Cold war

The cold War
The Cold War was a response to the perceived threat by the United States that Communism would interfere with national security and economic stakes in the world. It was a perceived threat by communist countries that the United States would take to the world. During the Cold War, the United States, Russia, and other countries made efforts to avoid another world war, while warring in proxy in other lands. The devastation caused by the hydrogen bombs exploded in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the next technological advancements became only deterrents to the public. Governments had their own agenda which would result in worsening the strain between nations. The United States hid behind a curtain of nationalism resulting in increased hatred and mistrust between the people of the United States and Russia. Noam Chomsky reminds us that Communism is a broad term that includes those with the ability to get control of mass movements. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles once stated that, “The poor people are the ones they appeal to and they have always wanted to plunder the rich.” So, in one view, the U.S. felt they must be overcome, to protect our doctrine that the rich should ravage the poor. This became another motivation for the Cold War. In his historical account of the events leading to the Cold War, Jacob Heilbrunn reports that after World War II, “realists agreed that Soviet aggrandizement was responsible for the cold war.” (Heilbrunn) They felt the reason, rather than Communism, Heilbrunn notes, was that “Stalin was pursuing Russian national interests that dated back to the czars.” Others, however, accused the president and Congress “of following a consistent policy of economic imperialism, ” tracing it back to the “Open Door Diplomacy of the nineteenth century, which outlined “an insatiable American appetite for new economic markets.” (Heilbrunn) Heilbrunn says that Gabriel Kolko also felt that Roosevelt’s anti-Russia stance was formed to create dominance by the United States in world economic markets. (Heilbrunn) Heilbrunn says that Leffler’s A Preponderance of Power, has become the “sacred text of the neo-revisionists.” (Heilbrunn) Leffler claims that U.S. security policy was established between 1940 and 1946 based on geopolitics, not economics. Truman was far from fearing a Soviet military attack and was defending American economic stability guaranteeing there would not be a return to the economics of the 1930’s and wanted to create a Wilsonian liberal democratic order led by the United States. Leffler stated that “they were worried that the Kremlin might exploit these weaknesses to alter the balance of power so they harnessed the economic principles of the open door to the national security interests of the United States. (Heilbrunn) Leffler describes the Cold War in this way: “neither the Americans nor the Soviets sought to harm the other in 1945 The protests that each country’s actions evoked from the other fueled the cycle of distrust as neither could comprehend the fears of the other, perceiving its own actions as defensive. Herein rests the classic security dilemma U.S. officials chose to contain and deter the Russians rather than to reassure and placate them, thereby accentuating possibilities for a spiraling cycle of mistrust.” (Heilbrunn) In 1947, Ernest Bevin, British foreign secretary, “believed it essential to construct a defensive military alliance in Western Europe; and in December of that year he proposed to George C. Marshall an alliance that would guarantee Western European security and prevent further Soviet aggrandizement.” (Heilbrunn) This proposal was realized in the North Atlantic Treaty and the establishment of NATO in 1949. Only an alliance such as this would halt Soviet infiltration and the gradual collapse of one western wall after another. According to Heilbrunn, the Soviet military buildup started after 1945. By 1950 American intelligence estimates suggested that the Soviets possessed 175 divisions, several hundred bombers capable of flying missions against the British Isles, 300 submarines and a substantial tactical air force. Heilbrunn states, “It Is easy enough now to scoff at the apprehensions felt by Truman and Acheson, but the threat that the Kremlin posed was the threat of intimidation and the ability to strike decisively is a seizure of power was possible. Indeed, it was Stalin’s approval of North Korea’s attack on South Korea in 1950 that finally provoked an American military buildup.” (Heilbrunn) While John F. Kennedy was running for president, he charged Eisenhower with complacency in letting Russia create a “missile gap.” According to Michael Moore, Kennedy was relying on “misinterpreted intelligence worst case scenarios, anti-Soviet hysteria, and cynical domestic political calculation.” (Moore) Messages similar to Kennedy’s were compounded with hysteria in the media and from trusted individuals in government. During this time there was an outpouring of film and TV shows dealing directly or indirectly with the threat of nuclear war. The 1964 classic Dr. Strangelove: Or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb is one such film. While receiving highly critical reviews from the media at the time it has transpired into a perfect image of the hysteria surrounding the threat of nuclear attack. Dr. Strangelove, humorously recognized the “evil” system of science and technology in the atomic age and in itself helped to reinvigorate a dynamic tension in America between the forces of cultural dissent and the forces of the political and technological status quo. This film along with others and their attention to accidental nuclear war and the profanity of the nuclear establishment summed up postwar cultural qualms about the corruption of American power and leadership and undermined the sacred cold war institutions of the bomb and its military and political bureaucracy. Dr. Strangelove tied together all of the culture’s diversified atomic age concerns- “from the fears and expectations of accidental nuclear war and human extinction to the revisionist interpretation of anti-communism as an insane and internal menace, from the recognition of increased power and position of technology and militarism in American society and the accompanying dehumanization of that same society to the open understanding of America’s system as an irrational and unworkable one, directed by leaders tinged with