History

History Maury Kleins A Hell of a Way to Run a Railroad, gives a new perspective of reliable transportation. During much of the 19th century railroads dominated the American industrial landscape. The railroad enabled people to travel farther and also more widely. The railroad was one of the greatest technological advancements of the 19th century.

Two hundred thousand miles of track were laid by 1900.The railroad began to symbolize American prosperity. By the 1890s the rail industry was near collapse.

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Expansion during the 1880s caused rate wars that took the financial strengths of some of the strangest railroads. Regulation of the railroads was controlled by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. Railroads were the first industry to be watched under the federal government. Between 1893 and 1897 one fourth of the nations mileage sank into receivership.

The railroads affected were the: Union Pacific, Northern Pacific, the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, Erie, and the Philadelphia and Reading. For two decades rail managers had tried unsuccessfully for some form of regulation to take away the criticism put upon them. In the phrase of Albro Martin the leading railroad historian, The final hour had struck for the Victorian Railroad Corporation (2). The growth of the nineteenth-century rail system had relied on conditions unique to the era. As more railroads reached cities and towns competitive wars erupted that drove rates down despite efforts to maintain them.The railroads task was not to simply haul freight but to help create the towns, factories, and farms that would help generate the freight. The railroad industry had reached a turning point in its history.

The question remained who would lead the railroad into the new era? E. H. Harriman would be the leader who brought the rail industry into the new era. Harriman was known as a skilled banker.Harriman was a bantam rooster with a fierce competitive streak in everything he did. During the 1880s Harriman had dabbed in smaller upstate New York railroads, but his role had been largely financial. Stuyvesant Fish landed him on the board of the Illinois Central when Fish needed allies to modernize the companys management and policies. Harriman became vice president.

Tension between Harriman and Fish caused Harriman to resign as vice president. Harriman landed a seat on the executive committee of the Union Pacific Railroad in in 1897.By proving his abilities he was elected chairman in 1898. Harriman toured the rails of the Union Pacific.

He traveled to the western part of the U.S. Harriman saw growth and prosperity coming towards the West. He telegraphed New York and requested 25 million dollars for equipment and improvements on the railroad.Over the next decade Harriman spent a staggering 160 million dollars modernizing Union Pacific at a time when the total expenditures by the federal government averaged only 561 million dollars a year. In the process he created the most efficient railroad in the West.

Harriman faced the task of rebuilding older lines with shaky financial pasts. Harriman had his top engineer John B. Berry transform lines in Wyoming.

Harriman invested large sums in automatic block signals, still an expensive rarity on American roads, but an innovation that made the handling and control of trains moving on the same tracks much more safe and efficient.By 1909 the Harriman system had already installed more than five thousand miles of block signals; twelve years later only thirty-nine thousand miles of the nations railroads had them(6). Between 1899 and 1909 the fleet of locomotive increased only 11 percent, and that of rolling stock 20 percent, yet the tonnage carried triplet over a system that had grown in mileage by 36 percent. In May of 1906 he went from San Fransico to New York in seventy-one hours and twenty-seven minutes. Harriman was amazed at how smoothly the track ran. Harriman was able to sell 208 million dollars worth of new bonds.

Fixed charges increased by 3 million a year while net income jumped 125 percent and the surplus 188 percent. More a warrior than a diplomat, Harriman moved to impose his own brand of order. Harriman, his rival George Gould said Aims to dominate, and if he dont like us hell throw us out(8).

Harriman also took control of the Southern Pacific and 247 million to make the Southern Pacific equal to the Union Pacific. Harriman had led the rail industry into a new era and had helped modernize the railroad system.Dividends from the Union Pacific are still paying today. Harriman faced the criticism of himself as being arrogant, yet no doubts were cast on his effectiveness of his ability to improve the railroad system. I agree that Harriman was a Napoleon of our time.

He changed the railways into major players of the industrial and commercial landscape. He revolutionized American transportation and helped link East with West.English Essays.

History

The Struggle Against Christianity in GermanyThe struggle against Christianity in Germany assumed greater proportions by the end of 1941. On Nov. 10 the official Vatican radio station in Rome broadcast, without comment, a catechism published by the German weekly Nordland, organ of the “German Believers in God,” in its issue of Sept. 15. There the principles of the German faith were given in the form of questions and answers. Some of the answers read: “We National Socialists are believers in God because in us as German men veneration of the divine and faith in it are impressed in an indelible manner in our blood and being. We National Socialists believe: in the divine; in the unity of the universe; in Mother Earth; in destiny; in the creative force of our blood; in our people and its mission; in our Fuehrer; in the National Socialist peoples community; in ourselves.

