas Brown was one of the pirates and he once burned down a house in St.

Ann with 16 people locked in it. Other pirates included “Blackbeard” or Edward Teach and Captain Charles Vain. Maroons and Slaves When the Spanish evacuated Jamaica during their war with Britain, the enslaved Africans escaped to the mountains and became known as the maroons. They developed new culture of their own in the mountains.

In 1663, they ignored an offer of land and full freedom for every maroon if they surrendered but they decline and for the next 16 years, warfare was fought between them and the British settlements. The maroons had developed their own baffling but effective style of warfare. They preferred to ambush British troops rather than to have the more orthodox type of fighting. They attacked farms, burned buildings, and stole cattle mainly by night. They were skilled in woodcraft and were familiar with the untracked forests.At first, British troops suffered heavily in early clashes with the Maroons but eventually the British began to defeat the Maroons. Colonel Guthrie of the British soon made clear a set of terms for a formal ceasefire. The terms were that they had guaranteed freedom, and were allowed 1 500 acres of land.

They had to cease hostilities against the British and refuse asylum from any runaway slaves and capture them instead for a reward. The Treaty was signed on March 1st, 1739.In 1664 Governor Modyford was appointed governor of Jamaica. He set about establishing a strong sugar industry.

By 1740 there were 430 sugar estates around the island. Many of the African descendants were subject to the harshest and horrific conditions ever conceivable. Many rebelled, destroying those terrible plantations whenever possible.In 1670, the most serious slave rebellion broke out. The government called upon the Maroons assistance as outlined in the 1739 Treaty. It began in St. Mary and spread through the rest of the country.

A man named Tacky was their leader who was a chief in Africa.Many casualties were taken by the British side but it was put down by a militia with the help of the maroons. But, peace was not long in Jamaica. In 1795 a second maroon war broke out. The British imported 400 blood hounds from Cuba and before they were released, the Maroons surrendered. Some 600 maroons were shipped to Nova Scotia and then onto Sierra Leone despite promises that they could stay in Jamaica.

These factors, along with changing political tide in Europe caused the Africans to be emancipated from slavery as it was abolished there in 1838.Push for Independence Between the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the island began feverishly pushing for independence from Britain. Soon, political unrest with the slow reform sparked widespread violence in 1938. This caused the countries first two parties to be formed. The JLP was headed by Alexander Bustamante and the PNP by Norman Manley.

The rise of power of the JLP or Jamaican Labour Party ultimately led to independence on August 6th 1962. CRITIQUE I think this was an excellent project.The time and effort that went into the project is evident throughout the written report. I am pleased with the quality and attractiveness of the final product. I think the information was well written and organized in a logical fashion. There were good pictures and graphs which were integrated well with the typed text.

The research was taken from a variety of sources and was compiled, condensed and re-written in an easy to understand fashion. If I were to do the project over, the only thing I would do differently is expand more on the people section of the report. I could also include the dialogue of both interviews.Chen, Ray.

Jamaica. Montreal: Ray Chen books, 1988. Earle, Stafford. Basic Jamaica History.U.S.A: Earle Publishing, 1978 Egan, Anne.

Jamaica in Pictures. Minneapolis: The Company, 1967 and 1987 versions. Kaplan, Irving. Area Handbook of Jamaica. U.S.A: Mitchell Publishing, 1976 Kuper, Adam.Changing Jamaica.

Kingston, Jamaica: Kingston Publishers, 1976 Macpherson, John. Carribean Lands. Spain: Longman Group Ltd, 1974 Sherlock, Philip. The Land and People of the West Indies.

U.S.A: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1967 Wilkins, Francis. Jamaica. Hong Kong: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987 Zach, Paul., and Hoefer, Hans Insight Guides: Jamaica.

Singapore: APA Productions, 1987 Jamaica Information Service. Jamaica: An Overview.Kingston: Jamaica Information Service, 1990 Potter, Mitch. “New Album Kicks off Marley Blitz.” The Toronto Star.

6 February, 1991, Sec. E, p. 4 “Jamaica.” Merit Students Encyclopedia.16th ed., 1980 “Jamaica.” The World Book Encyclopedia 14th ed.

, 1989 APPENDIX Picture credits: The Land and People of the West Indies Insight Guides: Jamaica Carribean Lands Merit Students Encyclopedia Jamaica For my field trip I went to the Jamaica Information Service at 314 King St. West, suite 216. I interviewed two people for my research. They are Avril Mills, and Barbara Theobolds at the Information Service.


Jamaica Close your eyes and picture a beautiful sunset meeting far away on the shimmering clear blue water in front of you. You feel a cool breeze and a hot sun against your skin and the feeling of the warm sand beneath your feet.

You walk forward and feel the refreshing water wet your legs and you are tickled as a school of tropical fish passes you by. You spot the palm trees and wild plants off the shore. Are you in an unreal paradise? Yes I have.

