Elie Wiesel

Eliezer Wiesel was born in 1928, a native of Sighet, Transylvania (Romania) which is near the Ukrainian border; He grew up experiencing first-hand the horrors of the Holocaust, this started when at fifteen years old Wiesel and his family were deported by the Nazis to Auschwitz. His mother and younger sister perished there, his two older sisters survived. Wiesel and his father were later transported to Buchenwald
In 1945, at the end of the war, Elie moved to Paris, where he studied literature, philosophy, and psychology at the Sorbonne. With a strong desire to write, Elie worked as a journalist in Paris before coming to the United States in 1956. He became an American citizen almost by accident. After being in New York City on an assignment, he was hit by a taxi, and confined to a wheelchair for a year. A friend convinced him to apply for U.S. citizenship, and he eventually decided to remain in America.

Elie has written more than thirty-five books, including Night, The Accident, A Beggar in Jerusalem, The Forgotten and From the Kingdom of Memory. His wife, Marion, has translated most of his books into English. His books have won numerous awards, including the Prix Medicis for A Beggar in Jerusalem, the Prix Livre Inter for The Testament and the Grand Prize for Literature from the City of Paris for The Fifth Son. Wiesel’s most recent books published in the United States are A Passover Haggadah, Sages and Dreamers. The first volume of his memoirs, “All Rivers Run to the Sea” was published in New York by Knopf publishers in December 1995.

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He has been awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States Congressional Gold Medal, the French Legion of Honor, the Medal of Liberty Award and, in 1986, the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in improving the living conditions, and promoting the understanding and global acceptance of Jews. For this same reason, Mr. Wiesel was presented with an Ellis Island Medal of Honor in 1992 and He has received more than seventy-five honorary degrees from institutions of higher learning.

Elie Wiesel has been Distinguished Professor of Judaic Studies at the City University of New York (1972-1976), and first Henry
Luce Visiting Scholar in the Humanities and Social Thought at Yale
University (1982-1983). Since 1976, he has been the Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities at Boston University where he also holds the title of University Professor. He is a member of the Faculty in the Department of Religion as well as the Department of Philosophy.

He has been an American citizen since 1963 and lives in New York


Elie Wiesel

The book Night opens in the town of Signet where Elie Wiesel, the author ,
was born . He lived his child hood in the Signet, Transylvania . He had three
sisters Hilda, Bea, and Tzipora. His father was an honored member of the Jewish
community. He was a cultured man concerned about his community yet, he was not
an emotional man. His parents were owners of a shop and his two oldest sisters
worked for his parents. Elie was a school boy and interested in studying the
Zohar the cabbalistic books, the secrets of Jewish mysticism(Wiesel 3). His
teacher was a foreigner, Moshe the Beadle, a poor barefoot of Signet(Wiesel 3).

He was Elie’s teacher until he was forced to leave Signet by the Hungarians
because he was a foreign Jew.

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After several months Elie saw Moshe the Beadle once again. Moshe the Beadle
told his story about his journey that the Jews were forced to get out and dig
grave which would become final resting places for prisoners who were killed.

Luckily, Moshe the Beadle was able to escape. He pretended that he was dead in
order to escape being killed. Not only did Moshe tell his story to Elie, he
wanted to warn the Jews of Signet of what could happen to them. However, they
only thought it was a vivid imagination speaking from his lips. No one wanted to
believe his story and people lived life as usual.

It was not until German troops would enter Hungarian territory that life
would change for the Jews of Signet. At first the German soldiers did not seem
like a threat. During the week of Passover things seemed to be going well.

People were celebrating yet, it was not a complete celebration. On the seventh
day of the Passover Jewish leaders of the community were arrested. After that
rules were set by the Germans. Jews were confined to their homes for three days
and they could no longer keep valuables such as gold, jewelry and other objects.

The Germans took it all. Elie’s father managed to bury the family’s savings in
the cellar. After the three days Jews had to wear a yellow star. After this more
rules were set. Jews could not go to restaurants, travel on railways, go to
synagogues, or go out after six o’clock.

As if the rules and restrictions were not enough. Soon Jews would be placed
in Ghettos. There were two gettos set up in Signet. These ghettos were fenced in
with barbed wire and the windows of the houses facing the street were boarded up.