fascism, madness, and moral corruption.” (Henriksen) These films at the time had an enormous effect on the majority of the American viewing audience. They were seen as motivation to the popular fears and intolerance toward Soviet military actions. The truth at the time was that Eisenhower announced that the U.S. would use nuclear weapons to stop the war in Korea, sending the message that the United States was a force to be reckoned with. Still, there was unrest in Korea after the war, and in Southeast Asia, China and Chiang Kai-Shek were involved in a civil war, with the United States as Chaing’s protector. Other areas of conflict were the Sinai peninsula and the Suez-Canal. Attempts to introduce democracy to European countries such as Hungary and West Berlin had been stopped by Russian tanks. In Eisenhower’s era, Moore states, “Third World leaders had already become adept at playing Americans and Russians off one another.” (Moore) This is because the United States and Soviet Russia were trying to build allies. When Israel invaded Egypt in 1956 in order to gain control of the Suez canal, they were supported by the U.S. Allies in Europe. Moore states “Eisenhower was in a bind. If the United States supported its friends- the British, French and Israelis- Nasser might turn to the Soviet Union for help. After that, anything could happen.” (Moore) Eisenhower cautiously condemned the invasion to the United Nations. The invading troops withdrew and the Soviets stayed out of the commotion. Moore believes that the outcome of the Suez canal and the Cuban Missile crisis were the result of universal fear of a great war and as a result, war threats and counter-threats were becoming bluffs and counter-bluffs. The Soviets and the Americans were cautious of each other and it was understood that direct confrontation between the superpowers was generally to be avoided. In November of 1969, because of mutual fear of U.S. and Soviet leaders, the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) began in Helsinki. The SALT talks discussed a “mutual suicide pact” based on equalizing vulnerability. IN 1972, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty was signed, putting an end to the development of ABMs and the SALT Interim Agreement which froze the number of ballistic missile launchers at 1972 levels but did not limit munitions. In December of 1979, the Soviet Union sent troops to Afghanistan. President Jimmy Carter condemned the invasion, canceled U.S. participation in the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow, and asked the Senate to postpone action on SALT II, which he had just sent to the senate for ratification. In addition, Carter devised a wider range of nuclear options, including the implementation of command-and-control measures that would, in theory, insure that the United States could fight a delayed nuclear conflict. In November 1980, Ronald Reagan campaigned on the premise that the United States had become dangerously weak, and after elected, said SALT II was “fatally flawed,” and that the way to end the Cold War was to win it.” Nuclear weapons were deployed in Europe by both the United States and the East. “Both sides willfully delude themselves that a nuclear war can remain limited or even be won. In 1980, both sides officially declared nuclear war thinkable.'” (Moore) Reagan accelerated the weapons buildup started by Jimmy Carter, and insulted Soviets by calling them the “evil empire.” Pro-nuclear build-up champion, Eugene Rostow, previously with Carter, became director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, an organization dedicated to persuading the nation that the Soviet Union was dangerously ahead of the United States in nuclear weaponry. In 1983, Reagan announced his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), dubbed “Star Wars) resurrecting the long-dead fantasy of unfurling an anti-ballistic missile umbrella over the United States. This action “simultaneously” coincides with a decreasing G.N.P and increasing unemployment rates causing criticism from the American public. SDI would violate the ABM Treaty, leading the nation back into the nuclear arms race. The United States and Soviet Union cut off all communication. After protests from around the world, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Intermediate-range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty in December of 1987, eliminating all weapons. Public opinion had made it clear to the Reagan administration that we were fed up and it became politically savvy to sign the INF. Soviet power internationally had been declining for years and with the intelligence of their new leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, the Cold War was ended. The build-up of nuclear arms- the potential for annihilation- may have prevented World War III, however it was only the public’s opinion and outrage that led us to this feat. Governments were prepared to use their weapons in order to win. From the beginning, both sides seemed to have dismissed possibilities for a peaceful resolution of the Cold War conflict. The Cold War helped the Soviet Union ingrain its military-bureaucratic ruling class into power and it gave the US a way to coerce its population to fund high-tech industry. Both were not easy accomplishments but were satisfied by the constant insistence of the threat of the great enemy. This phase has ended, but conflicts continue. The Soviet Union may have called off the war, but the U.S. is continuing as before, even more freely with Soviet obstruction a thing of the past. George Bush celebrated the symbolic end of the Cold War, the fall of the Berlin Wall, by immediately invading Panama and announcing that the U.S. would overturn Nicaragua’s election by maintaining its economic stranglehold and military attack unless “our side” won. With the threat of the Soviet Union no longer existing the U.S. is now free to use unlimited force against almost anyone it may choose. The end of the Cold War has caused its problems too as new enemies have needed to be invented. This problem has been solved quite easily if you were to look at the United States’ current international footing. A new and possibly better convincing enemy has been found in the likes of Saddam Hussein and Osama bin Laden. The U.S. government has continued a policy of convincing the American public of the great evil existing elsewhere to achieve their economic, technological and defensive objectives.

