Globalization

.. sempowered himself or herself even if he or she attains a short-term objective. Power originates in the individual; authority originates in the charter of the organization. Thus, there is no such thing as position power. Power can be exerted anywhere, whereas authority is limited by position.

(I can tell my team member what to do, but I cannot tell your team member what to do.) Finally, although one’s power cannot be affected by anyone else, one’s authority can be increased or decreased by someone who holds a position of higher authority. Leadership. Leadership can be defined as the art of getting people to perform a task willingly. It differs from power in that it focuses solely on compliance from others, requires an organizational identity of some kind (e.g., production department, scout troop, or military unit), and is in service to task completion for the common good. Power is not dependent on others, requires no special identity, and is in service to one’s own wants or objectives.

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Manipulation. Manipulation simply means, to handle; however, in regard to power it usually connotes the secret use of powerthe implication being that another person is being used without that person’s full awareness of what is happening. It implies such things as ulterior motive, withheld information, and/or using another person without any regard for that persons views or welfare. Power, in contrast, is open, does not necessarily involve another person, and implies no ill will or disregard for others. Intimidation. Intimidation is an extreme case of disempowerment because it is self-generated. Regardless of how aggressive or invasive someone else is, if you think or say, That person intimidates me, you have made the other person dominant and have rendered yourself powerless. Once you have done this, you are generally incapable of doing anything to change the situation. On the other hand, if your initial response to the other person’s aggressiveness is, I am feeling intimidated by this person.

How am I doing that to myself?, you are taking responsibility for your own feelings. Having done that, you can begin to generate some options. Domination. Domination is the concept most frequently confused with, or mistaken for, power. First, the objective of power is to gain an end; the objective of domination is to bend someone else to your will. Second, power is an attribute of one person, whereas domination, like the other concepts, requires a minimum of two people: the bender and at least one bendee. Third, the function of power is to strengthen or better oneself; the function of domination is to weaken others.

Fourth, power is measured against ones past performance; domination requires only that one be stronger than another person. Finally, the end result of power is freedomone obtains what one wants and then moves on. The end result of domination is slavery. The dominator continually must expend effort and energy making sure that the subordinates are still subordinate. Power can give a leader the potential to influence the groups attitudes or behaviors towards the accomplishment of projects or goals.

However, a leader can also misuse power. Using power too extensively creates separation, resistance, opposition, and disagreements. When a leader uses power without sensitivity to the feelings of others, they create authority with little influence. People appreciate leaders who ask them to think rather than just tell them what to do. Effective leaders use power to pull the group together and not push them towards a goal.

Leaders rely more on influence than their authority from power. Influence combines enthusiasm, excitement, charisma, and wisdom. When leaders use influence, they appeal to the group members’ values, skills, and knowledge. By keeping motivation and enthusiasm going, the group moves more successfully towards their goals. How a leader uses power will determine the influence the leader will have with the group. To use power and influence effectively a person needs to understand the different types of power: Reward Power, Coercive Power, Legitimate Power, Expert Power and Referent Power. Reward Power is when an individual has the opportunity to extend a reward to the group for accomplishing a project or goal. Ex: Upon completion of reports, we will have a cookout.

In this example the individual promises to give the group a reward of a cookout after completing the necessary work. Coercive Power gives an individual the ability to administer some type of punishment to the group or individual. The individual enforces the punishment when the completion of a goal or project falls short. Ex: If you do not clean the yard, you will not be able to use the car this weekend. In this case, not being able to use the car is the punishment for failing to clean the yard.

Legitimate Power gives an individual the right to ask for the accomplishment of a goal or project. The group feels an obligation to comply with the request of the individual. Ex: We would like all company vehicles washed this week. The employees have an obligation to complete this project. Expert Power is when an individual has special knowledge or skills in the area or project the group is working on.

Ex: Jim will lead us through this procedure because of his experience in working with plants. In this case Jim will lead the group through their workings because of his experience in the area. Referent Power is when the group or individual makes accomplishments towards a goal or project because of their admiration for an individual. The group respects and wants the individuals approval. Ex: An individual who has been active in several community projects appeals to the community to assist in a fundraiser. In this example people respond because of their respect and admiration for the individual. When in a group set I often utilize all these different types of power, both consciously and unconsciously. These include: Expert Power ? Give good technical suggestions.

? Share with team members considerable experience and/or training. ? Provide them with sound task or job related advice. Referent Power ? Make group members feel I approve of them. ? Make them feel personally accepted. ? Make them feel important.

Coercive Power ? Give team members undesirable tasks or assignments. ? Make their work difficult or unpleasant. ? Make their work distasteful. Reward Power ? Increase their rewards. ? Provide them with special benefits.

? Influence their grades. Legitimate Power ? Make my team members feel like they satisfy their task requirements and jobs. ? Give them the feeling they have responsibilities to fulfill. ? Make them recognize that they have tasks to accomplish. Probably no word in the world of management conjures up more myth and fervor than does the word power. In reality, there is nothing awesome or evil about power. It is just one of the essential forces in maintaining and developing strong, productive organizations and positive working relationship.

Power is the foundation of organizational effectiveness and leadership practice, regardless of the specialty in which a leader or manager works. It is part of the everyday life in the work setting, and nothing can be accomplished without it. Marketing and Advertising.