Introduction

Introduction Western female thought through the centuries has identified the relationship between patriarchy and gender as crucial to the women’s subordinate position. For two hundred years, patriarchy precluded women from having a legal or political identity and the legislation and attitudes supporting this provided the model for slavery. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries suffrage campaigners succeeded in securing some legal and political rights for women in the UK. By the middle of the 20th century, the emphasis had shifted from suffrage to social and economic equality in the public and private sphere and the women’s movement that sprung up during the 1960s began to argue that women were oppressed by patriarchal structures.

Equal status for women of all races, classes, sexualities and abilities – in the 21st century these feminist claims for equality are generally accepted as reasonable principles in western society; yet the contradiction between this principle of equality and the demonstrable inequalities between the sexes that still exist exposes the continuing dominance of male privilege and values throughout society (patriarchy).This essay seeks to move beyond the irrepressible evidence for gender inequality and the division of labour. Rather, it poses the question of gender inequality as it manifests itself as an effect of patriarchy drawing from a theoretical body of work which has been developed so recently that it would have been impossible to write this essay thirty years ago. Feminist Theory and Patriarchy Although ” .. patriarchy is arguably the oldest example of a forced or exploitative division of social activities” and clearly existed before it was ever examined by sociologists, the features of patriarchy had been accepted as natural (biological) in substance. It was not until feminists in the 1960s began to explore the features and institutions of patriarchy, that the power of the concept to explain women’s subordinate position in society was proven (Seidman, 1994). The feminist engagement with theories of patriarchy criticised pre-existing theoretical positions and their ideological use, tracing theoretical progenitors of popular views about gender, gender roles etc (Cooper, 1995; Raymond, 1980).

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Developing theories to explain how gender inequalities have their roots in ideologies of gender difference and a hierarchical gender order, feminist theoretical concepts of patriarchy are able to explain and challenge gender inequality and the gendered division of labour in the private and social spheres (Seidman, 1994). They have done this by challenging concepts of gender, the family and the unequal division of labour underpinned by a theory of patriarchy that has come to reveal how it operates to subordinate women and privilege men, often at women’s expense. Patriarchy, Structure and Gender Inequality Walby (1990) reveals how patriarchy operates to achieve and maintain the gender inequalities essential for the subordination of women.Crucially for this essay, she shows how it can operate differently in the private and public domain but toward the same end.

She identifies patriarchy as having diverse forms of and relationships between its structures in the public and private spheres, and yet still operates in a related fashion. Walby’s explanation sees the household and household production as being a key site of women’s subordination but acknowledges that the domestic area is not the only one that women participate in. She shows how the concept of patriarchy is useful in explaining the relationship between women’s subordination in the private and public arenas by showing that they work equally to achieve this subordination as well as supporting, reflecting and maintaining patriarchy itself. Firstly, Walby points out that the structures of patriarchy differ in their form. The household has a different structure to other institutional forms, e.g.

, the workplace.This is an important point because if feminist theories of patriarchy are to stand they must show that patriarchy operates to the same end in both the private and public sphere, even if it uses different strategies, otherwise it could not be the main reason for the continuing inequality of women in both the private and public sphere. Walby shows that within the private structure and the public structures, patriarchy does use different strategies to maintain gender inequality and these strategies both achieve the subordination of women. The household strategy is considered to be exclusionary and the public structures strategy as segregationist. The exclusionary strategy in the private arena is based on household production. Application of this strategy in the domestic sphere depends on individual patriarchs controlling women in the private world of the home. The male patriarch in the household is both the oppressor and recipient of women’s subordination.

This strategy is direct – women are oppressed on a personal and individual basis by the individual patriarchs who share their lives. The segregationist strategy used in the public patriarchy actively excludes women from the public arena using various structures to subordinate them. Application depends on controlling access to public arenas (Golombok and Fivush, 1995). This strategy does not benefit the institution directly, but it does ensure that individual patriarchs are privileged at the expense of women, and it maintains gender differences. The way in which individual patriarchs and public institutions use there power further reveals how related the structures of patriarchy are. Public institutions do not have the power to oppress individual women or exclude them directly from public structures; this work is carried out in the home.

Power in institutions is used collectively rather than individually, and the segregationist strategy pursued in the public arena maintains the exclusionary strategy used in private that in turn supports the segregationist strategy used in public. Yet, the institution can only pursue its segregationist strategy because the individual patriarch subordinates the individual women daily. Walby’s description of patriarchal structure looks powerful where there are fewer variables – e.g.

, when women and men seem to share the ‘privilege’ of being exploited equally as a labour force working equal hours for equal pay in equal conditions (Haug, 1998). Haug (1998) cites research from East Germany which allows her to calculate that women do 4 hours and 41 minutes of domestic labour against men’s 2 hours 38 minutes. Men split their extra two hours between leisure time and paid employment. She asks if it is a realistic possibility that patriarchy could be so completely and comprehensively asserted in as little as two hours a day. Haug does not answer this question (perhaps it is rhetorical) but I think that Walby’s (1990) theory of patriarchy is so powerful because it can reveal the answer to questions like this.Walby’s theory stands because she shows that the power of patriarchy is asserted in both the private and public sphere simultaneously supporting, reflecting and maintaining itself, regardless of the economic and social framework that prevails. In Haug’s case, patriarchy is not being asserted in two hours per day, rather it is an expression of patriarchy, i.e.

, a symbol of male privilege, which could only be expressed if the general strategies of patriarchal structure were intact and functioning. This description of the relationship between patriarchy and structure demonstrates how inequalities in the workplace and in inequality in the home are two sides of the same coin and individual males are involved in the direct and indirect subordination of women simultaneously. The concepts that allowed Walby (1990) to define patriarchy as she has are discussed below, with reference to the work of second and third wave feminist thinkers. Gender and Gender Inequalities in the Domestic and Occupational Divisions of Labour Feminist concepts of gender and gender inequality allow us to refer more or less directly to a theoretical framework for understanding how they have come to form a basis that helps structure the whole of society according to the concept of patriarchy (Seidman, 1994). The gender differences, which lead to gender inequality in the division of labour, and presented as natural by patriarchy and unequal gender order has been normalised and legitimated by science, medicine and popular culture (Raymond, 1980). Feminists hold that this normalisation conceals the social and political formation of an unequal male order, arguing that gender difference is socially produced in order to sustain male dominance (Seidman, 1994).Frabl …

Introduction

TQMThe purpose of this report is to critically analyse, evaluate and discuss related management issues conducive to the development of a total quality management environment within an organisation. This shall be done by critically analysing the case study of Agrotran Ltd. This report will discuss the role and application of quality management systems in organisations, debate and recommend a suitable way forward for Agrotran Ltd.The issues concerning Agrotran LtdAgrotran is a small engineering company specialising in the manufacture of farming equipment.

