Introduction

Introduction Western female thought through the centuries has identified the relationship between patriarchy and gender as crucial to the women’s subordinate position. For two hundred years, patriarchy precluded women from having a legal or political identity and the legislation and attitudes supporting this provided the model for slavery. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries suffrage campaigners succeeded in securing some legal and political rights for women in the UK. By the middle of the 20th century, the emphasis had shifted from suffrage to social and economic equality in the public and private sphere and the women’s movement that sprung up during the 1960s began to argue that women were oppressed by patriarchal structures. Equal status for women of all races, classes, sexualities and abilities – in the 21st century these feminist claims for equality are generally accepted as reasonable principles in western society; yet the contradiction between this principle of equality and the demonstrable inequalities between the sexes that still exist exposes the continuing dominance of male privilege and values throughout society (patriarchy).

This essay seeks to move beyond the irrepressible evidence for gender inequality and the division of labour. Rather, it poses the question of gender inequality as it manifests itself as an effect of patriarchy drawing from a theoretical body of work which has been developed so recently that it would have been impossible to write this essay thirty years ago. Feminist Theory and Patriarchy Although ” .. patriarchy is arguably the oldest example of a forced or exploitative division of social activities” and clearly existed before it was ever examined by sociologists, the features of patriarchy had been accepted as natural (biological) in substance. It was not until feminists in the 1960s began to explore the features and institutions of patriarchy, that the power of the concept to explain women’s subordinate position in society was proven (Seidman, 1994). The feminist engagement with theories of patriarchy criticised pre-existing theoretical positions and their ideological use, tracing theoretical progenitors of popular views about gender, gender roles etc (Cooper, 1995; Raymond, 1980). Developing theories to explain how gender inequalities have their roots in ideologies of gender difference and a hierarchical gender order, feminist theoretical concepts of patriarchy are able to explain and challenge gender inequality and the gendered division of labour in the private and social spheres (Seidman, 1994). They have done this by challenging concepts of gender, the family and the unequal division of labour underpinned by a theory of patriarchy that has come to reveal how it operates to subordinate women and privilege men, often at women’s expense. Patriarchy, Structure and Gender Inequality Walby (1990) reveals how patriarchy operates to achieve and maintain the gender inequalities essential for the subordination of women.

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Crucially for this essay, she shows how it can operate differently in the private and public domain but toward the same end. She identifies patriarchy as having diverse forms of and relationships between its structures in the public and private spheres, and yet still operates in a related fashion. Walby’s explanation sees the household and household production as being a key site of women’s subordination but acknowledges that the domestic area is not the only one that women participate in. She shows how the concept of patriarchy is useful in explaining the relationship between women’s subordination in the private and public arenas by showing that they work equally to achieve this subordination as well as supporting, reflecting and maintaining patriarchy itself. Firstly, Walby points out that the structures of patriarchy differ in their form. The household has a different structure to other institutional forms, e.g., the workplace.

This is an important point because if feminist theories of patriarchy are to stand they must show that patriarchy operates to the same end in both the private and public sphere, even if it uses different strategies, otherwise it could not be the main reason for the continuing inequality of women in both the private and public sphere. Walby shows that within the private structure and the public structures, patriarchy does use different strategies to maintain gender inequality and these strategies both achieve the subordination of women. The household strategy is considered to be exclusionary and the public structures strategy as segregationist. The exclusionary strategy in the private arena is based on household production. Application of this strategy in the domestic sphere depends on individual patriarchs controlling women in the private world of the home. The male patriarch in the household is both the oppressor and recipient of women’s subordination.

This strategy is direct – women are oppressed on a personal and individual basis by the individual patriarchs who share their lives. The segregationist strategy used in the public patriarchy actively excludes women from the public arena using various structures to subordinate them. Application depends on controlling access to public arenas (Golombok and Fivush, 1995). This strategy does not benefit the institution directly, but it does ensure that individual patriarchs are privileged at the expense of women, and it maintains gender differences. The way in which individual patriarchs and public institutions use there power further reveals how related the structures of patriarchy are. Public institutions do not have the power to oppress individual women or exclude them directly from public structures; this work is carried out in the home.

Power in institutions is used collectively rather than individually, and the segregationist strategy pursued in the public arena maintains the exclusionary strategy used in private that in turn supports the segregationist strategy used in public. Yet, the institution can only pursue its segregationist strategy because the individual patriarch subordinates the individual women daily. Walby’s description of patriarchal structure looks powerful where there are fewer variables – e.g., when women and men seem to share the ‘privilege’ of being exploited equally as a labour force working equal hours for equal pay in equal conditions (Haug, 1998). Haug (1998) cites research from East Germany which allows her to calculate that women do 4 hours and 41 minutes of domestic labour against men’s 2 hours 38 minutes. Men split their extra two hours between leisure time and paid employment. She asks if it is a realistic possibility that patriarchy could be so completely and comprehensively asserted in as little as two hours a day. Haug does not answer this question (perhaps it is rhetorical) but I think that Walby’s (1990) theory of patriarchy is so powerful because it can reveal the answer to questions like this.

Walby’s theory stands because she shows that the power of patriarchy is asserted in both the private and public sphere simultaneously supporting, reflecting and maintaining itself, regardless of the economic and social framework that prevails. In Haug’s case, patriarchy is not being asserted in two hours per day, rather it is an expression of patriarchy, i.e., a symbol of male privilege, which could only be expressed if the general strategies of patriarchal structure were intact and functioning. This description of the relationship between patriarchy and structure demonstrates how inequalities in the workplace and in inequality in the home are two sides of the same coin and individual males are involved in the direct and indirect subordination of women simultaneously. The concepts that allowed Walby (1990) to define patriarchy as she has are discussed below, with reference to the work of second and third wave feminist thinkers. Gender and Gender Inequalities in the Domestic and Occupational Divisions of Labour Feminist concepts of gender and gender inequality allow us to refer more or less directly to a theoretical framework for understanding how they have come to form a basis that helps structure the whole of society according to the concept of patriarchy (Seidman, 1994). The gender differences, which lead to gender inequality in the division of labour, and presented as natural by patriarchy and unequal gender order has been normalised and legitimated by science, medicine and popular culture (Raymond, 1980). Feminists hold that this normalisation conceals the social and political formation of an unequal male order, arguing that gender difference is socially produced in order to sustain male dominance (Seidman, 1994).

