Cloning

Cloning Cloning In the past few years, the topic of cloning has been in the news a lot. It is a very controversial issue, with many opposing viewpoints. While some find it acceptable, others object for religious reasons.

A big concern is the possibility of abuse of this new technology. One of the big questions is Where will we stop? We may start by just experimenting and studying, but then what? Manufacturing human bodies for spare parts? No one can be sure where it will stop.The Supreme court says that everyone has the right to make their own reproductive decisions without government interference, but now it is proposing bans on human cloning. These bans prevent the very research needed to make cloning safe (Eibert). So, it seems that the government is not giving human cloning a chance. There are many benefits to cloning in the fields of fertility, organ transplants, and fighting disease. Although there are many benefits, the possible effects and moral considerations are too great for us to continue experimentation.Benefits One of the major benefits of cloning technology is improvement in the field of fertility.

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In vitro fertilization only has a success rate of about 10%. To improve effectiveness, doctors could clone embryos, and the success rate could drastically increase (Masci 413). Another benefit in the field of fertility is that parents unable to conceive naturally, even with in vitro, or people too old to conceive, could still have a genetically related child (Masci 413-414). With cloning, egg and sperm would not be necessary for reproduction, because any body cell would work (Eibert).The resulting offspring would actually be a replica of one parent (Masci 413-414). Other benefits to using cloning come in the field of fighting disease.

When genes are not in use, they become dormant. In order for cloning to take place, all genes must be active. Discovering how genes are turned on and off could lead to treatment for different cancers (Masci 414). Cloning could also revolutionize the field of organ transplant.Organs and bone marrow could be cloned and used for transplant. Thousands of people die waiting for transplants, so this could save many lives. In addition, the organs used in the transplant could come from the same patient, reducing the risk of rejection by the body (Masci 414). To treat heart attack victims, doctors could clone healthy heart cells and inject them into damaged areas of the heart (Masci 415).

Nerves and spinal cord could be grown, giving quadriplegics the ability to walk again (Human Cloning Foundation). One more benefit, according to Dr.Richard Seed, a leader in the push for human cloning, is that scientists may someday be able to reverse the aging process.

Drawbacks There are also many reasons not to clone. One argument is that it is not necessary for bone marrow transplant because bone marrow can already be harvested and grown in a dish (Masci 415). One drawback is the possibility of mutation.

An abnormal baby could result from mutated genes (Global Change.com).Another drawback is the possibility of emotional problems. A clone could have a hard time establishing his or her identity (Global Change.com).

Karen Rothenberg of the University of Maryland School of Law at Baltimore says that While I feel unique if I have a twin sister, I do not if I have fifty or one hundred. I no longer understand myself as a creation, but as a copy (Masci 413). Rothenberg goes on to say that cloning would challenge concepts basic to our humanness.She says that cloning would eliminate our need for reproduction (Masci 414), which, in a sense, makes us less human. One religious argument against cloning is the thought of Playing God. Munawar Ahmad Anees, an Islamic scholar, says that The human body is Gods property, not mans laboratory (Masci 414-415). By this he means that we should not be experimenting with our bodies the way we do.

He says that the body should only be reproduced by sexual reproduction (Masci 414-415). Conflicting Opinions There are many conflicting opinions on the subject of cloning. Opponents of cloning say that it is not natural, while the supporters point out that neither is driving a computer, flying an airplane, or using a computer. Many of our modern conveniences are not natural, but that does not necessarily make them wrong.

Opponents also say that a clone would have no individuality, that it would be no more that a carbon copy.Supporters argue that clones would have different personalities that were shaped by their environments and experiences (Dunn). Despite the Advantages.. There are many advantages to continuing experimentation in the field of human cloning. Advances in fertility could offer hope to people who are too old to conceive or who are unable to do so with in vitro fertilization.

If applied to organ transplant procedures, this new technology could save thousands of lives every year.Despite these advantages, the possible effects and moral considerations are too great for us to continue exploring this new science. The human race has made it this far without cloning, and we will continue to survive without it. Works Cited Dunn, Douglas. Cloning. 28 February 2000. *http://www.

wordwiz72.com/cloning.html*.Eibert, Mark.

Human Cloning, Infertility, and Reproductive Freedom. Reason Magazine Online. 22 February 2000.

*http://www. reason.com/opeds/ eibert.html*.

Human Cloning. 28 February 2000. *http://www. globalchange.

com/clonetech. htm*. Masci, David.

The Cloning Controversy.CQ Researcher. 1997 ed. The Benefits of Human Cloning. Human Cloning Foundation. 22 February 2000.

*http://www.humancloning.org/benefits.htm*. Ethics and Morals.

Cloning

Introduction:Have you ever wandered what it would be like to have aclone, or what it would be like have a twin? Well in a fewyears you might be able to clone yourself. Thats if theylegalize it in the USI.What is cloning?Cloning is the scientific process of combining the DNAof one organism with the egg of another. Creating a perfectgenetically matched lifeform. In other words getting an egg and fertilizing it. Then putting it back in the a surrogate mother.