The four owners have recently sold out to the Nat-truk Group a manufacturer of specialist trucks and transports. The original owners set up Agrotran when they were made redundant from a large engineering company. They have a good working relationship, working well as a team and intimate knowledge of their business. They also have a laid back style of management.There are a number of issues that have arisen since the take-over.

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Nat-truk are seeking to be included on the Ministry of Defences approved supplier list. This means that they and Agrotran need to achieve ISO 9000 certification although this was argued against by one of the former owners during the take-over negotiations. This has been seen as an imposition of extra cost and bureaucracy on Agrotran by Nat-truk.Nat-truk has also introduced its own employees to Agrotran. This has resulted in fights breaking out between Agrotran and Nat-truk workers. The bases of these arguments are over communication problems involving processes, standards and specifications.

This has resulted in some of Agrotrans best customers complaining about quality. One of the original owners Tom Smith has laid the blame on the extra procedures and paperwork choking up the system causing delays and loss of control.The role and purpose of quality management systemsThe role and purpose of quality management systems is to reduce the dependence on 3rd party audits and to provide a documented management system, which will provide clearer working procedures, improve quality control and efficiency. The Key features of a quality management system are the documented policy manuals and procedures on which the company could be audited. These policies and procedures should allow flexibility and adapt to change but always regain control. The objective of the quality management system ISO9000 is to give purchasers an assurance that the quality of the products and/or services provided by a supplier meets their requirements (Dale 1999).

With this the company would seek to widen its customer base, as the customer is given an assurance of quality and the need for them to carry out their own audit is not required unless their own standards are higher than the requirements of ISO9000. A number of major purchasers use this registration as the first-pass over a suppliers quality system (Dale 1999). ISO9000 can also be used as the foundation for the introduction of TQM.The application of quality management systemsThe application of the ISO9000 series of standards can be used in three ways (Dale 1999).

1. To provide guidance to organisations, to assist them in developing their quality systems2. As a purchasing standard (when specified in contracts)3.

As an assessment standard to be used by both second party and third party organisations.The ISO9000 series consists of ISO9000, ISO9001, ISO9002, ISO9003, and ISO9004ISO9000 Guidelines for Selection and Use and ISO9004 Guidelines for Specific Applications are only used as guidelines and to explain the application of ISO9001, ISO9002 and ISO9003.ISO9001 Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation and ServicingCovers 20 principal clauses which are of a management or operational natureManagement/macro requirementsOperational requirements1. Management responsibility2. Quality system3. Contract review5. Document and data control17. Internal quality audits18.

Training4. Design control6. Purchasing7. Control of customer-supplied product8. Product identification and traceability9. Process control10. Inspection and testing11. Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment12.

Inspection and test status13. Control of non-conforming product14. Corrective and preventive action15. Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery16. Control of quality records19. Servicing20.

Statistical techniquesThe Institute of ManagementISO9002 includes all of ISO9001 except design controlISO9003 includes all of ISO9001 except design control, purchasing, process control and servicingDevelopment of a Total Quality Management within an organisationIf an organisation is to develop Total Quality Management then it must first understand what it is and how it has been developed. Which is easier said than done, as there are many different definitions of quality and how to achieve it. The main approaches in quality originate from Crosby, Deming, Feigenbaum, and Juran.CrosbyCrosby (1979) defines quality as conformance to requirements, and his approach consists of : Quality means conformance, not elegance. It is always cheaper to do the job right the first time. The only performance indicator is the cost of quality The only performance standard is zero defects No such thing as a quality problemThis achieved through Crosbys 14-step quality improvement programme.

Responsibility is allocated as follows The Quality professional a moderate amount The hourly workforce a limited role, reporting problems to management Top management an important roleDemingDeming defines quality in terms of quality of design, quality of conformance, and quality of the sales and service function. Demings approach is base on PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Action) and his philosophy for improving quality is summarised in his 14 points for management. He also points out the seven deadly diseases of western management and organisational practice.

Deming (Dale 1999) states that quality and improvement is the responsibility of all the firms employees: top management must adopt the new religion of quality, lead the drive for improvement and be involved in all stages of the process.FeigenbaumFeigenbaum was the first to use the term total quality control. Feigenbaum (1991) has defined it thus Total Quality Control is an effective system for integrating the quality-development, quality maintenance, and quality-improvement efforts of the various groups in an organisation so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction.Feigenbaums approach is to help companies design their own system more than creating managerial awareness of quality. His contribution to the subject of the cost of quality is that quality costs must be categorised if they are to be managed. The three major categories being, appraisal costs, prevention costs, and failure costs which make up the Total Quality Costs.Feigenbaum rests most responsibility with management saying that management must commit themselves: To strengthen the quality improvement process itself To making sure that quality improvement becomes a habit To managing and cost as complementary objectivesInstead of providing a step by step plan Feigenbaum provides ten benchmarks for total quality success.

JuranJuran (1988) defines quality as fitness for use, which he breaks into quality of design, quality of conformance, availability, and field service. Jurans approach is to improve quality by increased conformance and decreased costs of quality by the setting of yearly goals. Juran has also developed a quality trilogy (quality planning, quality control and quality improvement) and a ten-point plan to summarise his approach.

Juran gives the main responsibility to the quality professionalsThere are many others, who have added to the development of TQM such as Ishikawa,Taguchi, Shingo, Peters, Dale, and Oakland etc.Defining TQMTotal Quality Management is defined in the American Society for Quality Controls Bibliography as TQM is a Management approach to long-term success through customer satisfactionbased on the participation of all members of an organisation in improving processes, products, services and the culture they work in (Bemowski 1992 Cited by Hiam 1994)Actions taken throughout the organisation to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of activities and processes in order to provide added benefits to both the organisation and its customers (ISO8402)TQM is a style of managing which gives everyone in the organisation responsibility for delivering quality to the final customer, quality being described as fitness for purpose or delighting the customer. TQM views each task in the organisation as fundamentally a process which is in a customer supplier relationship with the next process. The aim at each stage is to define and meet the customers requirements in order to maximise the satisfaction of the final consumer at the lowest possible cost.

