European Union

European Union Turkey and the European union Let us begin this by looking at what the EU wants from Turkey. The criteria for EU membership adopted by the Copenhagen European Council in June 1993 require that a candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights, and respect for and protection of minorities; has a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union; and has the ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union. Thus we can look at what Turkey is facing now. The main problem that faces Turkey is that it is still not a functioning and stable democracy that has the rule of law, that is respecting human rights and protecting minorities.

The sporadic disappearances of people in the custody of the authorities and also the suppression of the right of free press and expression in connection with the Kurdish problem has been a stalemate.Also the EU’s concerns about the role of the army in political life have to be addressed. Furthermore, under the democracy and human rights agenda Turkeys not so disturbing actions towards its own Kurdish citizens and their rights in a modern democracy is another tripping stone for it, So a solid problem in connection with government and rule persists. A growing Islamist movement and the continuing gain in popularity of the pro-Islamic political parties is another problem that Turkey faces at home, the European Union not taking too kindly to such orientation inside Turkey. Radicalism of this sort is definitely a minus point in their bid for membership. Here too we see the connection with government and law.

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This growth of support for such movements may be attributed to the blatant European rejection of Turkey at the Luxembourg summit.People have grown weary of continuous rejection and probably the growth in popularity for the alternative parties an be attributed to such matters. Finally the Turkish economic burden on the EU’s budget represents the greatest obstacle for its membership in the union. Once a member Turkey would qualify for assistance from the EU funding bodies and could bankrupt the EU funds for such areas as economic improvement and structural growth. The admission of Turkey would release a flood of economic refugees into the other member states. This is not something that Europe would look forward too.

Turkey still has to cope with, such as high inflation rates and rising public debts, which have remained comparatively static. High unemployment within Turkey have meant that the government has been reluctant to continue its privatization policies until the employment situation improves. Therefore, as a result of Turkey’s weak economic infrastructure, it will become a loss rather than gain to the EU were it to become a member. In conclusion I think Turkey will not be admitted to the EU in the near future but a definite possibility in the long run. On the political side its democracy still fails to meet Western standards in terms of individual civil and political rights, it is clearly more developed than most of the other current candidate countries’ political system. Also key to the improvement of candidacy status have been the abatement of repression on the Kurds.A further positive sign has been the, for a revision of the constitution, and such legislative action as well. It only remains to wait and see.

Bibliography Sources 1.Readings from course packet 2. Moustakis, Fotis, Contemporary Review v. 273 no1592 (Sept. 1998) DePaul lib databases.

3. European Union Country Report (EIU), 1999 4th Quarter, p16, 4p, DePaul lib data bases Political Science.

European Union

European Union The managed exchange rate system deals with trade rate between countries.

Managed rates assume that one country sets the monetary policy, takes the exchange rate that is given, and assumes the other country will go along with that rate. The other country then tries to reduce inflation by setting their own exchange rate. The managed exchange rate system slows down exchange-rate movement through the foreign trade market intervention. The whole purpose behind the European Union is to maintain peace between the European counties, and to integrate them.The founding gentlemen of the EMS wanted to restore the integration of the European Communities. In 1949, the Council of Europe was founder to promote political and social unity in Europe. Later in 1952, the European Coal and Steel Community was started to “allay fears of a military-industrial complex fuelling renascent German nationalism” (Artis & Lee 5). Economic integration and unity was brought to a head in March of 1957 when the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community were formed.

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These two treaties were used to help stabilize and form the ECU.All three of these organizations/treaties were essential to forming what is today called the European Union. The European Union/European Monetary System failed for three basic reasons in the early 1990s. First of all, it failed because it was inefficient due to the low-inflation system and the recession in that time period. The recession elaborated on the conflicts between the member countries of the European Union. Second, it is not sufficiently competitive at the current rate of exchange.Third, the real interest rate of the world would need to decline drastically in order for the EU to work.

Also in the early 1990s there were “smaller expectations of devaluations” (DeGrauwe 131). The current European Union has been a result of recent treaties. The first treaty that was signed in February 1992 helped the unification of Europe be that much closer. It set the groundwork for one currency throughout Europe called the euro.

In order to update the current treaties the Amsterdam Treaty was signed as a result of the Intergovernmental Conference. This treaty resulted in a plan to listen to the citizens, get closer to a more secure Europe, to make Europe more vocal throughout the world, and to make the European Union more efficient. As of January of 1997 there were 15 countries belonging to the regional and economic European Union.

The countries currently involved are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In the future the European Union hopes to grow and add more countries to this list.The banking system that the European Union uses is a Central Banking System. With the evolvement of the Euro the economics of Europe will be easier to maintain. As of January 1, 1999 the national central banks and the European Central Bank were formed to help institute the monetary policy using the euro.

The macroeconomics theory accompanied with the use of economic analysis can illustrate the ideas behind the EMS. The members of the EU have put a strong emphasis into the monetary and macroeconomic policies. In order to “reduce inflation the tried to have more stable competitive conditions within in the EMS which resulted in strict exchange rates” (Levich & Sommariva 5).

The European Union has a long way to go before it achieves 100% success. It is updated basically on a year-to-year basis. In order to continue to improve the Union they have established an Agenda 2000. This agenda presents the major problems that they will encounter as the year 2000 is approached. First, they want to strengthen and reform the Community policies to deal with a growing European Union.Second, they need to look at the other countries that have applied to be a part of the Union. Last, a budget needs to be established that includes all of their future plans.

There are many advantages to having a united Europe to the people of Europe. One benefit is trade. There is now a free movement of goods, services, people and, money within the countries belonging to the European Union.Having a united Europe, which will result in the euro, will benefit information technology, administrative changes, and the information and training of employees.

The benefits of the EU on citizens, businesses, and tourists will be determined by how much attention is paid by each particular country to maintaining and promoting good relations with one another. (Sumner & Zis 249) American businesses are affect by the united Europe. For example, in 1980-85 there was an unpredicted increase in the value of the dollar. As a result of the dollar appreciation many American industrial firms that competed in the international market were more profitable than in the past. The European Union also affects the business in the United States because the “cash forward market liquidity tends to dry up” in the middle of the afternoon because that is when the European currency traders are going home for the day (Levich &Sommariva 95).Investors in the ECU are growing on a daily basis.

Investors tend look at the Union as a risk-returning investment according to dollar assets and the foreign alternatives that are available. Bibliography DeGrauwe, Paul. The Economics of Monetary Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Giavazzi, Francesco, Stefano Micossi, and Marcus Miller. The European Monetary System. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Levich, Richard M., and Andrea Sommariva. The ECU Market: Current Developments and Future Prospects of the European Currency Unit.

Lexington: Lexington Books, 1987. Sumner, M.T., and G.Zis.

European Monetary Union: Progress and Prospects. New York: St. Martins Press, 1982.


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