July 9, 2005
Assignment 6A & B
What part of the GI tract do they affect?
Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and
interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. People who have celiac
disease cannot tolerate a protein called gluten, found in wheat, rye, and
barley. Gluten is found mainly in foods, but is also found in products we
use every day and even some medicines.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, occurs when the lower esophageal
sphincter (LES) does not close properly and stomach contents leak back, or
reflux, into the esophagus.
Lactose intolerance is the inability to digest significant amounts of
lactose, the predominant sugar of milk. This inability results from a
shortage of the enzyme lactase, which is normally produced by the cells
that line the small intestine.
How does the disorder affect nutritional status/nutrient absorption?
When people with celiac disease eat foods or use products containing
gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the small intestine. The
tiny, fingerlike protrusions lining the small intestine are damaged or
destroyed. Called villi, they normally allow nutrients from food to be
absorbed into the bloodstream. Without healthy villi, a person becomes
malnourished, regardless of the quantity of food eaten.
When refluxed stomach acid touches the lining of the esophagus, it causes a
burning sensation in the chest or throat called heartburn. The fluid may
even be tasted in the back of the mouth, and this is called acid
Lactase breaks down milk sugar into simpler forms that can then be absorbed
into the bloodstream. When there is not enough lactase to digest the amount
of lactose consumed, the results, although not usually dangerous, may be
What are some common misconceptions about these disorders?
Sometimes celiac disease is confused with irritable bowel syndrome, iron-
deficiency anemia caused by menstrual blood loss, Crohn’s disease,
diverticulitis, intestinal infections, and chronic fatigue syndrome. As a
result, celiac disease is commonly under diagnosed or misdiagnosed.
Occasional heartburn is common but does not necessarily mean one has GERD.
What kinds of medications/treatments are recommended?
Recently, researchers discovered that people with celiac disease have
higher than normal levels of certain auto antibodies in their blood.
Antibodies are protective proteins produced by the immune system in
response to substances that the body perceives to be threatening. Auto
antibodies are proteins that react against the body’s own molecules or
tissues. To diagnose celiac disease, physicians will usually test blood to
measure levels of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) anti-tissue transglutaminase
(tTGA) or IgA anti-endomysium antibodies (AEA).
If you have had heartburn or any of the other symptoms for a while, you
should see your doctor. You may want to visit an internist, a doctor who
specializes in internal medicine, or a gastroenterologist, a doctor who
treats diseases of the stomach and intestines. Depending on how severe your
GERD is, treatment may involve one or more of the following lifestyle
changes and medications or surgery.
Dietary control of lactose intolerance depends on people learning through
trial and error how much lactose they can handle.
How can they be prevented?
The only treatment for celiac disease is to follow a gluten-free diet. When
a person is first diagnosed with celiac disease, the doctor usually will
ask the person to work with a dietitian on a gluten-free diet plan. A
dietitian is a health care professional who specializes in food and
nutrition. Someone with celiac disease can learn from a dietitian how to
read ingredient lists and identify foods that contain gluten in order to
make informed decisions at the grocery store and when eating out.
Change lifestyle by stop smoking, drinking, lose weight if needed, eat
smaller meals, and etc.
Krebs Cycle begins after the two molecules of the three carbon sugar
produced in glycolysis are converted to a slightly different compound.
Afterwards, several compounds capable of storing “high energy” electrons
are produced along with two ATP molecules. ATP is adenosine triphosphate.
These compounds, known as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), are reduced in the process. These
reduced forms carry the “high energy” electrons to the next stage. The
Krebs Cycle occurs only when oxygen is present but it doesn’t use oxygen
directly. Glycolysis is the breaking down of glucose.