(The Institute of Management)Juran, in an interview (Gordon 1994), claims that TQM involves the use of any means to achieve World-Class Quality, and acknowledges that there is no clear definition of TQM. These are just a few definitions of TQM. Each guru, each consultant has their own depending on their particular bias. A company undertaking TQM will probably arrive at its own version, which is fine as not all the tools, techniques and philosophy will be relevant to them and they will have their own bias, but any outsider should recognise it as TQM.TQM adoption and developmentAlthough there are many differences in the philosophies of the experts there are basic key elements common to each that a company must address when embarking on the adoption of TQMPlanning and Organisation Development of a long term strategy Development of polices Building product and service quality into designs and processes Development of proceduresUsing tools and TechniquesThe correct selection of tools and techniques to enable the process of continuous improvement.

The company needs to identify the priority of each tool it is to introduce, explain why they are required. The use of these tools will not be successful until they are part of the every day behaviour of the company. Therefore an appropriate time should be given between introductions or people will be trying to learn a new tool before they have got to grips with the last one.Education and TrainingThis has to be company wide with each person receiving a level of training and education that will enable them to carry out and understand the quality tools, techniques and philosophy. This should be done through a training programme that best suit the needs of the company and employee.InvolvementIn this, employees are involved in the decision making that effect them and their function. The desired effect is to improve commitment, enrich their job, and benefit from their hands-on experience.

This is normally done through Q.C.s. If employees are allowed to solve problems, they probably will, and engineers etc.

, can act more as consultants and spend less time fire fighting.TeamworkTeamwork requires effective communication and involvement. Teams can take many forms such as, Cross Functional Groups, Project Groups and Focus Groups. Roles, responsibilities and boundaries have to be clear with sufficient support from senior management.Measurement and FeedbackControl Systems need to be set in place, to measure whatever you need to manage, whatever you need to improve.

The control system must feed back the appropriate information to the relevant people in a timely fashion. The Measuring Systems need to be discussed with who is using them and who is being measured. If employees are taught SPC and assess themselves, this should lead to greater commitment.Ensuring the culture is conducive to continuous improvement activityThis is perhaps the most important element and needs to start at the top.

If the senior management avoid getting involved and only pay lip service to TQM, or say one thing and act in a manner that is not conducive to TQM, then it is unlikely that the employees will commit themselves to TQM.Another element common to TQM is the use of Self-Assessment Models and Quality Awards.The most common used models are the Deming Application Prize, The European Business Excellence Model (Figure 1) and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. These are very useful tools in aiding TQM Development and Business Performance.

The managers must have a firm grasp on what TQM is, as these models will not lead to it. Figure 1 The EFQM model for business excellence, Kaye, Anderson (1998)Once the company has an understanding of TQM. It should then carry out a health check to assess its situation. This review should be in the common understandable language of the participants, to avoid misunderstandings and so no one feels that they are being talked down, this should ensure greater participation.

By asking questions such as: How far along the company is to TQM What does it still has to achieve  What it will have to change with respect to the key elements of TQM What TQM evolutionary level best represents the company What level of TQM adoption the company is at What are the attitudes of the staff towards the companyThe objectives of a health check should be to To give the company a starting point and subsequently measure change from that position.  To identify issues To seek out hidden agendas and areas of resistance To establish prioritiesTwo guidelines that companies can use to assess their position in TQM terms are:Dales (1999) Four Levels in the Evolution of TQM and Lascelles & Dales (1993) Levels of TQM Adoption (Figures 2 and 3).These models could also help in creating achievable targets e.

g. Today where we are classed as uncommitted company and cover all the inspection requirements. In one years time we will be classed as a drifter and incorporate all of the Quality Control Criteria.

Figure 2 The four levels in the evolution of TQM (Dale 1999)Figure 3 Levels of TQM adoption, Lascelles and Dale (1993)Figure 4 The Quality Training CycleOnce it has assessed its situation it can then plan out the appropriate steps and timescale it needs to achieve them. Each step should be taken as an identifiable project using the quality training cycle (figure 4)The development of TQM in any company takes many years. It would be unwise for anyone to attempt the whole thing at once. The Argument for TQMThere are many claims made for TQM by the myriad of consultants and gurus some of these claims can be quite wild, some consultants may try and sell TQM as a quick fix, this kind of claim does not help the serious teachers and users of TQM. The most recognisable advantages of TQM are: It helps provide the customer with a improved product or service  The customer can be assured of a desirable quality standard  It requires critical analysis of what you do and how you do it Standardises procedures that clarify employees tasks and roles Creates ownership and motivation in the work force thus improving effectiveness and efficiency Creates a corporate history that can be referred to through documents and records Cuts and improves training time through training records and reference manuals It requires improved standards, services and cost from suppliers Adoption of ISO9000, success in quality awards etc. improves the company profile and market potential Cuts the cost of wasted resources and materialsCriticisms of TQMThose who argue against TQM such as Harari, Grossman, Grint from research carried out by Arthur D Little, Ernst & Young, Rath & Strong, McKinsey & Co & AT Kearney, point out that only 20-30% of TQM initiatives are successful. Therefore, it cannot justify itself as a success or worth the money. The defenders of TQM explain this low success rate, as due to poor implementation, and that the critics and failures do not fully understand TQM, but a theory is no good unless it works in practice.

Therefore, any company undertaking TQM could learn a lot from the critics, and possibly avoid the pit falls.Harari (1992,1993) has pointed out his criticisms, which are common to most critics, in his Ten Reasons TQM Doesnt Work, and later adding an 11th: 1. TQM focuses peoples attention on Internal Processes rather than results – there is not enough focus on what the customer actually wants.2. TQM focuses on minimum standards products are being made with no defects, but they also have no Wow factor. I.

e. Fords look like Nissans, Look like Toyotas etc.3. TQM develops its own cumbersome bureaucracy A Quality department that grows and grows in size producing paperwork that chokes the business.4. TQM delegates Quality to Quality Czars and experts rather than to real people responsibility is taken from those who should have it, i.

e. everyone, quality cant be delegated.5.

