-job analysis-the gathering of information about a specific job and determining the principal elements involved in performing it.-job description-on outline of the information obtained from the job analysis, which describes the content and essential requirements of a specific job or position.

-job specification-a detailed record of the minimum job requirements explained in relation to the job factors.-work measurement and setting work standards-the procedure for determining the time required to complete each job or task and for setting up criteria by which the degree of work performance may be measured.-job analysis is fundamental to the prepararion of job descriptions and job specifications, which are used on recruiting, testing, and selecting office personnel.-job analysis places a firm’s personnel practices on a nondiscriminatory basis by meeting the requirements of federal legislation sush s the Civil Rights Act, and etc.-office supervisors who orient and train employees find job descriptions and specifications a great help in spelling out the routines to emphasize in teaching work procedures and desirable performance levels.-giving up to date job descriptions and specifications to employees enables them to understand better their specific duties-well developed job descriptions clarify the relationships between jobs, job functions, and departments, and aid in establishing harmony and balance within the organization structure.

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-shows the differences between present jobs and those lying above in the promotion sequence-employees being groomed for promotion can learn about the qualifications they must possess in order to perform the new duties-as a result of studying jobs, an analyst can identify and eliminate wasted motions.-it allows the job to be performed more efficiently and more economically.-job standardization and work measurement-gives the supervisor and accurate picture of what the employees do on the job.-improves the supervisor’s ability to control operations-changing the titles of employees to better descibe their duties.-education, experience, skills, working conditions, and health and safety requirements directly affect the differences in jobs and their relative worthGATHEREING AN ANALYZING JOB INFORMATION-the office mananger, or the person charged with analyzing jobs, must decide which method of gathering job information will be most effective at minimal cost.

-job information has been obtained by questionaires, interviews, observations, or a combined appraoch.-questionaire method-employees are often aided by their supervisors and the job analyst to describe their job duties and indecate the minimum requirements for holding the job.-special knowledge required for the job.-experience requried to qualify for the job.

-how much time must be spent on the job before the employee feels capable of working without supervision.-sometimes employees may be required to keep log books -structured questionaire-request information of whether specific tasks are part of the worker’s job in order to learn the importance teh jobholder attaches to each task.-techniques of using structured questionaires-position analysis questionaire-analyzes and documents only those activities performed by the worker.

-some questions refer to job description and compensation received-comprehensive occupational data analysis programs-designed toa analyze and report job information that has been collected through questionaires calle dtask inventories.-a task inventory is designed to obtain information about the jobholder’s education and training; major items of equipment, tools, and materials used on the job; and the jobholder’s assessmetn of the skills and abilities needed to perform the job.-if done by computer the info.

can be organized quickly and analyzed with printouts-may be difficult to design or obtain a questionaire that is sufficiently thorough to secure all the data required by the job analyst.-can have too may questions and become overly complex-some employees may exaggerate the importance of their jobs-the personal touch is lacking since the jobholders are called upon merely to fill out a questionaire rather than discuss their job content with an interviewer-interview method-required teh job analyst to spend time in meeting with the employee and the employee’s supervisor in order to gather information about teh job.-the effectiveness of the interview method depends greatly upon the skill of the analyst, who must be trained to deal with people in order to recieve their full cooperation.-the analyst must be objective so that personal bias does not influence the data being recorded.-observation method-permits the analyst to obtain job information firsthand and to become acquainted with the working conditions, the equipment used, and the requirements for special skills, such as finger dexterity.-identifying the purposed and abjuectives of the organizaion -identifying and describing the tasks performen by workers-developing training content related to the skills neede to perform the tasks.-the results of job analysis are expressed in teh job description, from hwich job specifications are separately developed or combined wtih fob description.-position descriptions are prepared for the higher-level jobs.-usually stress intangibles to a greater extent that job descriptionsm and they emphasize results rather than specific job procedures.-a job description must be clearly written, with all statements expressed as simply as possible.-the job, not the person holding the job, is to be described as it is; no modifications should be made in he description for what the job ought to be or may become in the future.-are the minimum qualifications a person must posess to be considered for employment.-is to develop an equitable payroll policy based on the estimated or measured worth of each job in relation to other jobs.-ranking method-is the simplest and oldest method of determining the economic value of a job.-analyze and rank the individual jobs according to the difficulty and the overall responsibility of each job.-sometimes salary is determinied by the working conditions, level and amount of responsibility, or experience involved-job classification method-is an outgrowth of the ranking method.-has been used civil service authorities in evalutaing office and clerical workers and in granting periodic salary increase-before the jobs are classified, the analyst selects a nember of predetermined classes or family groupings on the basis of common features like, responsibilities, abilities, skills, knowledge, and duties-quantitative method-jobs are grouped accoreding to menta, physcial, skill, and experience-factor comparision method-you rate the jobs in terms of money according to the following :-bench mark job-is one whose present rate is not subjedt to controversy and that is considered to be neither underapid nore overpaid.-job titles shoudl be immediately recognizable-content shoudl be precisesly defined so that workers who are akded to provedk job information-the jobs should be performed on a more or less similar manner by most organizations-should remain releatively unchanged so the can provede a basis for analysis and compaison what ther jobs-the most common approach to job evaluaion-each ot the basic factoes is divided into degrees, and points are assigned to each factore and its Bibliography: