Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution INDUSTRIAL REVOULUTION The Industrial Revolution is a term usually applied to the social and economic changes that mark the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society, to a modern industrial society relying on complex machinery rather than tools. There have been numerous debates to the use of this term because the word “revolution” suggests sudden, violent, unparalleled change. Even though there was an unparalleled change in the world, it was by no means sudden nor violent.

The world’s social and economic structures changed due to marvelous inventions and innovations. These inventions and innovations led to a factory system of large-scale machine production and greater economic specialization. Britain is credited for starting this revolution and the United States soon followed.However, we must examine the revolution and it’s effects in other countries outside of Britain and the U.S.

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In France, this Industrial Revolution came late because of the French Revolution. However, after the French Revolution came to an end, France began picking up it’s pace in development. In fact, the French government played a much more active role in development than did the British government. The French government had funded railways, whereas the British railways were privately funded.Even though industrialization did pick up in France, handcraft production still remained a significant element of the French economy. And some industries, like furniture production, mechanization was very unpopular.

However, mechanization did hurt some of the French farmers and French weavers so much, that they were forced to the cities and later induced a second French Revolution. In Asia, Japan became the first industrial nation. In fact, the Japanese liked the idea of industrialization so much that the government made it a national goal in the late 19th century.In India, this idea of industrialization had a complete opposite effect. India’s economy survived on two major markets; the cotton market and the agricultural market. The cotton was grown by hand, picked by hand, and weaved by hand. Because of this, Indian cotton and cotton products were the best in the world and they carried a best in the world price. Beautifully hand woven cotton was very expensive and because of this, weavers and growers were living comfortably.

But when the Industrial Revolution hit Britain, this all changed. The British (and an American man named Eli Whitney) invented new machines, such as the Spinning Jenny and the Cotton Gin, that could pick and weave cotton almost ten times faster than a hand could. Because more cotton products could be produced in a shorter time and therefore would cost less money, people began buying British cotton goods. This drove Indian cotton farmers and weavers out of work.And because of this, these unskilled workers had to move to cities or take up other jobs. For most Indians, this was impossible because they were so unskilled. No only did industrialization ravage the Indian Cotton Industry, but it ravaged Indian family traditions. Indians, who were lucky to find work, found it harder and harder to spend time with their families.

So family ties and traditions almost ended right then. And since a large portion of the population relied on the Cotton Industry, a large portion suffered these hardships and most Indian traditions were lost forever.However, industrialization did come at a cost for other nations as well. The nature of work, around the world, became worse and worse for many people.

The concept of industrialization placed great pressures on traditional family ties as work moved from around the home to outside the home. The economic and social differences between people of industrialized nations became further stratified, as was the rift between wealthy nations and poor nations. The environment suffered a great deal due to this industrialization.

To this day, pollution, deforestation, and the destruction of plants and animals continue to skyrocket. Industrialization did have good outcomes. Material well-being and improved health care came to many industrial societies. New goods and new choices came about. It also led the way for other ideas such as women’s rights and child labor laws, among others. Simply stated, industrialization did have its good aspects as well as its bad, and those can be arguable.

But no one can argue that the Industrial Revolution was a huge achievement (whether good or bad) in human history and we are still feeling the effects of that achievement to this day.History Essays.

Industrial revolution

The impact that The Industrial Revolution had on Europe and England was big, it practically changed the economy for years. There were many individuals that had a big impact and there are many acts, rights, and processes devised to produced the most making for the higher classes. Most of the individuals that are involved had invented something that would change a certain company. This whole industrial revolution started small.

In fact, it started out with tiny little village entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs were tiny company’s that would make hand made stuff and sell this profit that is produced. This soon led to more money, which led to more employees, which also led to more entrepreneurs, and it spread ideas.

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This got people really thinking. One man named Robert Owen a young utopian socialist of Britain who became the manager of his own cotton mill at the age of nineteen. He then developed community farming and had the town of New Lanmark, Scotland living and working for him. He provided proper housing, basic education, and an inexpensive company store for the workers.

In fact, he made a very good deal with his employees, that benefited them and he still made a good profit from it. He forbid young children to work in his mills, and he decreased hours and increased wages. One of this man’s supporter’s is Charles Fourier He favored ideal communities and that all work should be shared and that the higher class would benefit of the joint labor according to the needs of the lower class. This man boosted the economy tremendously, because he spread his idea of community farming and farmers and entrepreneurs were beginning to use it more often and they were making good profit.

However, some entrepreneurship leaders got to greedy and wanted more money so they made deals that basically only benefited them and they built self-centered industries. These deals included lowering the age of working ability, which led to less education, which led to lower wages. The working conditions were horrible and if you lost an arm or any sort of limb they were fired and another child was hired in replace of them. Men like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engles joined together in 1848 to produce the Communist Manifesto. This was a pamphlet that was intended for the workers.