TQM does not demand radical organisational reform to often this is an excuse downsizing rather than freeing up people from fire fighting to becoming experts and acting across boundaries.6. TQM does not demand changes in management compensation payment of bonuses depending on short-term profit is still the main bonus measure (80% of organisations).7. TQM does not demand entirely new relationship with outside partners sole supplier status is often misused to hold that supplier to ransom, rather than using support, trust and caring about the well being of your partners to improve the whole supply chain.8. TQM appeals to faddism, egotism and quick fixism TQM is often sold as a quick fix.

Many managers are not capable of staying the course in this never-ending process; many lose the plot and become obsessed with the Baldrige Award.9. TQM drains entrepreneurship and innovation from corporate culture – Companies need to be more chaotic to make the big breakthroughs and this does not fit with Do-it-right-first-time. People will accept the imperfect if there are other compensations. Ferrari makes impractical cars that leak oil and breakdown a lot but they sell.

10. TQM has no place for love TQM is clinical, analytically detached, sterile and mechanical. There is no emotion or soul. You have no right to manage unless you talk passionately about what you are doing. Debbie Coleman Apple.11. TQM is sold and implemented as a formula to solve all your problems TQM should be kept in perspective, it is tqm not TQM! It wont, and cant, solve every problemRecommendationsAgrotran should adopt TQM as part of their business strategy.

They should be clear on why they want to do this long-term profitability, increase market share etc., and tailor their approach.There are a number of tasks Agrotran should under take in this process:1. Establish a TQM team to oversee the projects and training. This should be made up of the senior management, it is important that management understand and is committed to TQM. It should include someone from Nat-truk who has experience in this area, and Tom Smith as the most vocal critic to act as devils advocate and to win his commitment back which seems to have taken a knock.2. Establish the reasons for change and communicate this to all involved 3.

Create a Vision statement that encapsulates what the company is trying to achieve and how it intends to achieve it. In all the different activities this will provide everyone with a common focus4. Establish the standard they intend to supply with reference to customer requirements the capabilities of the company and its suppliers.5. Carry out a health check to establish their current position, what areas are in most need of improvement, what situations are constant problems, e.

g. The communication problems over process etc.6. Set up a system that will collect data and establish the costs of failure and the reasons behind this.7. It would probably be worthwhile reviewing their Quality System (ISO9000) as this seems to be Nat-Truks imposed on Agrotran. This should be mainly under the control of Agrotran as it will be based on their knowledge of how Agrotran works best and their knowledge of their current customers requirements, Nat-truk would have more input, but not take over, when it comes to their areas of expertise.8.

Use the previous step to draw a quality strategy, to include; Goals, required systems and tools, behaviour changes to create a suitable culture in the company, resources required. Create a timetable and priorities for the definable projects. Some projects should be aimed to be completed soon, so that changes can be seen.9.

Establish the requirement and time table for training and education10. The senior management should also keep themselves up to date with the current developments, debates and criticisms of TQM. After all TQM does practice what preaches continuous improvement and this can help the company in their own continuous improvement.ReferencesCrosby PB. (1979) Quality is free, The art of making quality certain McGraw-HillDale, BG. (1999) Managing Quality Third Edition Blackwell BusinessFeigenbaum AV.

(1991) Total Quality Control, Third Edition Revised, 40th Anniversary Edition McGraw-HillGordon, J. (1994) An Interview with Joseph M Juran. (advocate of total quality management) Training, May 1994 v31 n5 p35Grint, K. (1997) TQM, BPR, BSCs and TLAs: managerial waves or drownings? (total quality management; business process reengineering; just in time; balanced score cards; three-letter acronyms) Managerial Decision, Sept-Oct 1997 v35 n9-10 p731Grossman, SR. (1994) Why TQM doesnt workand what you can do about it. (Total Quality Management) Industry Week, Jan 3, v243 n1 p57Harari, O. (1992,1997) Ten reasons TQM doesnt work (reprint, best of the cutting edge) V86 Management Review, 01-01-1997Harari, O.

(1993), The eleventh reason why TQM doesnt work. (Total Quality Management) Management Review, May 1993 v82 n5 p31Hiam, A. (1994) Does Quality Work? A Review of Relevant Studies The Conference Board. New YorkThe Institute of Management, Total Quality: Mapping a TQM Strategy, Checklist 029, Institute of Management The Institute of Management, Preparing for ISO9000, Checklist 004, Institute of ManagementJuran, JM.

& Gryna, FM. (1988) Jurans Quality Control Handbook 4th EditionKaye, M & Anderson, R. (1999) Continuous improvement: the ten essential criteria International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, v16 n5 p485BibliographyBeckford, J. (1998) Quality A critical introduction Routledge, London & New YorkBeecroft, GD.

(1999) The role of quality in strategic management Management Decision, v37 i6BSI (1990) BSI Handbook 22 Quality assurance British Standards InstituteConti, T. (1999) Vision 2000: positioning the new ISO 9000 standards with respect to total quality management models. Total Quality Management, July 1999Easton, GS.

& Jarrell, SL. (1998). The effects of total quality management on corporate performance: an empirical investigation. The Journal of Business, April 1998 v71 n2 p253Fulsher, J.

& Powell, SG (1999) Anatomy of a process mapping workshop The Journal of Business, v5 n3 p208Harrington, JH. (19990 Performance improvement: a total poor-quality cost system The TQM Magazine v11 n4 p221Heaphy, MS. & Gruska, GF.

(1995) The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award A Yardstick for Quality Growth Addison-Wesley Publishing CompanyHolland, R. (1997) TQM & STW Combine as the twin thieves of individualism Richmond Times-Despatch Wed July 9 1997Kanji, GK. (1998) Total quality management models Total Quality Management, Oct 1998 v9 i7 p633Kuger, V. (1999) Towards a European definition of TQM a historical review The TQM Magazine v11 n4 p257Laszlo, GP. (1999). Implementing a quality management program three Cs of success: commitment, culture, cost The TQM Magazine v11 n4 p231Lee, TY. Leung, HKN. & Chan KCC.