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Introduction

TQMThe purpose of this report is to critically analyse, evaluate and discuss related management issues conducive to the development of a total quality management environment within an organisation. This shall be done by critically analysing the case study of Agrotran Ltd. This report will discuss the role and application of quality management systems in organisations, debate and recommend a suitable way forward for Agrotran Ltd.


The issues concerning Agrotran Ltd
Agrotran is a small engineering company specialising in the manufacture of farming equipment. The four owners have recently sold out to the Nat-truk Group a manufacturer of specialist trucks and transports. The original owners set up Agrotran when they were made redundant from a large engineering company. They have a good working relationship, working well as a team and intimate knowledge of their business. They also have a laid back style of management.

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There are a number of issues that have arisen since the take-over.


Nat-truk are seeking to be included on the Ministry of Defences approved supplier list. This means that they and Agrotran need to achieve ISO 9000 certification although this was argued against by one of the former owners during the take-over negotiations. This has been seen as an imposition of extra cost and bureaucracy on Agrotran by Nat-truk.


Nat-truk has also introduced its own employees to Agrotran. This has resulted in fights breaking out between Agrotran and Nat-truk workers. The bases of these arguments are over communication problems involving processes, standards and specifications. This has resulted in some of Agrotrans best customers complaining about quality. One of the original owners Tom Smith has laid the blame on the extra procedures and paperwork choking up the system causing delays and loss of control.


The role and purpose of quality management systems
The role and purpose of quality management systems is to reduce the dependence on 3rd party audits and to provide a documented management system, which will provide clearer working procedures, improve quality control and efficiency. The Key features of a quality management system are the documented policy manuals and procedures on which the company could be audited. These policies and procedures should allow flexibility and adapt to change but always regain control. The objective of the quality management system ISO9000 is to give purchasers an assurance that the quality of the products and/or services provided by a supplier meets their requirements (Dale 1999). With this the company would seek to widen its customer base, as the customer is given an assurance of quality and the need for them to carry out their own audit is not required unless their own standards are higher than the requirements of ISO9000. A number of major purchasers use this registration as the first-pass over a suppliers quality system (Dale 1999). ISO9000 can also be used as the foundation for the introduction of TQM.

The application of quality management systems
The application of the ISO9000 series of standards can be used in three ways (Dale 1999).

1. To provide guidance to organisations, to assist them in developing their quality systems
2. As a purchasing standard (when specified in contracts)
3. As an assessment standard to be used by both second party and third party organisations.


The ISO9000 series consists of ISO9000, ISO9001, ISO9002, ISO9003, and ISO9004
ISO9000 Guidelines for Selection and Use and ISO9004 Guidelines for Specific Applications are only used as guidelines and to explain the application of ISO9001, ISO9002 and ISO9003.


ISO9001 Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation and Servicing
Covers 20 principal clauses which are of a management or operational nature
Management/macro requirementsOperational requirements
1. Management responsibility
2. Quality system
3. Contract review
5. Document and data control
17. Internal quality audits
18. Training
4. Design control
6. Purchasing
7. Control of customer-supplied product
8. Product identification and traceability
9. Process control
10. Inspection and testing
11. Control of inspection, measuring and test equipment
12. Inspection and test status
13. Control of non-conforming product
14. Corrective and preventive action
15. Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery
16. Control of quality records
19. Servicing
20. Statistical techniques
The Institute of Management
ISO9002 includes all of ISO9001 except design control
ISO9003 includes all of ISO9001 except design control, purchasing, process control and servicing
Development of a Total Quality Management within an organisation
If an organisation is to develop Total Quality Management then it must first understand what it is and how it has been developed. Which is easier said than done, as there are many different definitions of quality and how to achieve it. The main approaches in quality originate from Crosby, Deming, Feigenbaum, and Juran.


Crosby
Crosby (1979) defines quality as conformance to requirements, and his approach consists of :
 Quality means conformance, not elegance.

 It is always cheaper to do the job right the first time.

 The only performance indicator is the cost of quality
 The only performance standard is zero defects
 No such thing as a quality problem
This achieved through Crosbys 14-step quality improvement programme.


Responsibility is allocated as follows
 The Quality professional a moderate amount
 The hourly workforce a limited role, reporting problems to management
 Top management an important role
Deming
Deming defines quality in terms of quality of design, quality of conformance, and quality of the sales and service function.
Demings approach is base on PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Action) and his philosophy for improving quality is summarised in his 14 points for management. He also points out the seven deadly diseases of western management and organisational practice.


Deming (Dale 1999) states that quality and improvement is the responsibility of all the firms employees: top management must adopt the new religion of quality, lead the drive for improvement and be involved in all stages of the process.


Feigenbaum
Feigenbaum was the first to use the term total quality control. Feigenbaum (1991) has defined it thus Total Quality Control is an effective system for integrating the quality-development, quality maintenance, and quality-improvement efforts of the various groups in an organisation so as to enable marketing, engineering, production, and service at the most economical levels which allow for full customer satisfaction.


Feigenbaums approach is to help companies design their own system more than creating managerial awareness of quality. His contribution to the subject of the cost of quality is that quality costs must be categorised if they are to be managed. The three major categories being, appraisal costs, prevention costs, and failure costs which make up the Total Quality Costs.


Feigenbaum rests most responsibility with management saying that management must commit themselves:
 To strengthen the quality improvement process itself
 To making sure that quality improvement becomes a habit
 To managing and cost as complementary objectives
Instead of providing a step by step plan Feigenbaum provides ten benchmarks for total quality success.


Juran
Juran (1988) defines quality as fitness for use, which he breaks into quality of design, quality of conformance, availability, and field service. Jurans approach is to improve quality by increased conformance and decreased costs of quality by the setting of yearly goals. Juran has also developed a quality trilogy (quality planning, quality control and quality improvement) and a ten-point plan to summarise his approach.


