Conclusion of Midterm

Error Analysis
In such a big lab, so many errors can occur and even one little one can ruin
everything. One could have missed a procedure or done a procedure incorrectly.
Another could have been using the incorrect amount of liquid or sludge. Someone
could have lost a test-tube or labeled it wrong causing the results to be mixed.

Using too much water in the solubility tests or not getting all measurements almost
exactly accurate could be two sources of error. One big mistake could be creating
a vacuum in the fractional Distillation part of the lab. One careless mistake could
have been doing the calculations incorrectly.

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Conclusion
The sludge lab is a long and complicated lab. So much can go wrong so
easily. So we had to be very careful when doing this lab. It was basically a recap
of all our previous labs done this year. First we used the Fractional Distillation.

Then we used the Solubility lab and the density labs. Only new part was
identifying the metal, but that wasn’t very hard. So it was good that we reviewed
our lab reports. This way we knew what procedures to take and what mistakes not
to make. So it seems like we did everything right because the results make sense.


To get and identify Fraction I, we had to do a lot. First we filtered the
sludge. Then we took 25cm3 of the sludge and separated it into three parts. So we
took the first fraction and experimented on it. We purified it and determined its
boiling point, density and solubility. We also had to see if it had an odor and
whether it was flammable or not. After doing all this we realized that this Fraction
was Isopropanol Alcohol. We came to this conclusion by looking at our data for
the solubility, density, odor, boiling point, and flammability.


To get and identify Fraction III, we had to continue from Fraction I. After
getting the first fraction we had to change tubes and et 2 more fractions. We threw
away the 2nd because it was just a leftover mix. We took the third fraction and
experimented on it. We purified it and determined its boiling point, density and
solubility. We also had to see if it had an odor and whether it was flammable or
not. After doing all this we realized that this Fraction was Water. We came to this
conclusion by looking at our data for the solubility, density, odor, boiling point,
and flammability.


Determining the soluble solid was hard and a rigorous procedure. After
boiling away 25cm3 of liquid, the boiling chips and a salt were left. We took the
chips out and put a little bit of water and mixed it with the salt. Now we had a
saturated solution. Then we followed the procedures for solubility and calculated
everything. After doing so we had to see the salts solubility in alcohol and water
and check its shape. We also had to conduct a flame test. After closely examining
the data and checking the facts. We cam to the conclusion that this slat was
Sodium Nitrate.


Determining the Insoluble solid was an easy and simple procedure. Once
we filtered out the sludge, we saw that there was a metal in it.. So we took the
metal out and checked it was magnetic. We saw that it was a marble shaped,
silvery whitish metal. Also had to observe what it changed the flame color to. You
can not figure out what an object without finding its density, and so we did that.
After all these tests we realized the metal was iron.