.. bsorbed into the muscles faster. Long-term consequences of daily Creatine ingestion, especially in high dosages, are currently unknown. There is a strong possibility that excess Creatine can put stress on the kidneys. Androstenedione is a direct precusor in the biosynthesis to testosterone. Its naturally made in both men and women.

And its also found in the tree pollen scotch pine trees. Andro was first isolated in 1935, but it wasnt looked into until the late 50s when scientists determined andro is converted in the body to testosterone. There are two different pathways in the body that can create andro: either from DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) or from a hormone called 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone. Scientist found andro could be converted to testosterone (and vice versa). Andro is a steroid hormone that is the precursor to testosterone the steroid hormone associated with masculinity (1,2). It is converted from cholesterol, a reaction, or chain of reactions, that occurs in order to covert molecule A into molecule B. Specific enzymes and hormones, among other things, must be present and ready to work, so to speak, for these conversions to take place.

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Andro has a very short half-life in the blood and is produced by the adrenal glands and the gonads from either 17-alpha-hydroxyprogestrone or dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA)(3). DHEA is also sold as a dietary supplement. Andro may be converted into either testosterone or an estrogen (estrone) within the blood (4). Andro itself is a relatively weak androgen(2,4). However, the anabolic effects of testosterone are well documented.

One study reported that supraphysiologic doses of testosterone significantly increased muscle size and strength in normatestosterogonic men after 10 weeks.(4) Supplementation with andro, the immediate precursor to testosterone is believed to elevate blood testosterone levels in both males and females and thus increase lean body mass (muscle mass) and physical strength. The andro supplements, which are becoming so popular among bodybuilders, are tablets and capsules. How effective are these oral supplements, well, one study, quoted in a German patent application, stated that oral doses of andro, given to men at levels of 50mg and 100mg, raise testosterone levels by 140% and 183% and 211% to 237% respectively. Another study, preferred in the U.S. at the medical college of Georgia, examined the effects of a 100mg dose of andro on women. The effects of andro in females seem to be more dramatic than in men these women experience a four to sixfold increase in total testosterone within an hour after oral ingestion.

A study conducted in 1962 reported that two female subjects who ingested 100mg of andro had dramatically elevated blood testosterone levels within 90 minutes of ingestion. At 60 minutes, serum testosterone concentration increased by approximately 400% in one of the subjects and nearly 700% in the other subject. Serum testosterone concentration remained elevated both subjects for about 90 minutes before returning to the normal level. (2) Since andro seems to cause a brief burst of testosterone, it may or may not cause any of the unusual testosterone side effects: acne, prostate, hypertrophy, and a decrease in HDL (good) cholesterol. Because it does fall under the category of steroid hormones, and because it was shown to have androgenic and anabolic properties, it may produce side effects similar to those of testosterone based anabolic steroids.

The most dangerous of them is the increased risk you put yourself at for heart disease, contain cancers, depression, psychoses, and even extreme aggression. There are also sex specific effects. For men, these include shrinking testes, increased hair loss, enlarged breasts, and possible sterility. Woman may experience such side effects as shrinking breast and uterus, enlarged clitoris, irregular menstruation, increased facial and body hair growth, and a deepening voice. The overall effects of andro have been shown to increase strength and quicker, more productive muscle recover, therefore the athletes will be bigger and stronger helping them perform better than they did. HMB is otherwise known as beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate.

Its a metabolite of the essential amino acid leucine. Our bodys make some HMB but we also get some from food- its found in small amounts in both plants and animals foods, including: grapefruit and catfish. HMB is not a steroid or drug. HMB appears to up-regulate our ability to build muscle and burn fat in response to intense exercise. In fact in one recent study recently published in the prestigious Journal of Applied Physiology, it was revealed that athletes who supplemented their diets with three grams of HMB a day, for just three weeks, gained three times as much lean body mass and experienced an increase in strength two and a half times greater than test subjects who followed the same workout program but used a placebo(5).

HMB has been shown to have a positive effect on protein metabolism. HMB also appears to be safe and non-toxic. It has also been shown to have only positive effects on health and human metabolism with HMB supplementation. HMB seems to shift the balance of protein metabolism in favor of new muscle growth, and it also appears to minimize the breakdown of muscle tissue (an anti-catabolic effect). In doing so, HMB can help support a consistent increase in muscle tissue growth. According to studies HMB supplementation may double the muscle building and fat burning effects of exercise.

It is unknown exactly how HMB works but it may supply a precursor to muscle and to the immune system that supports maximal cellular repair. Thus, the muscle membrane is more rapidly repaired after exercise-induced damage, and having an adequate supply of this substrate in the muscle for membrane expansion supports muscle growth. The result is a more rapid return to position protein synthesis. Another hypothesis is that HMB supports a decrease inn protein turnover or muscle damage. In turn, this decrease in muscle breakdown could result in more rapid neural recruitment by the muscle fibers and may act as a catalyst to faster strength increases. This could explain why in scientific studies, test subjects using HMB noticed a dramatic increase in strength after using the supplement for only a week or two.

HMB is a normal product of human metabolism; it is naturally present in mothers milk and is found in small quantities in the foods we eat. HMB also appears to be an essential part of the tissue growth process. In addition, its a water-soluble compound, which is excreted in the urine in proportion to dietary intake. Thus, based on the chemistry of HMB, it would be predicted that HMB is a Seabee compound. In the discussion of these three supplements you can see that they do have an overall effect on an athletes performance.

It is proven that these supplements help athletes too gain strength, speed and endurance. In gaining these they are able to perform at an elevated level beyond that of what they were capable before. Science.