Juran gives the main responsibility to the quality professionals
There are many others, who have added to the development of TQM such as Ishikawa,
Taguchi, Shingo, Peters, Dale, and Oakland etc.


Defining TQM
Total Quality Management is defined in the American Society for Quality Controls Bibliography as TQM is a Management approach to long-term success through customer satisfactionbased on the participation of all members of an organisation in improving processes, products, services and the culture they work in (Bemowski 1992 Cited by Hiam 1994)
Actions taken throughout the organisation to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of activities and processes in order to provide added benefits to both the organisation and its customers (ISO8402)
TQM is a style of managing which gives everyone in the organisation responsibility for delivering quality to the final customer, quality being described as fitness for purpose or delighting the customer. TQM views each task in the organisation as fundamentally a process which is in a customer supplier relationship with the next process. The aim at each stage is to define and meet the customers requirements in order to maximise the satisfaction of the final consumer at the lowest possible cost. (The Institute of Management)
Juran, in an interview (Gordon 1994), claims that TQM involves the use of any means to achieve World-Class Quality, and acknowledges that there is no clear definition of TQM.
These are just a few definitions of TQM. Each guru, each consultant has their own depending on their particular bias. A company undertaking TQM will probably arrive at its own version, which is fine as not all the tools, techniques and philosophy will be relevant to them and they will have their own bias, but any outsider should recognise it as TQM.

TQM adoption and development
Although there are many differences in the philosophies of the experts there are basic key elements common to each that a company must address when embarking on the adoption of TQM
Planning and Organisation
 Development of a long term strategy
 Development of polices
 Building product and service quality into designs and processes
 Development of procedures
Using tools and Techniques
The correct selection of tools and techniques to enable the process of continuous improvement. The company needs to identify the priority of each tool it is to introduce, explain why they are required. The use of these tools will not be successful until they are part of the every day behaviour of the company. Therefore an appropriate time should be given between introductions or people will be trying to learn a new tool before they have got to grips with the last one.


Education and Training
This has to be company wide with each person receiving a level of training and education that will enable them to carry out and understand the quality tools, techniques and philosophy. This should be done through a training programme that best suit the needs of the company and employee.


Involvement
In this, employees are involved in the decision making that effect them and their function. The desired effect is to improve commitment, enrich their job, and benefit from their hands-on experience. This is normally done through Q.C.s. If employees are allowed to solve problems, they probably will, and engineers etc., can act more as consultants and spend less time fire fighting.


Teamwork
Teamwork requires effective communication and involvement. Teams can take many forms such as, Cross Functional Groups, Project Groups and Focus Groups. Roles, responsibilities and boundaries have to be clear with sufficient support from senior management.


Measurement and Feedback
Control Systems need to be set in place, to measure whatever you need to manage, whatever you need to improve. The control system must feed back the appropriate information to the relevant people in a timely fashion. The Measuring Systems need to be discussed with who is using them and who is being measured. If employees are taught SPC and assess themselves, this should lead to greater commitment.


Ensuring the culture is conducive to continuous improvement activity
This is perhaps the most important element and needs to start at the top. If the senior management avoid getting involved and only pay lip service to TQM, or say one thing and act in a manner that is not conducive to TQM, then it is unlikely that the employees will commit themselves to TQM.


Another element common to TQM is the use of Self-Assessment Models and Quality Awards.


The most common used models are the Deming Application Prize, The European Business Excellence Model (Figure 1) and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. These are very useful tools in aiding TQM Development and Business Performance. The managers must have a firm grasp on what TQM is, as these models will not lead to it.
Figure 1 The EFQM model for business excellence, Kaye, Anderson (1998)
Once the company has an understanding of TQM. It should then carry out a health check to assess its situation. This review should be in the common understandable language of the participants, to avoid misunderstandings and so no one feels that they are being talked down, this should ensure greater participation. By asking questions such as:
 How far along the company is to TQM
 What does it still has to achieve
 What it will have to change with respect to the key elements of TQM
 What TQM evolutionary level best represents the company
 What level of TQM adoption the company is at
 What are the attitudes of the staff towards the company
The objectives of a health check should be to
 To give the company a starting point and subsequently measure change from that position.
 To identify issues
 To seek out hidden agendas and areas of resistance
 To establish priorities
Two guidelines that companies can use to assess their position in TQM terms are:
Dales (1999) Four Levels in the Evolution of TQM and Lascelles & Dales (1993) Levels of TQM Adoption (Figures 2 and 3).These models could also help in creating achievable targets e.g. Today where we are classed as uncommitted company and cover all the inspection requirements. In one years time we will be classed as a drifter and incorporate all of the Quality Control Criteria.


Figure 2 The four levels in the evolution of TQM (Dale 1999)
Figure 3 Levels of TQM adoption, Lascelles and Dale (1993)

Figure 4 The Quality Training Cycle
Once it has assessed its situation it can then plan out the appropriate steps and timescale it needs to achieve them. Each step should be taken as an identifiable project using the quality training cycle (figure 4)
The development of TQM in any company takes many years. It would be unwise for anyone to attempt the whole thing at once.
The Argument for TQM
There are many claims made for TQM by the myriad of consultants and gurus some of these claims can be quite wild, some consultants may try and sell TQM as a quick fix, this kind of claim does not help the serious teachers and users of TQM. The most recognisable advantages of TQM are:
 It helps provide the customer with a improved product or service
 The customer can be assured of a desirable quality standard
 It requires critical analysis of what you do and how you do it
 Standardises procedures that clarify employees tasks and roles
 Creates ownership and motivation in the work force thus improving effectiveness and efficiency
 Creates a corporate history that can be referred to through documents and records
 Cuts and improves training time through training records and reference manuals
 It requires improved standards, services and cost from suppliers
 Adoption of ISO9000, success in quality awards etc. improves the company profile and market potential
 Cuts the cost of wasted resources and materials
Criticisms of TQM
Those who argue against TQM such as Harari, Grossman, Grint from research carried out by Arthur D Little, Ernst & Young, Rath & Strong, McKinsey & Co & AT Kearney, point out that only 20-30% of TQM initiatives are successful. Therefore, it cannot justify itself as a success or worth the money.
The defenders of TQM explain this low success rate, as due to poor implementation, and that the critics and failures do not fully understand TQM, but a theory is no good unless it works in practice. Therefore, any company undertaking TQM could learn a lot from the critics, and possibly avoid the pit falls.