This included resolutions for the problems that the lower class was having with the industrial revolution. Karl Marx rejected utopian ideas and he also considered himself to be a “scientific socialist”. His facts in this pamphlet were were based on history and it led to their fulfillment. The industrial revolution changed the world of economics forever and it also changed Europe forever too. As you can see that it was not an empire like the Romans but it was a competition of empires dominating one area to see who can become the most successful economic wise.

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial Revolution was under way 1st in Britain and wasn’t possible without coal. Agriculture RevolutionEvery 3rd year the farmers believed that they had to leave their field fallowed so the soil won’t wear out. In 1730 Charles Townshend discovered that fields did not had to be left fallowed, if farmers would rotate the crops. Charles suggested to grow wheat or barely and then the next year grow clover or turnips.

Clover and turnips provided excellent feed for cattle. New Farm MachinesJethro Thull developed a seed drill that planted seeds in straight rows. This was a big improvement over the old method of scattering seeds at random, which made fields a tangle of crop and weeds.In the 1700’s farmers began to use iron plows instead of wood plows. In 1800’s wealthy landowners used mechanical reapers and threshers which increased production.

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The Enclosure Movement Since the Middle Ages farmers worked small strips of land in scattered fields. The razed their animals and gathered timber on public lands. In the 1500’s wealthy landowners began claiming the right to these public lands. This made agriculture more efficient because the wealthy had more land to experience with new crops. Smaller farmers were then driven right out of a job. With more food lead to better health and rapid growth. The demand for manufactured goods was now high. Changes In The Textile IndustryInventions went off right and left.

In 1733, John Kay invented the Flying Shuttle. This replaced the handheld shuttle for weaving. It sped up the weaving process. Soon they were using thread faster than produced. In 1764, James Hargreaves developed the Spinning Jenny.

It had several spindle on a single wheel. In 1769, Richard Arkright built the Water Frame it could hold up to 100 spindles. It was too heavy to be operated by hand so it was ran by water power. 10yrs later Samuel Crompton developed the Spinning Mule, which used features from the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame. Cotton thread was now produced at high speeds. In 1785, Edward Cartwright built a Power Loom powered by water. They could produce 200 times more cloth in a day.

In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin that increased the supply of raw cotton and gave the British cotton industry a further boost. It tore the fibers from the seeds and made it possible for a single slave to turn out as much as 50 slaves. Cotton production soared and the price fell. Development Of The Steam EngineAlthough many inventions in the Textile Industry were powered by running water, steam soon became the major source of energy.

In 1698, Thomas Savery had built a steam-driven pump to remove water from flooded coal mines. Except his pump frequently exploded because of the intense pressure of the steam. In the early 1700’s, Thomas Newcomen developed a safer steam pump. His engine broken down lots and required lots of coal to fuel it though.

Finally James Watt came alone in the 1760’s to revise the pumps of Newcomen and made it better. His got 4 times more power from the same amount of coal. Steam powered the Industrial Revolution. They were used in the growing of Textile Industry. They also brought great changes in the mining of iron and coal and they revolutionized transportation.

Advances In Transportation ; CommunicationIn the 1700’s the need for rapid, inexpensive transportation led to a boom in Canal building in Britain. In 1759 the Duke of Bridgewater built a Canal to connect his coal mines and factories. A Scottish engineer John McAdam invented a road surface made of crushed rock. In 1829 George Stephenson, a mining engineer, developed the Rocket, it was the 1st steam-powered locomotive. It could go 36mph.

Steel rails replaced iron rails, speed were then increased. In 1807 Robert Fulton developed a paddle-wheel steam ship called the Clermont. This improved communication to other nations.

Aboriginal ParadigmIt was mainly an all for your self way. Workers tend to work only for the present need. The object of life was to maintain ones rank and the ideal of personal gain was the work of the devil. Capital as wealth existed, but there was no investing of it.

Land was seen as the core of social life rather than as real-estate to be bought or sold as a comonity. To use the traditional Aboriginal Paradigm it would be almost impossible to have a good future economic developments. People would not move up in life they just want to maintain status. No change need, therefore no developments. Industrial ParadigmThey invested money into business ventures. They’re goal was to gain enough money to pay all the costs of the ventures, plus some additional money or prophet.

The prophet would be reinvested into another venture. This paradigm could not be productable for future goods. People would think about the money too much. To have future economic developments they would need each other to do so. They need both of their ways to balance each other off. One side would want to invest and one side would want to provide only for themselves. Together they would succeed. It just wouldn’t work with one group.Social Issues Essays


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