Imperialism

Imperialism
Causes and strategies; Reactions to expansion:-Increasing tensions among industrial powers.

-Increasing agitation for national independence.-Scrambles for empire: Africa China, Latin America.

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–China–the Boxer Rebellion.–Latin America and Free Trade Imperialism
—The scramble brings new players.—The United States.—-Internal imperialism.

—Rivalries and alliances-Independence movement leads to revolution (mass
movement)–Latin America-middle class join elites or masses.

—The Constitution of 1917.

-Independence deferred: India
–Development of Indian Nationalist-divided nationalism b/w Hindu & Muslim
Industrialization
-Recruitment of science in industrialization
-Premier industries-Transportation, materials, electricity and communication
-Standardizing work and workers.–The automobile and mass production; assembly line production;
–scientific management; Time and motion studies.-communications; telegraph
-Electric light and power systems
The two faces of science in the industrial age.

Science and social uplift; Industrial science and monopoly capitalism.

Modernization: Bourgeois liberalism: rule of law, contracts, rights; Industrial capitalism: free markets, free labor, mechanization, growth of professional classes.-Ottoman Turks indebted to France and Britain brings reforms.

Financial infrastructure, class formation, urbanization.-Lack of industrialization, and trade deficits.

Young Ottomans and demands for constitution & parliament.-Western liberalism, Turkish nationalism, Islamic modernism.

Globalization: Supplying the industrial west; creating an indigenous middle class, encouraging European bourgeois values.-Igniting indigenous nationalism and reform movements.-Usually without mass support.

N. Africa: Egyptian modernization under Muhammad Ali.

The limits of modernization.-The Revolution of 1857-8 and annexation; The emergence of middle-class. Indian nationalists; Formation of the Indian National Congress.

-During the Opium War Chinese military weakness: modern weaponry
-Industrial Revolution “quiet revolution”; Making use of surplus rural labor
-Britain first: Population growth, market and social structure, religious dissent: the “Protestant work ethic.”
Agricultural revolution, enclosure movement, rural poverty.

Selective breeding, fertilization, land reclamation
Fuel sources: coal, tapping greater energy supplies.

Capital resources: empire, trade, banks.

Domestic peace (no wars on British soil).

-The transportation & communications revolutions.

turnpikes (roads); Canals; railroads; telegraph.

-Urbanization and growth of municipal government.

Explosion of new industrial cities; strain on infrastructure: water, sewerage, public health and safety.

Huddled masses and poor relief
-The industrial classes.

–the professions.

—The lunar societies; scientific/professional organizations.

–The making of the working classes.

Labor discipline and resistance.

Trade unions.

-The international spread of industry.

–French industrialization: state expertise, private capital.

–American industrialization: labor poor, resource rich.

Elements of industrial culture.

Standardization and mass production; free trade; wages and standards of living; marriage & family