” In the catechism it was further said: “The divine in its highest form is personified in the German people because … the individual only within his people can develop his divine faculties and energies or rather only in the people can he live. What derives from the fact that the divine in the highest form is personified in the people? It derives from it that service for the Fuehrer, for the people, and for the fatherland is divine service. To believe in our people and in its mission means: to have unshakeable conviction that our people represents the highest worth of all humanity on earth; to follow the will of nature according to which the best people is called upon to command; to know that to be led by the best people redounds from the necessity of things in benediction on other nations; to work, sacrifice ourselves and fight indefatigably for the ascent and victory of our people.”A book circulated by the end of November in 200,000 copies in Germany, especially among the Elite Guard and the youth and called God and People, outlined the national German faith which was to replace the Catholic and Protestant churches. The book had no author named, but the unknown writer identified his views with those of the Nazi party and of its Fuehrer.

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The wide and encouraged circulation at a time of extreme paper shortage was proof enough of the semi-official character of the book. There it was said: “We Germans have been called by fate to be the first to break with Christianity; it is to be an honor … For two thousand years the Church had time to begin molding mankind into a cleaner, higher striving race. The Church not only did nothing, but has degenerated into a restraining impediment.

Finally, the Fuehrer and his movement have come, decried as heretic, to perceive and form true divine will. Christianity has failed and thus runs in its death hour. A thousand bonds tie us to the Christian belief. But one blow will make us free. To make Germans strong and ripe for this step is our task, our holiest obligation.

” This new German faith is in no way dogmatic: “German faith will not dictate to anyone his relationship to God. Everyone seeks his own way. But no one seeks it in Rome or Jerusalem.

Germany is our Holy Land. It will be our religion … We want faith which flames out of the depths of German nature and out of German hearts.

” The Catholic bishops protested against the spread of this book in a letter read from all pulpits, in which they said: “The existence of Christianity and of the Church in Germany is at stake. Recently a book has been spread in hundreds of thousands of copies which asserts we Germans have to choose between Christ and the German people. With flaming indignation, we German Catholics refuse to make such a choice.”At the beginning of 1942 Dr.

Alfred Rosenberg, who has been one of the spiritual fathers of National Socialism, has released for publication a 30 point program defining the “religion of National Socialism.” The 30 points, which may be of immense importance for the future of Germany and of any German-controlled parts of the world, in view of the position of the author and the official character of the program, are the following: The National Reichs Church will take over all existing churches and chapels, which will become national churches. While no German is obliged to join the Church, that Church itself is called to serve its single doctrinerace and people.

Its domain is limited by the territorial frontiers of the Reich and its colonies. Other churches or religious associations, above all those based on international bodies or directed from abroad, will not be tolerated in Germany. The National Reich Church has one immutable objective, to destroy that Christian belief whose tenets conflict with the German heart and the German mentality and which were introduced into Germany in that unfortunate year 800, when Charlemagne subjugated the pagan Saxons. In the National Reich Church there will be no pastors or theologians, only the national “orators” of the Reich will be allowed to speak at the services which will be held on Saturday night.

The “orators” of the national church will be state officials; none of them will be allowed to do anything to perpetuate the Christian faith. No Church or sect can possess any parcel of German soil, for it is not the Church that conquered and tilled the land, but the German people. The printing and the dissemination of the Bible, as well as of all Sunday papers with religious content are to be forbidden in the Reich, and no Bibles are to be imported.

Hitler’s Mein Kampf contains the principles of the racial morals under which the German people must live. By that book all Germans must live. All future editions of that book shall contain its present number of pages and contents unmodified.

This most saintly book will be placed on the altars of all churches, with a sword to its left, while all Bibles and crosses have to be removed. The orators of the Church will during the services explain the contents of Mein Kampf. There will be no remission of sins and no baptisms in the National Reich Church. Parents of new born German children will swear that they are of pure Aryan descent and that they will bring up the child in the pure German spirit for the German people. At the end of each school year, on Good Friday, a day of youth shall be celebrated in the Church.

Kneeling in the Church is forbidden as undignified for a German. The oath will be rendered with the right hand touching the sword on the altar. Atop of the Churches will be found no longer the Cross, but the symbol of invincible Germany, the swastika. These are briefly the tenets of the new national church as envisaged by the leaders of National Socialism.

Only the future will be able to tell whether Germany has really proven invincible and whether she will live under the sign of the swastika instead of the sign of the Cross which for 1,200 years has been the foundation of German civilization as a part of the common culture of civilized mankind.

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