Harari (1992,1993) has pointed out his criticisms, which are common to most critics, in his Ten Reasons TQM Doesnt Work, and later adding an 11th:
1. TQM focuses peoples attention on Internal Processes rather than results
– there is not enough focus on what the customer actually wants.

2. TQM focuses on minimum standards products are being made with no defects, but they also have no Wow factor. I.e. Fords look like Nissans, Look like Toyotas etc.

3. TQM develops its own cumbersome bureaucracy A Quality department that grows and grows in size producing paperwork that chokes the business.

4. TQM delegates Quality to Quality Czars and experts rather than to real people responsibility is taken from those who should have it, i.e. everyone, quality cant be delegated.


5. TQM does not demand radical organisational reform to often this is an excuse
downsizing rather than freeing up people from fire fighting to becoming experts and acting across boundaries.


6. TQM does not demand changes in management compensation payment of bonuses depending on short-term profit is still the main bonus measure (80% of organisations).

7. TQM does not demand entirely new relationship with outside partners sole supplier status is often misused to hold that supplier to ransom, rather than using support, trust and caring about the well being of your partners to improve the whole supply chain.

8. TQM appeals to faddism, egotism and quick fixism TQM is often sold as a quick fix. Many managers are not capable of staying the course in this never-ending process; many lose the plot and become obsessed with the Baldrige Award.

9. TQM drains entrepreneurship and innovation from corporate culture – Companies need to be more chaotic to make the big breakthroughs and this does not fit with Do-it-right-first-time. People will accept the imperfect if there are other compensations. Ferrari makes impractical cars that leak oil and breakdown a lot but they sell.

10. TQM has no place for love TQM is clinical, analytically detached, sterile and mechanical. There is no emotion or soul. You have no right to manage unless you talk passionately about what you are doing. Debbie Coleman Apple.

11. TQM is sold and implemented as a formula to solve all your problems TQM should be kept in perspective, it is tqm not TQM! It wont, and cant, solve every problem
Recommendations
Agrotran should adopt TQM as part of their business strategy. They should be clear on why they want to do this long-term profitability, increase market share etc., and tailor their approach.


There are a number of tasks Agrotran should under take in this process:
1. Establish a TQM team to oversee the projects and training. This should be made up of the senior management, it is important that management understand and is committed to TQM. It should include someone from Nat-truk who has experience in this area, and Tom Smith as the most vocal critic to act as devils advocate and to win his commitment back which seems to have taken a knock.

2. Establish the reasons for change and communicate this to all involved
3. Create a Vision statement that encapsulates what the company is trying to achieve and how it intends to achieve it. In all the different activities this will provide everyone with a common focus
4. Establish the standard they intend to supply with reference to customer requirements the capabilities of the company and its suppliers.

5. Carry out a health check to establish their current position, what areas are in most need of improvement, what situations are constant problems, e.g. The communication problems over process etc.

6. Set up a system that will collect data and establish the costs of failure and the reasons behind this.

7. It would probably be worthwhile reviewing their Quality System (ISO9000) as this seems to be Nat-Truks imposed on Agrotran. This should be mainly under the control of Agrotran as it will be based on their knowledge of how Agrotran works best and their knowledge of their current customers requirements, Nat-truk would have more input, but not take over, when it comes to their areas of expertise.

8. Use the previous step to draw a quality strategy, to include; Goals, required systems and tools, behaviour changes to create a suitable culture in the company, resources required. Create a timetable and priorities for the definable projects. Some projects should be aimed to be completed soon, so that changes can be seen.

9. Establish the requirement and time table for training and education
10. The senior management should also keep themselves up to date with the current developments, debates and criticisms of TQM. After all TQM does practice what preaches continuous improvement and this can help the company in their own continuous improvement.

References
Crosby PB. (1979) Quality is free, The art of making quality certain McGraw-Hill
Dale, BG. (1999) Managing Quality Third Edition Blackwell Business
Feigenbaum AV. (1991) Total Quality Control, Third Edition Revised, 40th Anniversary Edition McGraw-Hill
Gordon, J. (1994) An Interview with Joseph M Juran. (advocate of total quality management) Training, May 1994 v31 n5 p35
Grint, K. (1997) TQM, BPR, BSCs and TLAs: managerial waves or drownings? (total quality management; business process reengineering; just in time; balanced score cards; three-letter acronyms) Managerial Decision, Sept-Oct 1997 v35 n9-10 p731
Grossman, SR. (1994) Why TQM doesnt workand what you can do about it. (Total Quality Management) Industry Week, Jan 3, v243 n1 p57
Harari, O. (1992,1997) Ten reasons TQM doesnt work (reprint, best of the cutting edge) V86 Management Review, 01-01-1997
Harari, O. (1993), The eleventh reason why TQM doesnt work. (Total Quality Management) Management Review, May 1993 v82 n5 p31
Hiam, A. (1994) Does Quality Work? A Review of Relevant Studies The Conference Board. New York
The Institute of Management, Total Quality: Mapping a TQM Strategy, Checklist 029, Institute of Management
The Institute of Management, Preparing for ISO9000, Checklist 004, Institute of Management
Juran, JM. & Gryna, FM. (1988) Jurans Quality Control Handbook 4th Edition
Kaye, M & Anderson, R. (1999) Continuous improvement: the ten essential criteria International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, v16 n5 p485
Bibliography
Beckford, J. (1998) Quality A critical introduction Routledge, London & New York
Beecroft, GD. (1999) The role of quality in strategic management Management Decision, v37 i6
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Conti, T. (1999) Vision 2000: positioning the new ISO 9000 standards with respect to total quality management models. Total Quality Management, July 1999
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Fulsher, J. & Powell, SG (1999) Anatomy of a process mapping workshop The Journal of Business, v5 n3 p208
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Holland, R. (1997) TQM & STW Combine as the twin thieves of individualism Richmond Times-Despatch Wed July 9 1997
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Lee, TY. Leung, HKN. & Chan KCC. (1999). Improving quality management on the basis of ISO 9000 The TQM Magazine v11 i2
McAbe, D. & Wilkison, A. (1998). The rise and the fall of TQM: the vision, meaning and operation of change. (total quality management) Industrial Relations Journal, March 1998 v29 n1 p18
McAdam, R & ONeill, E. (1999) Taking a critical perspective to the European Business Excellence Model using a balanced scorecard approach: a case study in the service sector Managing Service Quality v9 n3 p191
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Marsh, J. (1996) The Quality Toolkit A practical resource for making TQM happen
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Business

Introduction

June 6, 1944 will be remembered for many reasons. Some may think of it as a
success and some as a failure. The pages following this could be used to prove either one.
The only sure thing that I can tell you about D-Day is this: D-Day, June 6, 1944 was the
focal point of the greatest and most planned out invasion of all time.
The allied invasion of France was long awaited and tactfully thought out. For
months the allied forces of millions trained in Britain waiting for the Supreme Commander
of the Allied Expeditionary Forces, General Eisenhower to set a date. June 6, 1944 was to
be the day with the H-hour at 06:30. Aircraft bombed German installations and helped
prepare the ground attack. The ground forces landed and made their push inland. Soon
Operation Overlord was in full affect as the allied forces pushed the Germans back towards
the Russian forces coming in from the east. D-Day was the beginning and the key to the
fight to take back Europe.


Preparations for D-Day
Operation Overlord was in no way a last minute operation thrown together. When
the plan was finalized in the spring of 1944 the world started work on preparing the
hundreds of thousands of men for the greatest battle in history.
By June of 1944 the landing forces were training hard, awaiting D-Day. 1,700,000
British, 1,500,000 Americans, 175,000 from Dominions (mostly Canada), and another
44,000 from other countries were going to take part.
Not only did men have to be recruited and trained but also equipment had to be
built to transport and fight with the soldiers. 1,300 warships, 1,600 merchant ships, 4,000
landing craft and 13,000 aircraft including bombers, fighters and gliders were built. Also
several new types of tanks and armoured vehicles were built. Two examples would be the
Sherman Crab flail tank and the Churchill Crocodile.
On the ground Britain assembled three armoured divisions, eight infantry divisions,
two airborne divisions and ten independent fighting brigades. The United States had six
armoured divisions, thirteen infantry and two airborne divisions. With one armoured
division and two infantry divisions Canada also contributed greatly with the war effort
especially when you look at the size of the country at the time. In the air Britains one
hundred RAF squadrons (1,200 aircraft) paled in comparison to the one hundred and
sixty-five USAAF squadrons (2,000 aircraft).
The entire Operation Overlord was supposed to go according to Montgomerys
Master Plan which was created by General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery. His plan was
initiated by a command system which connected the U.S. and Britain and helped them
jointly run the operation. His plan was to have five divisions act as a first wave land on the
sixty-one mile long beach front. Four more divisions as well as some airborne landings
would support the first wave. The beaches of Normandy would be separated into five
beaches, codenamed, from west to east Utah, Omaha, Gold, Juno and Sword. The
Americans would invade the two westernmost beaches, being Utah and Omaha and the
British and its Dominions would take Gold, Juno and Sword. The Canadians were nearly
the entire force to land on Juno beach. The operation was also coordinated with various
French resistance groups called the Secret Army.

The naval plans were to transport the allied expeditionary forces, help secure and
defend a beachhead, and to help setup a method of constant resupplying of allied forces.
Operation Overlord, in short, was as follows: The airforce would be used to knock
out German defences and immobilize their forces, blowup tanks and other dummies were
used to fool Germans into thinking the invasion was coming at Pas de Calais, the navy
would transport the troops while doing whatever it can to help them gain ground, and
enough of France would be liberated and held by allied forces so that they would not be
pushed back into the sea.



Utah Beach
Utah beach was a stretch of beachfront approximately five miles long and located in
the dunes of Varreville. Like most beach attacks that day, the planned attack time was
06:30 or H hour. As early as 02:00 (H-4:30) the preparations for attack were being made
as minesweepers started working at creating a safe path for allied battleships, frigates,
corvettes, etc. At about 02:30 the flagship for Utah beach was in place and the order was
given for the landing crafts to be loaded and placed into the water. The four waves of
troops were ready to go and the German radar had not spotted any buildup of ships.
The first gunfire occurred at daybreak when some ships were spotted and fired
upon by coastal guns. 276 planes, all B-26 Marauders flew in to drop their payload of
4400 bombs on the targets. Almost all missed and nearly a third fell onto the beaches and
into the sea, far away from their targets. Although some guns were silenced the poor
accuracy of the aircraft was costly and would turn out to be only one of the many errors
made by the allied forces.
At 06:30 the first of the troops landed, the 8th and 4th infantry missed the correct
beach and landed 2,000 yards away on what turned out to be a less heavily defended beach.
This mix up was blamed on smoke and rough seas. These first troops were all part of the
twenty landing craft, each carrying thirty men that made up the first wave. After the first
wave came the 32 amphibious tanks. The second wave of troops consisted of 32 craft
carrying combat engineers and a naval demolition team. Dozer tanks would make up the
third wave. Long after the securing of the beach 2 engineer battalions arrived.
This may sound like all the divisions made it easily to shore but that is not true.
Many amphibious tanks were unable to make the trek on the rough seas and sank. Two
out of the three control vessels for the beach hit land mines and sank and countless landing
craft were shelled by German coastal guns. There were also several drownings involving
troops being weighed down by their equipment and drowning in water around six feet
deep.
If the soldiers managed to make it to shore they were still faced with German
machine gun fire. Fortunately, the beach and its surroundings had become the victim of a
large sea launched missile attack clearing most of the German defences.
Once divisions had made it on the beach and secured it they had to start moving
inland on their pre-planned missions. The divisions that landed on the wrong beach
decided to start the war from right here. Most of the landed troops were supposed to
secure the areas and push inland, eventually meeting up with the 82nd and 101st airborne
divisions that had dropped behind the enemy in order to cut them off from escape and so
that they could be attacked from two angles.
In the Utah Beach attack there were six divisions involved. The 4th and 8th
divisions that landed on the wrong beaches still continued on with their missions. The 4th,
which was originally supposed to land on the islands of St. Marcouf to destroy coastal guns
thought to be there ended up moving inland and linking up with the 101st airborne
division. The other division that landed in the wrong location was the 8th. Their mission
was to reduce beach fortifications and to move inland. The last two divisions were the 12th
and 22nd. Both divisions were to work together to secure the Northern region of the beach.
The 22nd was to move northwest clearing beaches and the high ground overlooking them
while the 12th moved inland on their left flank. Unfortunately the 22nd was unable to
make its deep swing into the Northwest.
By the end of the day the only infantry that was able to make it to its D-Day
objective was the 8th infantry that had landed on the wrong beach. Most of the area was
secure except for a pocket of Germans that controlled a small area shaped like a two mile
finger on the ridges north of Les Forges. The experimental idea of having two airborne
divisions drop farther inland had helped make the Utah Beach attack a near success.