(1999). Improving quality management on the basis of ISO 9000 The TQM Magazine v11 i2 McAbe, D. & Wilkison, A. (1998).

The rise and the fall of TQM: the vision, meaning and operation of change. (total quality management) Industrial Relations Journal, March 1998 v29 n1 p18McAdam, R & ONeill, E. (1999) Taking a critical perspective to the European Business Excellence Model using a balanced scorecard approach: a case study in the service sector Managing Service Quality v9 n3 p191McCormack. SP.

Lewis, KJ. Mink, O. & Batten, JD. (1992) TQM: getting it right the first time Training & Development June 1992 v46 n6 p43McFall, M.

(1987) Expert systems Computer-aided quality assurance Quality Sept 1987Malone, MS. (1997) A way too short history of fads. (business and management fads) Forbes, April 7 1997 v159 n7 p71Management Scotland (1999), Quality Scotlands Vision Issue 14 September/October 1999, The Institute of ManagementMarsh, J. (1996) The Quality Toolkit A practical resource for making TQM happenMarsh, J. (1995) A proliferation of Quality Initiatives Total Quality Partnerships http//www.tqp.com Masson, R. (1999) Quality in Scotland The TQM Magazine V11 I1 Mohanty, RP.

(1998) Understanding the integrated linkage: Quality and productivity Total Quality Management, Dec 1998 v9 i8 p753Romano, C. (1994) Report card on TQM Management Review Jan 1994 V83 n1 p22Seddon, J. (1989) A passion for quality Total Quality Management, May 1989Taylor, L. (1993) Quality Street (Total Quality Management) New Statesman & Society, Oct 22, v6 n275 p25Wilkes, N. & Dale, BG. (1998) Attitudes to self-assessment and quality awards: A study in small and medium-sized companies Total Quality Management Dec 1998, V9 i8 p731Wilkinson, A & Willmott, H. (1996) Quality management, problems and pitfall: a critical perspective International Jounal of Quality and Reliability Management Feb 1996 v13 n2 p55Xie, M.

& Goh, TN. (1999) Statistical techniques for quality The TQM Magazine v11 i4 Business

Introduction

June 6, 1944 will be remembered for many reasons. Some may think of it as asuccess and some as a failure. The pages following this could be used to prove either one. The only sure thing that I can tell you about D-Day is this: D-Day, June 6, 1944 was thefocal point of the greatest and most planned out invasion of all time. The allied invasion of France was long awaited and tactfully thought out. Formonths the allied forces of millions trained in Britain waiting for the Supreme Commanderof the Allied Expeditionary Forces, General Eisenhower to set a date.

June 6, 1944 was tobe the day with the H-hour at 06:30. Aircraft bombed German installations and helpedprepare the ground attack. The ground forces landed and made their push inland. SoonOperation Overlord was in full affect as the allied forces pushed the Germans back towardsthe Russian forces coming in from the east. D-Day was the beginning and the key to thefight to take back Europe. Preparations for D-DayOperation Overlord was in no way a last minute operation thrown together. Whenthe plan was finalized in the spring of 1944 the world started work on preparing thehundreds of thousands of men for the greatest battle in history.

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By June of 1944 the landing forces were training hard, awaiting D-Day. 1,700,000British, 1,500,000 Americans, 175,000 from Dominions (mostly Canada), and another44,000 from other countries were going to take part. Not only did men have to be recruited and trained but also equipment had to bebuilt to transport and fight with the soldiers. 1,300 warships, 1,600 merchant ships, 4,000landing craft and 13,000 aircraft including bombers, fighters and gliders were built. Alsoseveral new types of tanks and armoured vehicles were built. Two examples would be theSherman Crab flail tank and the Churchill Crocodile.

On the ground Britain assembled three armoured divisions, eight infantry divisions,two airborne divisions and ten independent fighting brigades. The United States had sixarmoured divisions, thirteen infantry and two airborne divisions. With one armoureddivision and two infantry divisions Canada also contributed greatly with the war effortespecially when you look at the size of the country at the time. In the air Britains onehundred RAF squadrons (1,200 aircraft) paled in comparison to the one hundred andsixty-five USAAF squadrons (2,000 aircraft). The entire Operation Overlord was supposed to go according to MontgomerysMaster Plan which was created by General Sir Bernard L.

Montgomery. His plan wasinitiated by a command system which connected the U.S. and Britain and helped themjointly run the operation. His plan was to have five divisions act as a first wave land on thesixty-one mile long beach front. Four more divisions as well as some airborne landingswould support the first wave. The beaches of Normandy would be separated into fivebeaches, codenamed, from west to east Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword.

TheAmericans would invade the two westernmost beaches, being Utah and Omaha and theBritish and its Dominions would take Gold, Juno and Sword. The Canadians were nearlythe entire force to land on Juno beach. The operation was also coordinated with variousFrench resistance groups called the Secret Army.The naval plans were to transport the allied expeditionary forces, help secure anddefend a beachhead, and to help setup a method of constant resupplying of allied forces. Operation Overlord, in short, was as follows: The airforce would be used to knockout German defences and immobilize their forces, blowup tanks and other dummies wereused to fool Germans into thinking the invasion was coming at Pas de Calais, the navywould transport the troops while doing whatever it can to help them gain ground, andenough of France would be liberated and held by allied forces so that they would not bepushed back into the sea.

Utah BeachUtah beach was a stretch of beachfront approximately five miles long and located inthe dunes of Varreville. Like most beach attacks that day, the planned attack time was06:30 or H hour. As early as 02:00 (H-4:30) the preparations for attack were being madeas minesweepers started working at creating a safe path for allied battleships, frigates,corvettes, etc. At about 02:30 the flagship for Utah beach was in place and the order wasgiven for the landing crafts to be loaded and placed into the water. The four waves oftroops were ready to go and the German radar had not spotted any buildup of ships. The first gunfire occurred at daybreak when some ships were spotted and firedupon by coastal guns.

276 planes, all B-26 Marauders flew in to drop their payload of4400 bombs on the targets. Almost all missed and nearly a third fell onto the beaches andinto the sea, far away from their targets. Although some guns were silenced the pooraccuracy of the aircraft was costly and would turn out to be only one of the many errorsmade by the allied forces. At 06:30 the first of the troops landed, the 8th and 4th infantry missed the correctbeach and landed 2,000 yards away on what turned out to be a less heavily defended beach. This mix up was blamed on smoke and rough seas. These first troops were all part of thetwenty landing craft, each carrying thirty men that made up the first wave. After the firstwave came the 32 amphibious tanks.

