Composers Of 19th And 20th


will be the great Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong (1901 1971). Louis Daniel Armstrong was born in the Storyville District of New Orleans, Louisiana, on August 4, 1901, he always celebrated his birth as July 4, 1900 because that is what he was told and that is what he believed. His real date of birth was not known until after his death July 6, 1971. Mr.Armstrongs style of music was New Orleans Style Jazz. Some of his influences include his family, Peter Davis, and Joe “King” Oliver. Some notable history pertaining to Mr.

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Armstrong is that he came from a crime-ridden community. He was arrested at thirteen for firing a gun in the air at a New Years Celebration, and then was virtually saved by the system because he was sent to a reform school where he met his mentor, Joe Oliver. He served as Goodwill Ambassador in the 1950s and 1960s.Mr. Armstrong was able to invent extraordinary solos that transformed any melody into a jazz melody. He revealed new dimensions of the trumpet, showing that it could be played in a higher register.

The piece I will discuss will be Hotter Than Hot that was sung by Louis Armstrong and His Hot Five. The media is cornet, piano, trombone, guitar, and voice.The texture is very varied with the melody being disjunct and moving around. The harmony is tonal while it is in quadruple meter with a rapid tempo.

The form is New Orleans Style Jazz, which is characterized by scat singing. Scat singing is a combination of singing, talking and vocalizing a melodic line with nonsense syllables. The next composer I will be discussing will be Leonard Berstein (1918 1990).Mr.

Berstein was born in Lawrence, Massachusetts USA. His style of music was very versatile. He wrote musicals, operas, and ballets and theater pieces, choral works and three programmatic symphonies.

The piece I will be discussing is Tonight from the musical West Side Story.The media of this song is orchestra and voice and the texture is homophonic. The melody is syncopated and it has disjunct motion. The harmony is tonal with a 2/4 meter and it is fast and very rhythmic. The form is American Theater, or commonly known as a musical. West Side Story was a 1949 version of Romeo and Juliet written by Jerome Robbins, Leonard Bernstein and Arthur Laurents. This musical was about rival gangs and two young lovers entwined in it all.

“West Side Story remains true to its Shakespearean model. Things look good for the young lovers in the beginning, but when Tony–much like Romeo–accidentally kills his lover’s brother while trying to break up a rumble, violence erupts. The musical received rave reviews for its unflinching portrayal of gang life.

” The eighth composer I will be discussing is Igor Stravinsky (1828 1971). Born in St. Petersburg, Russia. Mr.

Stravinskys style is mainly primitivism. “Stravinsky’s forms are additive rather than symphonic, created from placing blocks of material together without disguising the joins”. His influences include Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov who he studied with, Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, and his father. Mr.Strainsky directed the Russian Ballet at the request of Segei Diaghilev in 1909. The piece I will be discussing is The Rite of Spring Omens of Spring-Dances of the Youths and Maidens (1913). The media for this piece is orchestra with no textures, very disjointed and irregular. The harmony is very fragmented and disjunct.

This song is in duple meter with a pounding rhythm and a fast tempo. The form is ballet. This ballet about pagan Russia caused quite a fuss in the Theatre des Champs-Elysees at its premiere in 1913. It was definitely one of the most famous riots in the history of music. The structure of the work is interesting.

1. “The Adoration of the Earth ? Introduction ? The Adoration of the Earth ? Harbingers of Spring ? Dances of the Adolescent Boys and Girls ? Mock Abduction ? Spring Rounds ? Games of the Rival Tribes ? Procession of the Tribal Sages ? Adoration of the Earth ? Song of the Earth 2. The Sacrifice ? Introduction ? The Sacrifice ? Mysterious Circles of the Adolescents ? Glorification of the Chosen One ? Evocation and Ritual of the Ancestors ? The Chosen One’s Dance of Death” The ninth and final composer I will be discussing is Arnold Schoenberg (1874 1951) born in Vienna Austria. His style was definitely full of expressionism with Brahms and Wagner being his influences. In 1908, Mr.

Schoenberg abandoned the tonal system.Yet he felt himself forced to move on from the principles which had underlain all their music, above all the principle of tonality. For all of them, as for many other composers, music had to be written in a key, though it might frequently move from one key to another. The point about using the key system is that some notes are stronger than others, the strongest being the tonic (typically indicated by the title of a work; e.

g. “Symphony in C minor”), the next the dominant (five notes above the tonic), and so on. This “tonal system” functions, both melodically and harmonically, as a set of tensions and relaxations; the further a piece is from the tonic, the more a need for resolution is felt, and the greater the sense of homecoming when the tonic is reasserted.

As Eric Salzman writes, they are “large-scale, thematic, wholly 12-tone structures in which the technique becomes fluent and pliable, focused in a way that parallels the role played by tonality in similar Classical forms.” The piece I will be discussing is Vulgarity (1912) also known as No.1 Gemeinhet, which is from an opera, by the name of Pierrot Lunaire. The media for this piece is orchestra, voice, and a homophonic texture. The melody is very disjunct, with a definite atonal harmony with no meter. This is from an opera with bizarre ideas.

The song is about an evil clown drilling a hole in a skull and smoking tobacco out of it. This is also a form of sprechtimme which in German means speech-singing.This is the end of my essay and I must admit that I learned more about these composers than I expected.