Causes and strategies; Reactions to expansion:-Increasing tensions among industrial powers.
-Increasing agitation for national independence.-Scrambles for empire: Africa China, Latin America.
–China–the Boxer Rebellion.–Latin America and Free Trade Imperialism
—The scramble brings new players.—The United States.—-Internal imperialism.
—Rivalries and alliances-Independence movement leads to revolution (mass
movement)–Latin America-middle class join elites or masses.
—The Constitution of 1917.
-Independence deferred: India
–Development of Indian Nationalist-divided nationalism b/w Hindu & Muslim
-Recruitment of science in industrialization
-Premier industries-Transportation, materials, electricity and communication
-Standardizing work and workers.–The automobile and mass production; assembly line production;
–scientific management; Time and motion studies.-communications; telegraph
-Electric light and power systems
The two faces of science in the industrial age.
Science and social uplift; Industrial science and monopoly capitalism.
Modernization: Bourgeois liberalism: rule of law, contracts, rights; Industrial capitalism: free markets, free labor, mechanization, growth of professional classes.-Ottoman Turks indebted to France and Britain brings reforms.
Financial infrastructure, class formation, urbanization.-Lack of industrialization, and trade deficits.
Young Ottomans and demands for constitution & parliament.-Western liberalism, Turkish nationalism, Islamic modernism.
Globalization: Supplying the industrial west; creating an indigenous middle class, encouraging European bourgeois values.-Igniting indigenous nationalism and reform movements.-Usually without mass support.
N. Africa: Egyptian modernization under Muhammad Ali.
The limits of modernization.-The Revolution of 1857-8 and annexation; The emergence of middle-class. Indian nationalists; Formation of the Indian National Congress.
-During the Opium War Chinese military weakness: modern weaponry
-Industrial Revolution “quiet revolution”; Making use of surplus rural labor
-Britain first: Population growth, market and social structure, religious dissent: the “Protestant work ethic.”
Agricultural revolution, enclosure movement, rural poverty.
Selective breeding, fertilization, land reclamation
Fuel sources: coal, tapping greater energy supplies.
Capital resources: empire, trade, banks.
Domestic peace (no wars on British soil).
-The transportation & communications revolutions.
turnpikes (roads); Canals; railroads; telegraph.
-Urbanization and growth of municipal government.
Explosion of new industrial cities; strain on infrastructure: water, sewerage, public health and safety.
Huddled masses and poor relief
-The industrial classes.
—The lunar societies; scientific/professional organizations.
–The making of the working classes.
Labor discipline and resistance.
-The international spread of industry.
–French industrialization: state expertise, private capital.
–American industrialization: labor poor, resource rich.
Elements of industrial culture.
Standardization and mass production; free trade; wages and standards of living; marriage & family