Cold war

COLD WAR ESSAY
The cold war began because of the conflicting ideologies between Soviet Communism and American Capitalism and the misconceptions both countries had about each other. The fact that neither country would reveal anything about them selves added the mystique and created high tensions between countries. Spying was the only way for countries to get a good idea of what the other side was doing and get answers for many previously unanswered questions. Many people had doubts and fears about communism and this gave rise to many people who thought that communist sympathizers should be punished. The most popular of these hateful people by far was Senator Joseph McCarthy.

The cold war came about almost directly after WW2. By February of 1945, Germany’s defeat was inevitable. The Russian army of 12 million soldiers had fully occupied Poland and was within the borders of pre-war Germany, ready for an assault on Berlin. The Western Allied army of 4 million men was located just west of the Rhine River (Gardner,38), still advancing eastward. On February 3rd, the Russian army was ordered to hold its position for one week. During the next seven days (February 4-11), the “Big Three” powers, headed by Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Josef Stalin, met in Lavidia Palace to determine how the war should be finished. (Rubin,30)
The main purpose of Yalta was the re-establishment of the nations conquered and destroyed by Germany. Poland was given back its independence and given its own national election in order to create a new, independent government. Yugoslavia was given its own government as well which consisted of mostly old members under a new system. In both cases, Nazi and Fascist leaders were specifically prohibited.(Gardner,49) Secondly, the Yalta Conference agreed to divide Germany into zones controlled by each of the three nations present. With the immense size of Stalin’s army, Russia would take Berlin and control the eastern half of Germany upon its surrender. Stalin agreed to “unquestionably” join the war against Japan in two or three months after Germany has surrendered and the war in Europe is terminated. The treaty was signed on February 11th, 1945.(furtado,121)
The public harshly criticized Roosevelt in 1946 when the agreements at Yalta became public. He was said to have given away Eastern Europe through trust in Stalin. Roosevelt defended himself by saying that he had done the best he could and had hoped that the issue would be handled further by the United Nations. He also felt that Russia needed to be sweet talked in order to gain their support in the war against Japan.(Rubin,24) To the surprise of Roosevelt and Churchill, Josef Stalin failed to keep his promises. He quickly prevented popular elections in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria by assigning permanent Communist governments to each and suppressing all democratic supporters. The response against Stalin was little, for his army extended across Eastern Europe and controlled the region by force. The United States, busy in its war against Japan did not want to lose an ally as powerful as the Soviet Union.(Furtado,124)
At first sight the U.S didnt want to get involved with foreign politics. As soon as the propaganda spread the United states started to get involved because China was beginning to follow the ways of its neighboring Soviet Union. When the United states got involved it was an all out arms race to see who could create the best and most powerful weapons in the shortest time possible.(Herring,106) The aim of both nations was to also decrease the amount of response time that was inherent in their nuclear defense system. The best way to do this was to put missiles as close to the other country as possible. The United States placed nuclear missiles in Turkey and the Soviets attempted to place missiles in Cuba. These sites did not remain, but were ideal for eliminating lengthy response times.(Herring,98) The second best solution came with the invention of the SLBM, or submarine launched ballistic missile. This weapon was able to fire a nuclear missile from an undetected location immediately offshore of the enemy’s coastline. This missile would arrive at its target in a matter of minutes, possibly eliminating enemy response. SLBMs were a very dangerous weapon because they created the possibility of a nuclear victory.(Herring,107)
The other method of eliminating response time was by detection. At first, spy planes were used to fly over Russia and photograph missile sites within its borders. Shortly after World War Two, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down in Russia. It had been photographing inside the Soviet Union when it was surprised by a surface-to-air missile. The pilot was taken prisoner and the plane was dismantled for help in developing Soviet technology. Replacing the U-2 in the late 1960s was the SR-71, a spy plane that flew higher and faster than any missile. Officially, the plane was used to fly extremely high along (but not inside) Russia’s borders and, using extremely high-powered photography equipment, take pictures inside the country(Chad manning).