The second wave of troops consisted of 32 craftcarrying combat engineers and a naval demolition team. Dozer tanks would make up thethird wave. Long after the securing of the beach 2 engineer battalions arrived. This may sound like all the divisions made it easily to shore but that is not true.

Many amphibious tanks were unable to make the trek on the rough seas and sank. Twoout of the three control vessels for the beach hit land mines and sank and countless landingcraft were shelled by German coastal guns. There were also several drownings involvingtroops being weighed down by their equipment and drowning in water around six feetdeep.

If the soldiers managed to make it to shore they were still faced with Germanmachine gun fire. Fortunately, the beach and its surroundings had become the victim of alarge sea launched missile attack clearing most of the German defences. Once divisions had made it on the beach and secured it they had to start movinginland on their pre-planned missions.

The divisions that landed on the wrong beachdecided to start the war from right here. Most of the landed troops were supposed tosecure the areas and push inland, eventually meeting up with the 82nd and 101st airbornedivisions that had dropped behind the enemy in order to cut them off from escape and sothat they could be attacked from two angles. In the Utah Beach attack there were six divisions involved. The 4th and 8thdivisions that landed on the wrong beaches still continued on with their missions. The 4th,which was originally supposed to land on the islands of St. Marcouf to destroy coastal gunsthought to be there ended up moving inland and linking up with the 101st airbornedivision.

The other division that landed in the wrong location was the 8th. Their missionwas to reduce beach fortifications and to move inland. The last two divisions were the 12thand 22nd. Both divisions were to work together to secure the Northern region of the beach. The 22nd was to move northwest clearing beaches and the high ground overlooking themwhile the 12th moved inland on their left flank. Unfortunately the 22nd was unable tomake its deep swing into the Northwest. By the end of the day the only infantry that was able to make it to its D-Dayobjective was the 8th infantry that had landed on the wrong beach. Most of the area wassecure except for a pocket of Germans that controlled a small area shaped like a two milefinger on the ridges north of Les Forges.

The experimental idea of having two airbornedivisions drop farther inland had helped make the Utah Beach attack a near success.Omaha BeachThe Omaha beach area was the largest of all the Normandy beaches atapproximately 34,500 yards in length. The beach itself had only five passable ways off,creating another difficulty for the landing troops and vehicles.

Behind the beach wereheavily defended bluffs and high cliffs. In order to invade the area, with its twelve German strongpoints over 34,000 troopsand 3,300 vehicles would be involved in the Omaha Beach invasion. The large number waspartly because of the fact that beginning in April of the same year German military hadstarted to fortify the area in hopes of deterring any invasion from the area. The sandybeaches themselves were free of mines but three bands of obstacles were put into place inorder to create impassable obstacles for landing sea craft. First large gate-like structureswere built, simply to get in the way. The second band were large posts and logs dug intothe beach also creating obstacles. The third and final obstacle was farther up the beach,they were large hedgehogs which were mined obstacles that looked as though they weresome sort of weird medieval art. Like the rest of the beaches, the planned attack time (H hour) was 06:30.

Manywould think that this would be when the death toll would first start to rise but this justwasnt so. Many men died far from the beach. Two companies of amphibious DD tankssank because of heavy seas.

Included with the 27 tanks that sunk were 11 landing craftthat tipped. Soldiers on these transports drowned because the weight of the equipmentthey were carrying held them under the water. Other craft hit mines, losing troops,supplies and weapons. Most of the landing craft were being fired upon by Germanmachine gun fire even when the crafts were still over 1,000 yards away from the beach. Some even ran aground while still 100 feet from shore. Attempts to improve the situationwere made by groups such as the 29th division who decided to bring their tanks in on thelanding craft.

8 of the 16 tanks made it to the beach. Other craft either missed theirlanding area or arrived too late. The lateral current dragged some infantry units 100s ofyards from their objectives and a few battalions, like the 2nd Ranger battalion arrived 40minutes after they were scheduled to land. Once most of the craft had managed to make it to the beach the soldiers still facedmany problems. Air strikes that were planned to knock out enemy machine gunners werenot successful enough. Most of the troops were pinned behind the sea wall and otherobstacles by machine gun fire ahead of them and the raising tides behind them. Tides rosefour feet per hour, shrinking the beach by eighty feet in the same time period. Thosesoldiers who were too injured to walk or crawl drowned as the tide sped up on them.

Withsoldiers pinned down and not enough vehicles being able to get off the beach other craftwere unable to land due to the lack of room. For the first few hours at Omaha Beach things looked grim. No major advanceswere being made. The real turnaround that day was when a few destroyers actually camein as close as eight hundred yards in order to fire at enemy strongpoints. The risk ofgrounding the destroyers took and the arrival of tanks lead to the eventual fall of theGerman beach defences. Once the groups could move inland their individual missions wereput into place.One of the most important missions put upon any division was the destruction of sixFrench-made 155mm naval guns at Pointe du Hoc. This responsibility was given to the116th brigade and its two combat teams: US 5th Ranger and US 2nd Ranger teams.

The5th met the fate of many battalions as the landed on the wrong beach. Luckily theremaining two teams did manage to destroy the naval guns that were capable of attackingships as far out as 25,000 yards (22km). This would prove to be one of the few missionsthat were completed that day. Because of the great break downs in planned assaults, the day started to look like achaotic day with only individual missions of survival. Most divisions managed to stayorganized and plan their survival and attack plans. Col. George H. Taylor of the 16thregiment said, Two kinds of people are staying on this beach, the dead and those about todie, not lets get the hell out of here.

These sort of speeches sparked other soldiers tocontinue with their slightly revised missions. Originally it was planned for the areas abovethe beaches to be taken by an advance up the heavily defended bluffs but the plan waschanged to a less organized direct assault on the German gunners in the high cliffs. Othersuch companies that decided on newly created missions included the 16th infantry and the29th division.