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It is Jamaica. Geographical Location Jamaica is blessed with superb geographical location and resources that makes it a great vacation spot. It is an island country south of Cuba and north of South America. So you must fly or sail there. Its short distance from the United States makes it a short distance from here and that is great for fliers.It is probably a four -hour flight.

Jamaica is only about 17 degrees above the equator so it is very warm all year round. (Grab your sunglasses and tanning oil!) Land and Resources Everyone sees the commercials for the white-sanded beaches and the clear blue water but Jamaica’s terrain is mountainous except for those several tracts of lowlands that you see on TV. In fact Blue Mountain’s, that is the highest mountain in Jamaica, is 7402 ft. There are many smaller mountains with many traverse spurs that extend west to the extremity of the island making a gigantic plateau.So if you plan on going to Jamaica you had better think of bringing your hiking boots.

Lead and Salt deposits can be found on the island and rich soils can be found on the coastal plains. The island is also equipped with excellent natural harbors, including those at Kingston, Saint Ann’s Bay, Montego Bay, and Port Maria. There is no volcanic activity in Jamaica but it is subject to severe earthquakes. Plants and Animals Jamaica is filled with luxurious and diverse vegetation.

More than 200 species have been identified. The indigenous tree include such as the cedar, mahogany, rosewood, ebony, coconut palm, and pimento. Introduced varieties such as the mango, breadfruit, banana, and plantain also flourish the island. Jamaican animal life generally includes highly diverse bird life. This group includes Parrots, hummingbirds, cuckoos, and green todies.No large four-legged animals or venomous reptiles exist there. Culture Jamaica is not only blessed with great plenty of natural wonders but it’s people and their culture are probably it’s greatest resource, and that is what draws the people to the island. Jamaica’s great dependency on Great Britain form the past 300 years shows in the language they speak and in their customs, which are combined with African influences.

Bob Marley, Jimmy Cliff, made Reggae, a distinctively syncopated style of Jamaican music popular in the 20th century. It was a great influence on rock in the middle of the 80’s, especially in Britain.Government The Jamaica constitution, promulgated in 1962, established a parliamentary system of government patterned after that of Great Britain.

The Prime Minister is the head of the government. The British monarch is the head of the state and is represented by a governor general, who is appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister. There is an Executive branch, a Legislative branch, and a Judiciary branch.

Their government is quite like ours.The Prime Minister has a lot of power, kind of like our president. Jamaica has two political parties.

The People’s National Party (PNP) is one. It is socialist in orientation. The other is the Jamaica Labour Group (JLP) which supports free enterprise in a mixed economy.

A minor party is the Jamaica American Party, which favors U.S.statehood for Jamaica. Language and Religion In Jamaica, the principle language spoken by the people is English. It is spoken with a local dialect that includes African, Spanish, and French elements.

Christianity is the main religion practiced in Jamaica. Other religious groups are Baptists, Anglicans, Seventh-day Adventists, Pentecostalists, and Roman Catholic. In addition several Jewish, Muslim, and Hindu communities exist.A number of popular groups, such as Pocomania and Rastafarianism, are significant and famous in the Jamaican religious life. History Members of the Arawak tribe were the aboriginal inhabitants of the island. They named it Xaymaca. Christopher Columbus sighted the island during his second voyage, and Xaymaca became a Spanish Colony in 1509.

The Arawak quickly died out due to disease and harsh treatment.African slaves were imported to overcome the resultant labor shortage. An English naval force under Sir William Penn captured Jamaica in 1655.

The island was formally transferred to England in 1670 after the Treaty of Madrid. During the final decades of the 17th century, great numbers of English immigrants arrived; the sugar, cacao, and other agricultural and forest industries were rapidly expanded, and the great demand for plantation labor led to enormous amounts of slaves to be brought in. In 1682 Port Royal, the chief Jamaican slave market, was destroyed by and earthquake.Kingston was soon established and Parliament abolished slavery on August 1, 1838. Large numbers of freed blacks abandoned the plantations following emancipation and took possession of occupied lands, gravely disrupting the economy. Labor shortages bankrupt plantations, and declining trade resulted in a delayed economic crisis. Jamaica was made a crown colony thus losing the large degree of self-government it had since the late 17th century. Representative government was partly restored in 1884.

Jamaica gained Independence when it united with the Federation of the West Indies. The PNP won large parliamentary majority in 1989, returning Manley to power. He introduced moderate free-market policies before resigning in March 1992 because of poor health. Percival J. Patterson, his successor as Prime Minister and PNP leader, easily won reelection a year later.

Jamaica is a jewel. It is a great place with great people, and you can go there and see the beautiful beaches and swim in the beautiful clear blue water, or go hiking in the mountains, or listen to a band play on the street, or go sightseeing in the beautiful cities. They have great culture, and a unique style of living.


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