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Sputnik was the first man-made satellite to orbit the Earth. People around the world could turn on their radio and hear the little satellite emit a constant beeping sound. Little did the listener know that Sputnik was also the first spy satellite. Satellites were the best method of spying on the other nation during the Cold War. It was against international law to fire a weapon outside of the atmosphere, so satellites could not be destroyed. They were permitted to fly anywhere and take pictures of the other nation. Spy planes were no longer needed as photographic equipment from the satellites was able to read license plates on cars.(Groliers) The technology was incredible. Eventually, the technology was used for good as the methods and devices trickled down to the scientific community. Today, the decommissioned SR-71 spy plane is used by NASA for upper-atmosphere research.(Herring,108)
One very deadly occurrence that happened during the arms race was the Cuban missile crisis. The Cuban missile crisis is generally considered by most historians to be the closest the world has ever been to experiencing a nuclear war. This event has been studied thoroughly by individuals eager to find how the crisis came about, how it escalated, and how the situation was eventually prevented. The crisis began on October 16, 1962 when President John F. Kennedy discovered that the Soviet Union was placing offensive missiles and nuclear weapons in Cuba that were capable of reaching the heart of the United States.(Furtado,201) However, it was the culmination of cold war hostilities between the Soviets and the Americans that truly led to the Cuban missile crisis. The showdown was a standoff between Kennedy and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev.

Khrushchev backed down and agreed to remove all the Soviet missiles from Cuba. Some historians argue that he did so because he was at a disadvantage militarily and strategically, and he knew that the United States would likely defeat the Russians on the battlefield. In fact, Khrushchev was convinced “that President Kennedy was now ready to employ the hemispheric superiority he possessed and, if necessary, the US strategic superiority against Russia”(Furtado,223). There could be no disputing that the US missiles far exceeded the number, power and range of the Soviet counterparts. Khrushchev did have at least one advantage in the dispute. He knew that Kennedy had nuclear missiles in Turkey and Greece that were at least equally as threatening to the Russians as the missiles in Cuba were to the Americans. The failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion showed weakness on the part of Kennedy that some Russian leaders felt could be taken advantage of and therefore pressed upon during the crisis. However, these advantages were not tangible, and could not actually help the Soviets if war began.(Rubin,65) If they influenced the crisis in one way, it was actually detrimental to the Russians, for they helped to divide Soviet leadership on the issue. Khrushchev’s next problem was determining if Kennedy would actually deploy his weapons on both Cuba and Russia. All his sources led him to believe that Kennedy was firm and would do exactly that if pushed, and his position was firm. His intelligence was correct. “If the quarantine, as a show of determination to the Russians, did not succeed, the US would then resort to bombing, possibly even an invasion”(Rubin,89) .Also, the Soviet Union knew that an American plan to invade Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro was imminent. With this knowledge, Khrushchev’s choices were relatively limited, because war was no longer made sense. The US promised that they would not invade and seize control of Cuba if the missiles were removed. For Khrushchev, a Soviet occupied Cuba without nuclear capabilities was better off than a US controlled Cuba.