The Jewish people of Signet tried to look at it positively and saw it as A
little Jewish Republic(Wiesel 9). People tried to live as normal and felt they
would remain in the ghetto until the end of the war. However this would not be
the case. Elie’s father brought news to his family that they would be deported
and the ghetto was to be destroyed. They did not know where they were going ,
only that they would be leaving in the morning and could only take a few
personal belongings.

Fortunately for the Wiesel family their journey was postponed for a couple
of days. When they heard the words All Jews outside!( Wiesel 16) they knew it
was time to leave everything behind. The beginning of their journey was short.

they stopped in another ghetto where they stayed for two days until their
journey would begin once again. After another stop they were then put on cattle
wagons filled with eighty people to a car. It was uncomfortable, there was
barely any air, there was nothing to drink or eat, it was hot, and people had to
take turns sitting down. When they arrived in the town of Kaschau they heard the
words From this moment you come under the authority of the German army(Wiesel
21). At this point they knew they were never going home. They traveled some more
and soon they would arrive at Birkenau the reception center of Auschwitz. When
they arrived they could see flames and smell burning flesh (Wiesel 26).

People were being separated Men to the left! Women to the right!(Wiesel
27). This was when Elie and his father were separated from his mother and
sisters. It would be the last time he would ever see them again. Elie and his
father would now have to stick together and rely on one another. They had to lie
about their ages in order to stay alive and together. As Elie passed through
Auschwitz during the first few hours he learned of the crematories and what he
needed to do to survive. He also began to question his beliefs in God . He said
Why should I bless His name? The Eternal, Lord of the universe…What had I to
thank him for?(Wiesel 31).

When they arrived at their barracks they were forced to strip and given new
clothing. They also saw a barber and had their heads shaved. They were reunited
with others from their old community of Signet. It made them happy for the
moment but they knew that the only thing they must concern themselves with is
surviving for themselves. The next day Elie and his father were moved to new
barracks where they were soaked in petrol. This was known as disinfection and it
was done whenever anyone entered a new barracks. After soaking in petrol they
then took a hot shower and were given new clothes. At this point their pride and
hope was practically non-existent. They were no longer themselves.

They were informed that they were in Auschwitz and that it was a
concentration camp and that they had to work or else they would be sent to the
furnace. However, the furnace was not a threat to them they had been through so
much already that the idea of death really had no meaning.

A few days later they were to leave Birkenau. They marched away from that
camp to another destination. They reached another camp with a sign to the
entrance reading Work is Liberty!(Wiesel 38) they were now in Auschwitz. They
thought this camp was much better than Birkenau. The buildings were concrete not
wooden. They had to go through another disinfection upon entrance. When they
arrived at another barracks they met a prisoner who was in charge, he was
Polish, he told them they had already gotten through the selection and there
was hard work ahead of them. They had to have the strength to live and hopefully
one day have liberation. They were assigned to Block 17 and told to go to sleep
for the evening. The words of the Pole did boost moral and there were hopes that
the war was almost over.

The next day they would be given their identification numbers which would
be tattooed on their arms. This number became their name. They stayed at
Auschwitz for three weeks. The day they were to leave they were given rations of
bread, counted, and they left, walking, to their next destination. Their walk
lasted four hours and they arrived at the next camp, Buna.

At Buna they went through disinfection and then assigned to their labor
units. They were quarantined for three days during that time they would go
through a medical examination and then they would work. During the medical exam
they were asked if they were in good health and of course they had to say yes.

They also saw a dentist. The dentist was not checking for bad teeth but for gold
teeth. Anyone with gold in his mouth was written down on a list. Elie,
unfortunately, had a golden crown. He was later called back to the dentist for
extraction of his tooth. Elie was not going to give up his tooth and told the
dentist he was sick. This went on a few more times until eventually the dentist
was transferred to another camp and the tooth was forgotten. He did not want to
give up his tooth because it was all he had and could one day prove to be
valuable. One day along the line he would have to give up his tooth. It was when
a foreman named Franek noticed the gold tooth in Elie’s mouth. He used Elie’s
feelings toward his father to get it. He saw that Elie’s father could not march
and tormented Elie’s father . Elie tried to teach his father how to march but it
did not work. Eventually they had to give into Franek and give him the tooth.