These two groups decided on a joint mission to save their allies who werepinned on the beach. Also involved on the Omaha Beach invasion were the US 1 InfantryDivision, and the US 18th and 115th Brigades.By the end of D-Day on Omaha Beach the advance had gone barely one and a halfmiles inland. Several of the enemy strongpoints were intact and the beachhead was stillunder fire. Although this beaches day sounds like a disaster the major exits from the areawere held, three villages were under allied control and hole in the German line about twoand half kilometers long was made and the coastal guns were destroyed. The landing hadbeen made, all the troops could do was secure the area and organize the beach for theintroduction of reinforcements and supplies. Gold BeachGold Beach was the second largest of the beaches of Normandy and was also themiddle beach: Utah and Omaha to the west and Juno and Sword to the east.

Gold beachwas like most of the other beaches invaded on D-Day except it had one characteristic which was disadvantageous to the allies. Coral reefs, ranging from twenty to a hundredyards out could ground landing craft at low tide. Because of this factor the Gold Beachwas postponed almost an hour after most of the other attacks that day. H hour on thisbeach was to be 07:25. It turned out the this adverse condition would soon show to have its pros andcons.

The largest pro being that this left more time for bombardment of German defensesby RAF bombers and naval guns. The cons were of course the fact that with the risingtides men landing on the beach would end up facing the fate of many soldiers on Omahabeach, being pinned behind a sea wall and being drowned by the advancing waves. Itwould also turn out that, along with beach obstacles, the rising tide would make it evenharder for landing craft to make their transport runs. Not soon after the arrival of the first wave of landing crafts the problems started tomount. Also, like at Omaha, regiments decided to bring their DD Sherman tanks on theirLCD transports instead of floating them in. This was mainly because of the weather whichcreated high seas. Unfortunately this sort of tactic left the tanks as sitting ducks and all butone of the tanks were disabled or destroyed.

Soon one problem lead to another as thosesoldiers that landed on the beach were unable to advance and were without any tanks tobail them out of their predicament. Eventually with the help of the one tank that survivedthe landing the troops at Gold Beach were able to press forward. Not unlike any of the other beaches, Gold had a complicated battle plan includingmany divisions, regiments and even a commando group. The overall goal was to take thekey points of the German defenses and secure the area. One such key point wasPort-en-Bessin which was to be invaded by the British 47th Royal Marine Commando whowould later meet up with an America regiment from Omaha. The problem was that noteverything went according to plan and they were unable to take the city and Americanswho were supposed to help in the fight inland by moving through the North-west flank ofthe area never showed up.Another such joining of teams did go according to plans as the50th division met up with a division of Canadians from Juno beach after coming within amile of their D-day objective of the taking of Bayeux. The only two groups to succeed intheir D-day objectives as Gold Beach were the 69th and 231st regiments.

The 231stsuccessfully took the city of Arromanches while the 69th took la Riviere even after theywere forced to originally bypass the stronghold and return and destroy it later on. Othergroups involved included the British 8th, 151st and 56th regiments who aided in the pushinland and the clearing of the beaches of mines and obstacles.Although a lot of the operations planned for Gold Beach went array, a few greatthings did occur. A few of which, carried out by CSM Stanley Hollis, were soextraordinary that they enabled him to be awarded with the only Victoria Cross to beawarded the entire day of June 6, 1944. Col. Hollis of the 6th company was ordered tocheck out some pillboxes(small German machine-gun bunkers). A few of his officers weresent in to investigate and when they were twenty yards from the pillbox, a machine gunopened fire from the slit and CSM Hollis instantly rushed straight at the pillbox, rechargedhis magazine, threw a grenade in through the door and fired his Sten gun into it, killingtwo Germans and making the remainder prisoner. He then cleared several Germans froma neighbouring trench.

Then when his company was pinned down by heavy machine-gunfire Hollis managed to destroy the gun using a PIAT (Projector Infantry Anti-Tank)weapon and retreated his troops. After learning that some of his men were still cornered ina nearby house Hollis ran at the Germans with his gun firing allowing the men to escape.By the end of the day most of the D-day objectives had failed but three brigadeswere ready to push farther inland at sunlight. The beach was secured and ready forreinforcements. Unfortunately Bayeux was not taken but most of the areas hiddenbunkers and trenches were. Some in fact were found to be manned by unwilling Asiaticconscripts from the southern Soviet republics who were put there by Germans. Juno BeachJuno beach was Canadas beach with over 21,000 Canadians landing there.

Notunlike other beaches Junos H-hour was delayed until 07:45. The reason was that airreconnaissance had spotted some underwater shoals (rocks/reefs) and they wanted towait until the tide had gone in to make it safer for the landing craft. (Later on the shoalsturned out to be masses of floating seaweed). The beach itself was wide enough to land twobrigades side by side, the Canadian 7th at Courseulles and the 8th at Bernieres.The decision to wait until 07:45 caused more problems than it solved. The risingtide hid most of the beach obstacles meaning two things: it was dangerous for the landingcraft to come ashore and the demolition crews couldnt get at the obstacles to make roomfor the landing craft. Thirty percent of all the landing craft at Juno beach on D-day weredisabled in beach obstacle related incidents.

One such example was when one craft startedto disembark troops a wave threw the craft onto a mined beach obstacle. Like at most of the beaches that day, armoured divisions started to bring their tanksin on the landing craft but like on all the other beaches this caused problems. The ReginaRifles, one of the first groups to land, had to wait twenty minutes on the beach without theaid of any tanks or heavy artillery. Due to heavy seas and tanks coming in on the landingcraft it meant that people who should have been in front were behind.The Canadianswere smarter than most in the setup of their landing. They chose a position at sea whichwas only seven or eight miles out instead of the distance most other beach operations wereusing of about eleven miles. This greatly increased the speed and accuracy of the landingsand the first Canadian wave was on the beach by 08:15. Once on the beach the amount of German defences surprised the allied forces, onceagain the air assault on the German gunneries were not as successful as planned.

However,like at Gold beach the Canadians did find out that the firepower of their tanks were thedifference between being able to push inland and being pinned down at the beach. Afterthe main beach defences of the Germans were taken the inland push became slower andslower the farther south they got. A few of the main objectives were successful. The 3rd division reach theCaen-Bayeux road and a lot of French towns were liberated. The French residents werevery welcoming and greeted us heartily in the midst of the ruins of their homes. The onestrongpoint that would become a problem for troops at Juno as well as Sword would beCaen. The Canadians found increased resistance the closer they got and in that aspecttheir D-day mission did not succeed.