McCarthyism was not the effect of one individual. It was the collection of many complex factors that had been building in America for decades. The senator from Wisconsin merely served as a person they could watch to see their own fears personified. The Congressional proceedings may have simply been a power-grab for him, but for many others it was a symbol of something much greater. Initially, Joe McCarthy was the validation a war-weary nation needed to prove its resolve to rid the country of the communist threat.(Chad Manning) However, the legacy of Joe McCarthy would have tragic results for the United States. It would appear that the post-war communist frenzy and this new “Red Scare” created the perfect environment for a man with McCarthy’s naked ambition and contempt for the truth to rise to power.
Partisan politics played a large role in allowing McCarthy to claim his seat. The Republicans were all too happy to have a weapon aimed at the Democratic White House. Democrats were unwilling to speak out in protest, for they were afraid that McCarthy would label them “soft on communism” as they had done to Truman. However, even with the election of the Republican Eisenhower in 1952, McCarthy’s attacks remained unchallenged for fear of being labeled a communist.(Furtado,251)
Estimates that possibly as many as 10,000 people lost jobs due to McCarthyism. The State Department, the Army, Hollywood, and countless government employees were systematically denied due process because of the outbursts of McCarthy. The American Association of University Professors was forced to remain inactive during McCarthy’s reign of terror. Their attempts to preserve liberty in the academic world were viewed as an attempt to support communism and encourage its support among the nation’s youth. Blacklisting became commonplace as lives and fortunes were destroyed. The Rosenberg trial brought to light the fact that death was the punishment that those of “questionable” guilt would receive.(Furtado,280)
The Cold war and the Events leading up to the cold war were all the results of misconceptions and misinterpretations of the truth. No one knew what the other side had in mind. Lack of communication almost lead to one of the deadliest wars anyone had ever seen. Hopefully future generations can look back and not make the same mistakes that our fathers and grandfathers did.


Bibliography:
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cold war, Groliers encyclopedia CD-ROM, Danbury, CT, 1998
Members.nbci.com/Chadmanning/Coldwar/Facts.htm, April 4, 1993
Rubin Alex, The Cold War, Http://scsd.kr.ny.us/alex/coldwar/coldwar.htm, August,23, 1996
Furtado,peter, The Cold War Years, Oxfordshire, BCA, 1993
Herring, Patrick, The Cold War, Pittsburgh, PA, Penguin Publishing, 1968
Gardner, Lloyd , The Early Cold War, NYC, KunKar publishing, 1983

Cold War

Some say that it is useless to speak of world peace or world law or world
disarmament – and that it will be useless until the leaders of the Soviet Union
adopt a more enlightened attitude. I hope they do. I believe we can help them to
do it. But I also believe that we must reexamine our own attitude – as
individuals and as a Nation – for our attitude is as essential as theirs. And
every graduate of this school, every thoughtful citizen who despairs of war and
wishes to bring peace, should begin by looking inward – by examining his own
attitude toward the possibilities of peace, toward the Soviet Union, toward the
course of the cold war and toward freedom and peace here at home. President John
F. Kennedy, American University Speech, June 10, 1963 The Cold War was a time in
American History during the twentieth century where the Communist nations were
fighting against the non-Communist nations. However, the main countries
involved, or the ones leading the two sides were the United States and Russia.

The United States led the fight against Communist nations, like Russia. But
these intense rivalries didnt just go on in the type of government that
should be used or in who could develop the most advanced and most powerful
nuclear weapon of the time. This rivalry went into the culture of American
societies. The Russians were always being viewed as the toughest rival and the
team to beat according to the US. It is similar to how teams think of the
defending champions in a sport. The team playing the defending champions wants
to come out hyped up and with their A-game every time they are competing
with them. Another impact it had on the American society was how people started
acting and thinking. In many of the movies and television shows of the time,
most people wouldnt have noticed, but the directors and producers were hiding
subliminal messages in them. Some of them depicting how awful the Russians were
or how supreme the Americans were. But was American society affected by the Cold
War, or was America just trying to make their society better to show it off to
the other countries? Basically, did Americas way of life and economy during
the cold war improve because they wanted it to show it off or was it a
necessity? The Cold War did affect the Americans way of life. America was a
young nation and it was just beginning to develop into a dominant country. It
first really just established itself as a world power during the two world wars.