During their time at Buna they were placed in a warehouse for electrical
equipment which was a good unit according to other civilians. The work was not
hard but they did have a harsh Kapo. His name was Idek, he had a bad temper and
it was a good idea not to get in his way. One example of his bad temper was when
Elie witnessed him with a young polish girl. Elie was whipped twenty-five times
for witnessing this event. Idek’s explanation for this was for his curiosity
(Wiesel 56).

Another event that occurred during their stay at Buna was an air raid. The
Americans bombed the camp. The raid only lasted a little over an hour. The
bombing made the prisoners happy they did not fear death. It also made Elie
happy that the warehouse he worked in was not bombed. A week after the bombing,
the prisoners were forced to watch a hanging of a man who stole during the raid.

The Germans claimed Let this be a warning and example to all prisoners(Wiesel
59.) It was only another attempt at inflicting terror in the prisoners minds.

After the hanging they were forced to walk past the dead man before they ate.

The idea of the crematory no longer bothered Elie but this event bothered him.

On the evening of Rosh Hashanah, the Jewish New Year, Elie once again
questioned God. He could no longer listen to the prayers and he felt betrayed.

The Jewish were supposed to observe Yom Kipper by fasting. Many questioned
whether or not they should fast. If they did fast it might make them weaker and
possibly lead to their death. Elie did not fast.

Elie was separated from his father. They were placed on separate units. The
rumor of selection was passing around the camp. Elie was afraid his father was
to weak to make the selection. The head of Elie’s block gave the prisoners tips
to get through the selection. He told them to run, not to walk slowly, and not
to look at the SS. He also told them not to be afraid. Both Elie and his father
passed the selection.

A few more months went by, it was January, and Elie was suffering of a
swollen foot from the cold. He had it examined and the doctor told him he need
to have an operation or he would lose his leg. During his stay in the hospital,
he enjoyed not having to work or be ordered around. Although he was enjoying
this time off he had to get out of the hospital or else he might be selected.

Elie had his operation and was supposed to stay in the hospital until hi foot
healed. When he heard that the camp was to be evacuated all except the patients
in the hospital he realized he better get well quick. He left to find his father
and they made the decision to evacuate from the camp with the other prisoners.

Elie and his father, along with other prisoners, left the camp on a dark
snowy night. They were forced to run to their next destination. They could not
think all they could do was run. When they were finally able to rest, it was in
the snow. Elie’s father did not want him to sleep to long especially in the cold
because he may not wake up. When the journey began once again, people were
trampling over others and dropping to the ground not able to go any further.

Elie no longer felt his wounded foot all he could do was run. They only had hope
to reach the next destination as quickly as possible. They stayed at a camp
called Gleiwitz for three days with no food or water. Their next stop would be
to a train.

On the train everyone was packed in and trying to keep warm. There were
dead people on the floors and they had to make stops to dump the dead people.

People took the clothing of the dead. They had to eat snow to keep from getting
dehydrated and they were not given food. Elie saw the savage instinct in people
who would kill their own family for food.

Their next stop was Buchenwald. Upon arrival they were counted and pointed
to the assembly place. They then headed to the showers. At this point Elie’s
father could barely hold on , he was near death. He was weak and had no desire
to live. Elie stayed with him during the last moments of his life. On January 28,
1945 Elie went to sleep and his father was still alive. When he woke up the next
day his father was gone(Wiesel 106).

On April 11,1945 Elie was free. The Americans moved in on Buchenwald and
took over the camp. The first thing the free men wanted was food. They could not
think of revenge or their families Nothing but bread(Wiesel 109). Elie was
sick from food poisoning after the liberation, he almost died. However, when he
was finally able to get up and look in the mirror after so many years he did not
even recognize himself. All he could see was a corpse staring back at him.

Elie Wiesel now lives in the United Stated under the name of Andrew Mellon.

He is the Professor of Humanities at Boston University. He is also Chairman of
the Holocaust Memorial Council. This organization is a nonpolitical organization
that was formed to educate people of the crimes put forth on the Jewish people
during the Holocaust (Chaimberlin 14).

Works Cited
Chamberlin, Brewster, and Marcia Feldman eds. The Liberation of the Nazi
Concentration Camps 1945. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C, 1987.

Wiesel, Elie. Night . Bantam Books: New York, 1989 .
Category: English


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