As night fell the Canadians were still well short of a lot of objectives. They did gettheir tanks on the Caen-Bayeux road but that was about it. The British 3rd division fromSword beach was planned to meet up with the Canadians in order to close the gap betweenJuno and Sword beaches but they never showed. This left a two mile gap in the beachesand would be the area of the only German counterattack of the day. The other linkupbetween beaches was successful as Canadians met the 50th division from Gold beach. Overall the Canadians didnt get all that far but were in a good position to move inland.

Sword BeachSword beach was the easternmost beach in Normandy. Like at Juno Beach H-hourwas again postponed because of shoals until 07:25. The main objective at Sword beachwas to advance and invade the German strongpoint of Caen. Four whole brigades of the3rd division were sent to Caen.

There were also airborne divisions that dropped behindlines using large gliders which could carry troops as well as other armoured vehicles. Thosegroups not supposed to head toward Caen were planned to reach the airborne divisionsand secure the areas bridges from counterattack. Even as the Canadians moved inland trouble was developing back at the beach. Although all the DD tanks made it to the beach the tide was turning the already smallbeach into one with only ten yards from the seafront to the waters edge. With only oneroad off the beach the overcrowding caused delays in most objectives for that day.

Someof the armoured divisions like the 27th armoured Brigade abandoned their objectives inorder to bail out infantry pinned down on the crowded beaches. Those who did make it off the beach in time were quite successful in reaching theirD-day objectives. By late afternoon the leading troops of the brigades heading for Caenhad reached and liberated the towns of Beuville and Bieville which were only two or somiles short of Caen. Strongpoints like the one at La Breche were taken as early as 10:00. Those troops that didnt make it off the beach in time like the 185th Brigade had to leaveall their heavy equipment behind in order to catch up with the forces already nearingCaen. The move inland was really looking quite promising until the Germans launched theonly counterattack of the day.

The 21st Panzer division was sent out from Caen, half totake on the southward allies and the other half to head right up between Juno and Swordbeach where that two mile of beach was unoccupied by allied forces. Fifty German tanksfaced the brigades heading for Caen. Luckily the British were ready with artillery,fighter-bombers and a special Firefly Sherman tank that was fitted with a seventeenpound anti-tank gun instead of the normal seventy-five mm. gun. Soon thirteen of theGerman tanks were destroyed with only one M-10 tank destroyer damaged. This just wentto show that the British were slow in advance but almost unbreakable in defence.

Stillthe Germans pressed forward until about 21:00 when the last wave of gliders of the 6thairborne divisions came in. The Germans looked up and saw about two hundred and fiftygliders fly in and land behind them. The allies now were attacking from two directions andthe only German counterattack ended quickly. By the end of the day the German resistance at Sword beach was almost obliteratedother than at Caen. A lot of the success was because of the joint effort of airborne divisionsand divisions landing on the beach. Of the 6,250 troops of the 6th airborne that landedthere were only 650 casualties.

Unfortunately Caen was not taken but its liberation wasimminent. D-Day Air BattleD-day was not only a day of troops landing on the beaches of Normandy andmoving inland liberating France. Without the aid of the thousands of planes OperationOverlord could not have gone as planned. As early as the spring of 1944 planes flew overGerman ruled France taking photographs of the defences. During the ten week periodbefore June 6 countless missions were flown with objectives of taking out German radarinstallations. There were also hundreds of attacks on the railways of the area in order toimmobilize the forces. Of the 2,000 locomotives that were in the area the year before 1,500of them were destroyed or disabled by allied bombings. By the eve of D-day the allies had 2,800 heavy bombers, 1,500 light bombers and3,700 fighter planes and fighter-bombers.

They also had 56 special night bombers. When June 6, 1944 came around all the squadrons of planes involved had theirmissions just as the landing infantry divisions had theirs. It took six squadrons of RAFMosquitoes to patrol the huge armada of ships in the English Channel that day.

Withoutwhom there would have some serious repercussions on the entire operation. At all timesthere twenty anti-submarine planes patrolling the area and protecting the force who wouldhave been sitting ducks for any German U-boats that would have gotten into the area. To aid the actual landings of the troops squadrons flew bombing missions onGerman pillboxes and other gunnery installations. Flying at three hundred miles per hourstraight in at German machine gun fire in order to clear the way for others to take theglory is what I call guts. In order to clear the three British beaches eighteen squadrons flewmissions over a nearly continuous eight hour time period. When bombers werentdestroying installations they were setting up smoke screens around the land based navalguns in order to once again protect the allied armada. Probably one of the most important things done by the fighters was to fly phantommissions in order to make the Germans think that the invasion would by at Pas de Calais.

Without the use of air firepower as used on D-day I can say without a doubt thatJune 6, 1944 would be remembered as a day of complete disaster. ConclusionBy the end of June 6, 1944 one of the most complicated and the most coordinatedinvasions had started. On the beach codenamed Utah the American 1st army held a firmbeachhead with several divisions already receiving the supplies they needed and wouldsoon be ready to move inland. On Omaha the troops there had recovered from what hadlooked like an impending disaster in the first hours and started to break through theGerman defences. At the British run beaches of Juno, Gold and Sword the forces hadaveraged a push inland of six miles. Even with the amount of landing soldiers numberingabout seventy-five thousand, the casualties between the three beaches were onlyapproximately three thousand.

D-Day was the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe and the end of thebeginning for the fight for Europe. Im not saying that everything went according to planon D-day and there wasnt any errors. I am also not saying that it was a complete disaster. I am saying that D-Day was on paper, with objectives for each division and a craft for eachinfantry unit, the greatest battle of all time. Table of ContentsI. Introductionpg. 1II.

Preperation for D-Daypg. 2III. BeachfrontsA. Utah Beachpg. 4,5B. Omaha Beachpg. 7,8C.

Gold Beachpg. 10, 11D. Juno Beachpg.

13E. Sword Beachpg. 15IV.

D-Day Air Battlepg. 17V. Conclusionpg. 19VI. Bibliographypg. 20BibliographyD-Day June 6, 1944: The Climatic Battle of World War IIStephen E.

Ambrose,Simon & ————————————————————–

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