Group 1

.. ms can not be solved solely by Group 1 4 private actions. Not to be said that individuals cannot do anything to help the environment, especially in local communities, but that there are definitely power in numbers.

The EPA programs cover many areas for the welfare of this country. Things such as protecting our water supply, air supply, supervising hazardous waste sites, testing toxic chemicals, and regulating pesticides that can enter our food storage. Before any pesticides or toxic chemical is sold in the United States, the EPA must approve the safety of the product, and set a limit to the amount that is allowed to be in the food that we consume.A chemical manufacturer devotes an average of nine years to chemical research, toxicological analysis and field testing before a pesticide is submitted to the EPA for approval (Food safety address). One of the highest priorities of the EPA research and development program is the protection and human health through the identification and control of toxic substances.

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Many types of short-term test are developed to detect dangerous chemicals that could be cancer causing and linked to genetic disease (EPA). Some of the most harmful disorders that have come of these chemicals are tumor formation, gene mutations, and DNA damage. The biggest tack that the scientists of today face are being able to distinguish the toxic chemicals from the non-toxic ones.All foods are analyzed by separate ingredients using EPA standards. For example, the amount of wheat flour, tomato, cheese, and other ingredients are estimated for a serving of pizza.

With that estimation the EPA uses the data to see how much pesticides are taken in daily by individuals. Their “dietary exposure” to pesticides. To do this they have developed a special data base recognized as the Dietary Risk Evaluation System (DRESS) (Hazard at plate address).With this system the EPA can define and reduce the potentially hazardous pesticides in the diet of potentially sensitive subgroups. According to William Farland Ph.D.

, director of EPA’s office of Health and Environmental Assessment, if the DRESS analysis indicates any substantial risk may occur, then the EPA will not approve a tolerance for the items being tested. One case in which the EPA did not approve a tolerance due to specific dietary concerns involved the pesticide pydrin in 1985. New uses of the chemical on alfalfa and sorghum were requested to be allowed, but were denied because of the potential risk to children from secondary residues in milk from cows eating such grains were unacceptable, and the agency denied the request (Plate address). Even though the EPA has accomplished mush over the past 20 years they have not yet stopped or slowed down in their progress.

They are still doing all they can to keep you, the consumer, safe from the environments impurities. In June of 1997 the EPA found Dioxin in the Tyson Chickens. Dioxin is a generic name for a group of hundreds of chemical compounds, the most commonly known of which are toxic. Human exposure to dioxin has been shown to cause liver and nervous system damage, as well as skin disease such as chloracne (Haman 6/16/97). Everyone has some percentage of dioxin in their bodies, but the EPA says to a certain extent it can be unsafe. In 1883, the Chief of the Bureau of Chemistry of the United States Department of Agriculture, Dr.

Harvey W. Wiley, was getting fed up with what he considered blatant and obvious abuse of food and drugs. Merchants, road shows, and pharmacists (who Group 1 5 bought from the hucksters for their stock) conned thousands of Americans into buying products which were said to heal, yet were very dangerous. Wiley decided to put a small staff together to investigate his theory. He and his peers found a high percent of alcohol in cures for gout and liver ailments; headache medicines contained coal tar mixed with sugar-flavored water (2).Since the U.S.

public was not properly informed of healing remedies, they believed that these medicines worked due to the soothing effect on the suffering individual. Yet while these traveling merchants sold their products and skipped town to sell somewhere else, thousands of people were dropping dead from these products (2). Immediately after collecting his data, Wiley let his information be known to the U.S. public, but he was unable to gain widespread support until 1906.

Backed by a huge following of irate citizens, the Food and Drugs Act of 1906 was passed.The first act was rather simple-it stated that government has right to control local food and drug traffic that the federal government could not previously control. For 32 years the FDA quietly protected the U.S. consumers, and maintained purity in America’s products. However, they thought that they need more authority than they had. In1938 the Federal, Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed.Under this act, the FDA no longer had to prove knowledge of intent in adulteration cases.

Many argued that this gave the FDA complete tyranny. The main duties created by this act are to see that the food we eat is safe and wholesome, the cosmetics we use do not hurt us, medicines are safe and effective. The FDA also protects the country’s blood supply by routinely examining blood banks (1). Also, it ensures that products are labeled truthfully, and with useful information.Along with people, the FDA also regulates food and drugs for pets and farm animals. The FDA consists of 1100 investigators who cover the nation’s 95,000 FDA-regulated businesses. These inspectors visit about 15,000 facilities per year.