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Omaha Beach
The Omaha beach area was the largest of all the Normandy beaches at
approximately 34,500 yards in length. The beach itself had only five passable ways off,
creating another difficulty for the landing troops and vehicles. Behind the beach were
heavily defended bluffs and high cliffs.
In order to invade the area, with its twelve German strongpoints over 34,000 troops
and 3,300 vehicles would be involved in the Omaha Beach invasion. The large number was
partly because of the fact that beginning in April of the same year German military had
started to fortify the area in hopes of deterring any invasion from the area. The sandy
beaches themselves were free of mines but three bands of obstacles were put into place in
order to create impassable obstacles for landing sea craft. First large gate-like structures
were built, simply to get in the way. The second band were large posts and logs dug into
the beach also creating obstacles. The third and final obstacle was farther up the beach,
they were large hedgehogs which were mined obstacles that looked as though they were
some sort of weird medieval art.
Like the rest of the beaches, the planned attack time (H hour) was 06:30. Many
would think that this would be when the death toll would first start to rise but this just
wasnt so. Many men died far from the beach. Two companies of amphibious DD tanks
sank because of heavy seas. Included with the 27 tanks that sunk were 11 landing craft
that tipped. Soldiers on these transports drowned because the weight of the equipment
they were carrying held them under the water. Other craft hit mines, losing troops,
supplies and weapons. Most of the landing craft were being fired upon by German
machine gun fire even when the crafts were still over 1,000 yards away from the beach.
Some even ran aground while still 100 feet from shore. Attempts to improve the situation
were made by groups such as the 29th division who decided to bring their tanks in on the
landing craft. 8 of the 16 tanks made it to the beach. Other craft either missed their
landing area or arrived too late. The lateral current dragged some infantry units 100s of
yards from their objectives and a few battalions, like the 2nd Ranger battalion arrived 40
minutes after they were scheduled to land.
Once most of the craft had managed to make it to the beach the soldiers still faced
many problems. Air strikes that were planned to knock out enemy machine gunners were
not successful enough. Most of the troops were pinned behind the sea wall and other
obstacles by machine gun fire ahead of them and the raising tides behind them. Tides rose
four feet per hour, shrinking the beach by eighty feet in the same time period. Those
soldiers who were too injured to walk or crawl drowned as the tide sped up on them. With
soldiers pinned down and not enough vehicles being able to get off the beach other craft
were unable to land due to the lack of room.
For the first few hours at Omaha Beach things looked grim. No major advances
were being made. The real turnaround that day was when a few destroyers actually came
in as close as eight hundred yards in order to fire at enemy strongpoints. The risk of
grounding the destroyers took and the arrival of tanks lead to the eventual fall of the
German beach defences. Once the groups could move inland their individual missions were
put into place.

One of the most important missions put upon any division was the destruction of six
French-made 155mm naval guns at Pointe du Hoc. This responsibility was given to the
116th brigade and its two combat teams: US 5th Ranger and US 2nd Ranger teams. The
5th met the fate of many battalions as the landed on the wrong beach. Luckily the
remaining two teams did manage to destroy the naval guns that were capable of attacking
ships as far out as 25,000 yards (22km). This would prove to be one of the few missions
that were completed that day.
Because of the great break downs in planned assaults, the day started to look like a
chaotic day with only individual missions of survival. Most divisions managed to stay
organized and plan their survival and attack plans. Col. George H. Taylor of the 16th
regiment said, Two kinds of people are staying on this beach, the dead and those about to
die, not lets get the hell out of here. These sort of speeches sparked other soldiers to
continue with their slightly revised missions. Originally it was planned for the areas above
the beaches to be taken by an advance up the heavily defended bluffs but the plan was
changed to a less organized direct assault on the German gunners in the high cliffs. Other
such companies that decided on newly created missions included the 16th infantry and the
29th division. These two groups decided on a joint mission to save their allies who were
pinned on the beach. Also involved on the Omaha Beach invasion were the US 1 Infantry
Division, and the US 18th and 115th Brigades.
By the end of D-Day on Omaha Beach the advance had gone barely one and a half
miles inland. Several of the enemy strongpoints were intact and the beachhead was still
under fire. Although this beaches day sounds like a disaster the major exits from the area
were held, three villages were under allied control and hole in the German line about two
and half kilometers long was made and the coastal guns were destroyed. The landing had
been made, all the troops could do was secure the area and organize the beach for the
introduction of reinforcements and supplies.