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Therefore, the cold war was a time in which Americans were trying to get a name
for themselves by showing how great, life in their country was. Shows like Leave
It to Beaver and Father Knows Best portrayed the stereotypical American
families. Even though everyone knows that there is no such thing as a perfect
family, people still enjoyed watching these types of shows. Commercials, or
shows like I Love Lucy, showing the stereotypical woman or housewife in the
kitchen were another way of showing things off. It is really very difficult to
always own the latest models of things coming out. So a woman in a kitchen with
all the new appliances is really unlikely. This was another way of showing off
to other countries how life was or wasnt. However, the show I Love Lucy,
mainly showed how much freedom a woman had when her husband wasnt home. Lucy
constantly did foolish things that werent exactly the ways women were
supposed to have been behaving. Once again, the United States was portraying how
great life was in America compared to other countries. The majority of the
television shows during the 1950s showed no poverty, death, ethnic mixing, or
racial tension. It just presented the perfect world. Juxtaposed, it could
be argued that the Cold War didnt help shape the American society. American
life could have just formed like how it was supposed to happen; like human
nature. When the men all came back from World War II, many women lost their jobs
and werent as active as they were during the time of WWII. The jobs were all
given back to the men, and women were once again treated very delicately. They
went back to their old ways of life when a womans life wasnt supposed to
be strenuous. That then caused the emergence of the in-the-house-all-day
housewife. The idea of the housewife then became more exaggerated and led to the
creation of the various commercials portraying the perfect lifestyle. All
of these reasons point to the society being shaped naturally just by the way
things were turning out. The cold war affected all parts of the American society
including politics. The major political event during the time was the Red Scare.

The Red Scare started back a few years before the 1920s and went away relatively
for awhile during World War II. However, as soon as the war ended, the hysteria
over communism went away a little bit. The Reds, as communists were
called, were seen as a danger to the United States and their citizens. The Red
Scare brought out one of the most politically repressive periods in U.S.

history because it took away many freedoms of expression, political activism and
press. It kept on going, however, due to the American communists, communist
sympathizers, and citizens trying to achieve social justice. Most of these
people were intellectuals (writers and academics), government officials,
political figures, teachers, college professors, and entertainers. The main
effect it had on Americans was that off fear. Many Americans were afraid of a
communist take-over and all the violence that followed it. Most of these fears
were portrayed in science-fiction movies, like Invasion of the Body Snatchers,
The Thing, Invaders from Mars, and The Blob. These films all presented traits
similar to either the communists or the stereotypical description of communists.

In The Blob, the blob shows how the communism is spreading slowly, but
effectively over everything. Like it is creeping through relatively
unnoticed. In Invasion of the Body Snatchers, the aliens act like the communists
in that they possess similar goals, which are to take over the towns
military, government, and other types of authority. These are similar to what
Anti-Communist Americans believed that the Reds were trying to do. All of
these movies also show how directors and producers tried to show Americans
hidden messages about communism. Therefore, it is likely that the directors were
Anti-Communist. Another aspect of entertainment influenced by the cold war was
music. Rock and roll was the most popular style of music at the time and there
were some songs that werent really dealing with the cold war in general, but
there were some songs in which the topic of the song dealt with a situation in
the cold war. Its typical audience was teenagers and young adults, similar to
the listeners of rap and hip-hop in todays society. Elvis Presley, the
King of Rock and Roll, was probably the most popular rock and roll star of
the time. His music was different from others because he was the first to
combine both black and white sound. However, his dancing did bring on some
criticism from the older generation of people because they perceived it as
obscene and indecent. Elvis, though not directly in his songs, was influenced by
the Cold War. According to his Federal Bureau of Investigation file, he was an
undercover informant against radicals he saw as undermining the nation.


American History

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