Also, they inspect about 80,000 domestic and imported samples for examination by FDA scientist’s (1). If a company has violated any of the FDA’s laws, this company maybe encouraged to correct the problem or recall it from the market.If the company does not cooperate and correct the problem, the FDA can bring them to court and force them to stop selling the product and to have already produced items destroyed. About 3000 items per year are found to be unfit for consumer’s (1). The FDA is not responsible for doing research when approving new drugs; however, it does study the results done by the manufacturer. Once the drugs have been approved for marketing, the FDA must still collect tens of thousands of reports on that drug each year to monitor for any adverse reactions (1). The Food and Drug Administration is a very controversial department in the U.

S.It has been jeered for having too much power and even tyranny. However, if it was not created, we would not know what was in our food and drugs. Overall, the FDA plays a very important and helpful role in our society today, by making our products safe for consumption.

Although these agencies serve different departments, their number one purpose is to provide food safety to all Americans and therefore, they must work together at Group 1 6 different points in times to meet this very significant goal. One instance in which the FDA, CDC, EPA, and USDA have joined together is the issue of the safety of fruit. Since fruit is usually grown outside on farms it serves the chances of people catching a disease from eating it.For the past several years many illnesses have occurred because of produce. These illnesses include Hepatitis A virus believed to have come from strawberries in Mexico, salmonella in bean sprouts from the Midwest, and Escherichia Coli associated with hamburgers not fully cooked. A few months ago the EPA warned people of Cyclospora, an infection caused from fruits and vegetables. The FDA and the CDC worked together with growers to improve sanitation practices on the farms in Guatemala, while the EPA held a meeting to find more information on cyclospora.

The CDC also found the number of Americans becoming ill and gave a report on how to decrease the contamination of fruits (Washington Post, 7/8/97).Another instance in which the EPA, USDA, and the FDA worked together was with the discovery of toxic dioxin found in Tyson Chickens. The chicken was sampled and tested by the USDA and the EPA for dioxin levels, chicken litter, soil, feed, and pesticide use at the Hill Top Farms in Star City (Arkansas Business, 6/16/97).

Since the FDA is responsible for the safety of the nation’s food supply and overlooks all aspects, it often works with the other three federal agencies individually to ensure safety to American consumers. The FDA often communicates with the CDC since foods tend to become contaminated with diseases and make Americans ill. The FDA also works with the CDC in such cases of how to fight germs in soaps, deodorants, toothpaste, and toys using germicidal product, in which both germs and the products can be harmful to the consumer (Orange County Register, 7/16/97).The FDA and the USDA both have the power to inspect, impose grades and standards, and establish rules regarding labeling. In years before the food manufacturers did not want to put nutrition labels on foods because they felt it would take a lot of work, time, and difficulty, but the real reason was it would make consumers aware of substitutes and contents in the foods.

The response after labeling was low fat and low sodium foods. Therefore because of the Nutrition and Labeling Act of 1990, which standardized food labels with ingredients, descriptions, and nutrient contents the USDA and the FDA research has shown that Americans are more aware of food contents and ingredients to better their health. The FDA also enforces laws over the EPA in determining the safety of pesticide products and setting tolerance levels for pesticide residues in foods. The FDA also sets guidelines regulating bottled water sold in interstate commerce for human use. The President signed a Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 in August of 1996, which regulated pesticides by the FDA and the EPA to put important public health protection in place, especially for children.

The EPA works with the USDA, due to the crops that need to be protected by sprays to prevent them from dying and causing disease. In 1994, the EPA has suggested banning aerial spraying of certain types of herbicides because they were believed to damage crops at a Shoreliani organic vegetable farm and can be hazardous to humans. The USDA recommended the suspended aerial applications of the herbicides until they Group 1 7 determined what had happened at Shoreliani. Currently the farm has been closed down so that the EPA may test to see what exactly may be dangerous to the plants (Times-Argus 7/20/97). The CDC will sometimes function with the EPA to study environmental health problems since most diseases can come from the environment, water, and pesticides.The CDC helps to direct and enforce national programs for the prevention and control of diseases transmitted by a host organism.