Gold Beach
Gold Beach was the second largest of the beaches of Normandy and was also the
middle beach: Utah and Omaha to the west and Juno and Sword to the east. Gold beach
was like most of the other beaches invaded on D-Day except it had one characteristic
which was disadvantageous to the allies. Coral reefs, ranging from twenty to a hundred
yards out could ground landing craft at low tide. Because of this factor the Gold Beach
was postponed almost an hour after most of the other attacks that day. H hour on this
beach was to be 07:25.
It turned out the this adverse condition would soon show to have its pros and
cons. The largest pro being that this left more time for bombardment of German defenses
by RAF bombers and naval guns. The cons were of course the fact that with the rising
tides men landing on the beach would end up facing the fate of many soldiers on Omaha
beach, being pinned behind a sea wall and being drowned by the advancing waves. It
would also turn out that, along with beach obstacles, the rising tide would make it even
harder for landing craft to make their transport runs.
Not soon after the arrival of the first wave of landing crafts the problems started to
mount. Also, like at Omaha, regiments decided to bring their DD Sherman tanks on their
LCD transports instead of floating them in. This was mainly because of the weather which
created high seas. Unfortunately this sort of tactic left the tanks as sitting ducks and all but
one of the tanks were disabled or destroyed. Soon one problem lead to another as those
soldiers that landed on the beach were unable to advance and were without any tanks to
bail them out of their predicament. Eventually with the help of the one tank that survived
the landing the troops at Gold Beach were able to press forward.
Not unlike any of the other beaches, Gold had a complicated battle plan including
many divisions, regiments and even a commando group. The overall goal was to take the
key points of the German defenses and secure the area. One such key point was
Port-en-Bessin which was to be invaded by the British 47th Royal Marine Commando who
would later meet up with an America regiment from Omaha. The problem was that not
everything went according to plan and they were unable to take the city and Americans
who were supposed to help in the fight inland by moving through the North-west flank of
the area never showed up.Another such joining of teams did go according to plans as the
50th division met up with a division of Canadians from Juno beach after coming within a
mile of their D-day objective of the taking of Bayeux. The only two groups to succeed in
their D-day objectives as Gold Beach were the 69th and 231st regiments. The 231st
successfully took the city of Arromanches while the 69th took la Riviere even after they
were forced to originally bypass the stronghold and return and destroy it later on. Other
groups involved included the British 8th, 151st and 56th regiments who aided in the push
inland and the clearing of the beaches of mines and obstacles.

Although a lot of the operations planned for Gold Beach went array, a few great
things did occur. A few of which, carried out by CSM Stanley Hollis, were so
extraordinary that they enabled him to be awarded with the only Victoria Cross to be
awarded the entire day of June 6, 1944. Col. Hollis of the 6th company was ordered to
check out some pillboxes(small German machine-gun bunkers). A few of his officers were
sent in to investigate and when they were twenty yards from the pillbox, a machine gun
opened fire from the slit and CSM Hollis instantly rushed straight at the pillbox, recharged
his magazine, threw a grenade in through the door and fired his Sten gun into it, killing
two Germans and making the remainder prisoner. He then cleared several Germans from
a neighbouring trench. Then when his company was pinned down by heavy machine-gun
fire Hollis managed to destroy the gun using a PIAT (Projector Infantry Anti-Tank)
weapon and retreated his troops. After learning that some of his men were still cornered in
a nearby house Hollis ran at the Germans with his gun firing allowing the men to escape.

By the end of the day most of the D-day objectives had failed but three brigades
were ready to push farther inland at sunlight. The beach was secured and ready for
reinforcements. Unfortunately Bayeux was not taken but most of the areas hidden
bunkers and trenches were. Some in fact were found to be manned by unwilling Asiatic
conscripts from the southern Soviet republics who were put there by Germans.






Juno Beach
Juno beach was Canadas beach with over 21,000 Canadians landing there. Not
unlike other beaches Junos H-hour was delayed until 07:45. The reason was that air
reconnaissance had spotted some underwater shoals (rocks/reefs) and they wanted to
wait until the tide had gone in to make it safer for the landing craft. (Later on the shoals
turned out to be masses of floating seaweed). The beach itself was wide enough to land two
brigades side by side, the Canadian 7th at Courseulles and the 8th at Bernieres.

The decision to wait until 07:45 caused more problems than it solved. The rising
tide hid most of the beach obstacles meaning two things: it was dangerous for the landing
craft to come ashore and the demolition crews couldnt get at the obstacles to make room
for the landing craft. Thirty percent of all the landing craft at Juno beach on D-day were
disabled in beach obstacle related incidents. One such example was when one craft started
to disembark troops a wave threw the craft onto a mined beach obstacle.
Like at most of the beaches that day, armoured divisions started to bring their tanks
in on the landing craft but like on all the other beaches this caused problems. The Regina
Rifles, one of the first groups to land, had to wait twenty minutes on the beach without the
aid of any tanks or heavy artillery. Due to heavy seas and tanks coming in on the landing
craft it meant that people who should have been in front were behind.The Canadians
were smarter than most in the setup of their landing. They chose a position at sea which
was only seven or eight miles out instead of the distance most other beach operations were
using of about eleven miles. This greatly increased the speed and accuracy of the landings
and the first Canadian wave was on the beach by 08:15.
Once on the beach the amount of German defences surprised the allied forces, once
again the air assault on the German gunneries were not as successful as planned. However,
like at Gold beach the Canadians did find out that the firepower of their tanks were the
difference between being able to push inland and being pinned down at the beach. After
the main beach defences of the Germans were taken the inland push became slower and
slower the farther south they got.
A few of the main objectives were successful. The 3rd division reach the
Caen-Bayeux road and a lot of French towns were liberated. The French residents were
very welcoming and greeted us heartily in the midst of the ruins of their homes. The one
strongpoint that would become a problem for troops at Juno as well as Sword would be
Caen. The Canadians found increased resistance the closer they got and in that aspect
their D-day mission did not succeed.
As night fell the Canadians were still well short of a lot of objectives. They did get
their tanks on the Caen-Bayeux road but that was about it. The British 3rd division from
Sword beach was planned to meet up with the Canadians in order to close the gap between
Juno and Sword beaches but they never showed. This left a two mile gap in the beaches
and would be the area of the only German counterattack of the day. The other linkup
between beaches was successful as Canadians met the 50th division from Gold beach.
Overall the Canadians didnt get all that far but were in a good position to move inland.





Sword Beach
Sword beach was the easternmost beach in Normandy. Like at Juno Beach H-hour
was again postponed because of shoals until 07:25. The main objective at Sword beach
was to advance and invade the German strongpoint of Caen. Four whole brigades of the
3rd division were sent to Caen. There were also airborne divisions that dropped behind
lines using large gliders which could carry troops as well as other armoured vehicles. Those
groups not supposed to head toward Caen were planned to reach the airborne divisions
and secure the areas bridges from counterattack.
Even as the Canadians moved inland trouble was developing back at the beach.
Although all the DD tanks made it to the beach the tide was turning the already small
beach into one with only ten yards from the seafront to the waters edge. With only one
road off the beach the overcrowding caused delays in most objectives for that day. Some
of the armoured divisions like the 27th armoured Brigade abandoned their objectives in
order to bail out infantry pinned down on the crowded beaches.
Those who did make it off the beach in time were quite successful in reaching their
D-day objectives. By late afternoon the leading troops of the brigades heading for Caen
had reached and liberated the towns of Beuville and Bieville which were only two or so
miles short of Caen. Strongpoints like the one at La Breche were taken as early as 10:00.
Those troops that didnt make it off the beach in time like the 185th Brigade had to leave
all their heavy equipment behind in order to catch up with the forces already nearing
Caen.
The move inland was really looking quite promising until the Germans launched the
only counterattack of the day. The 21st Panzer division was sent out from Caen, half to
take on the southward allies and the other half to head right up between Juno and Sword
beach where that two mile of beach was unoccupied by allied forces. Fifty German tanks
faced the brigades heading for Caen. Luckily the British were ready with artillery,
fighter-bombers and a special Firefly Sherman tank that was fitted with a seventeen
pound anti-tank gun instead of the normal seventy-five mm. gun. Soon thirteen of the
German tanks were destroyed with only one M-10 tank destroyer damaged. This just went
to show that the British were slow in advance but almost unbreakable in defence. Still
the Germans pressed forward until about 21:00 when the last wave of gliders of the 6th
airborne divisions came in. The Germans looked up and saw about two hundred and fifty
gliders fly in and land behind them. The allies now were attacking from two directions and
the only German counterattack ended quickly.
By the end of the day the German resistance at Sword beach was almost obliterated
other than at Caen. A lot of the success was because of the joint effort of airborne divisions
and divisions landing on the beach. Of the 6,250 troops of the 6th airborne that landed
there were only 650 casualties. Unfortunately Caen was not taken but its liberation was
imminent.



D-Day Air Battle
D-day was not only a day of troops landing on the beaches of Normandy and
moving inland liberating France. Without the aid of the thousands of planes Operation
Overlord could not have gone as planned. As early as the spring of 1944 planes flew over
German ruled France taking photographs of the defences. During the ten week period
before June 6 countless missions were flown with objectives of taking out German radar
installations. There were also hundreds of attacks on the railways of the area in order to
immobilize the forces. Of the 2,000 locomotives that were in the area the year before 1,500
of them were destroyed or disabled by allied bombings.
By the eve of D-day the allies had 2,800 heavy bombers, 1,500 light bombers and
3,700 fighter planes and fighter-bombers. They also had 56 special night bombers.
When June 6, 1944 came around all the squadrons of planes involved had their
missions just as the landing infantry divisions had theirs. It took six squadrons of RAF
Mosquitoes to patrol the huge armada of ships in the English Channel that day. Without
whom there would have some serious repercussions on the entire operation. At all times
there twenty anti-submarine planes patrolling the area and protecting the force who would
have been sitting ducks for any German U-boats that would have gotten into the area.
To aid the actual landings of the troops squadrons flew bombing missions on
German pillboxes and other gunnery installations. Flying at three hundred miles per hour
straight in at German machine gun fire in order to clear the way for others to take the
glory is what I call guts. In order to clear the three British beaches eighteen squadrons flew
missions over a nearly continuous eight hour time period. When bombers werent
destroying installations they were setting up smoke screens around the land based naval
guns in order to once again protect the allied armada.
Probably one of the most important things done by the fighters was to fly phantom
missions in order to make the Germans think that the invasion would by at Pas de Calais.
Without the use of air firepower as used on D-day I can say without a doubt that
June 6, 1944 would be remembered as a day of complete disaster.




Conclusion
By the end of June 6, 1944 one of the most complicated and the most coordinated
invasions had started. On the beach codenamed Utah the American 1st army held a firm
beachhead with several divisions already receiving the supplies they needed and would
soon be ready to move inland. On Omaha the troops there had recovered from what had
looked like an impending disaster in the first hours and started to break through the
German defences. At the British run beaches of Juno, Gold and Sword the forces had
averaged a push inland of six miles. Even with the amount of landing soldiers numbering
about seventy-five thousand, the casualties between the three beaches were only
approximately three thousand.
D-Day was the beginning of the end for the Germans in Europe and the end of the
beginning for the fight for Europe. Im not saying that everything went according to plan
on D-day and there wasnt any errors. I am also not saying that it was a complete disaster.
I am saying that D-Day was on paper, with objectives for each division and a craft for each
infantry unit, the greatest battle of all time.


Table of Contents
I. Introductionpg. 1
II. Preperation for D-Daypg. 2
III. Beachfronts
A. Utah Beachpg. 4,5
B. Omaha Beachpg. 7,8
C. Gold Beachpg. 10, 11
D. Juno Beachpg. 13
E. Sword Beachpg. 15
IV. D-Day Air Battlepg. 17
V. Conclusionpg. 19
VI. Bibliographypg. 20


Bibliography
D-Day June 6, 1944: The Climatic Battle of World War II
Stephen E. Ambrose,
Simon &
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