II.Who cloned Dolly?Scottish embryologist named Ian Wilmut cloned a FinnDorset lamb named Dolly from fully different adult mothercells. A.EducationWilmut was born in Hampton Lucey, England, attended theUniversity of Nottingham for his undergraduate work. In 1971he received a Ph. D. in animal genetic engineering fromDarwin College of University of Cambridge. In 1974, hejoined the Animal Research Breeding Station in Scotland,which is now known as the Roslyn Institute, and hasconducted research there ever since.

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B.AccomplishmentsIn 1973, he created the first calf ever produced from afrozen embryo which he named Frosty. In 1995 he createdMegan and Morag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned fromdifferentiated embryo cells. In July 5, 1996 he created a lamb called dolly, withthe help of Keith CampbellIII.

How did they clone Dolly?In 1990, Wilmut hired cell cycle biologist KeithCampbell to assist in his cloning studies. Their workproduced its first success with the birth of Megan andMorag, two Welsh mountain sheep cloned from different embryocells. In their success, Wilmut and Campbell pioneered a newtechnique of starving embryo cells before transferring theirnucleus to fertilized egg cells.

The technique synchronizedthe cell cycles of both cells and their results led Wilmutand Campbell to believe that any type of cell could be usedto produce a clone.On July 5, 1996, Wilmut and Campbell used the sameprocess to produce the first clone from adult cells ,a FinnDorset lamb named Dolly ,after Dolly Parton. Theannouncement left the scientific community shocked as wellas the public, and kicked off a large-scale debate on theethics and direction of cloning research.IV.What other animals did they clone?February 16, 1998 US Scientists cloned a Holstein cow Using DNA from the cell of a 30 day old fetus, scientists inthe United States were able to clone a calf. They named the Holstein calf, Gene. July 5, 1998 a cow was cloned into two calves in Japan Using cells from an adult cow, Japanese scientists clonedthe cow into two calves born Sunday, July 5, 1998.

July 22, 1998 Mice are cloned. It was announced in thepress that Dr. Yanagimachi from the University of Hawaii andcolleagues had successfully cloned mice.August 19, 1998 Scientists announce that a near-extinctspecies has been cloned. David Wells, led the effort at theRuakura Research Center in Hamilton, New Zealand to clonethe last cow a species that once inhabited Enderby Island inthe Aukland Islands. A dog named Missy, is to be cloned. The Press announced8/25/98 that a wealthy couple donated $2.

3 million to TexasA & M University to clone their dog. Dr. Mark Westhusin,co-director of the Reproductive Sciences Laboratory, is oneof the scientists involved in the project. Lou Hawthorne,president of Bio Arts and Research Corporation, a SanFrancisco corporation, helped negotiate the deal.

The donorswish to remain anonymous. V.How can cloning help us?Cloning can help in many ways. It can help us cure many diseases like infertility, Downs syndrome.

It can help us get rid world hunger. With cloning technology, instead of using materials foreign to the body such as silicon, doctors will be able to manufacture bone, fat, connective tissue, or cartilage that matches the patients tissues exactly. It can make foods healthier for us.

VI.Why is cloning bad?If a large percentage of an nation’s cattle areidentical clones, a virus, such as mad cow disease, couldeffect the entire population. The result could becatastrophic food shortages in that nation. Cloning maycause people to settle for the best existing animals, notallowing for improvement of the species. In this way,cloning could potentially interfere with natural evolution.

Cloning is currently an expensive process. Cloningrequires large amounts of money and biological expertise.Ian Wilmut and his associates required 277 tries beforeproducing Dolly. A new cloning technique has recently beendeveloped which is far more reliable. However, even thistechnique has 2-3% success rate.

Cloning

This article, “Cloning Noah’s Ark,” is about the cloning of endangered species to preventsome animals from disappearing from the planet. The three authors of this article were Robert P.

Lanza, Betsy L. Dresser and PhilipDamiani. According to Scientific American, they all share an interest in reproductivebiology and animals. Lanza, the vice president of medical and scientific development atAdvanced Cell Technology (ACT) in Worcester, Massachusetts, founded the SouthMeadow Pond and Wildlife Association in Worcester County. Dresser is senior vicepresident for research at the Audubon Institute and director of the Audubon InstituteCenter for Research of Endangered Species and the Freeport-McMoRan Audubon SpeciesSurvival Center. Damiani, a research scientist at ACT, is also a member of theInternational Embryo Transfer Society’s committee on cryopreservation.

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II. Explain the major concepts and points made.Research done, results, his/her conclusionsIII. Your SummationFrom this article, I learned a number of different things. I learned how the actualcloning process occurs.

I also became aware of many different Endangered Species andother animals that have already become extinct. I also learned that a clone could havebeen born from an animal other than their own species. For example, a regular house catgave birth to a cloned tiger. I learned that cloning is very difficult and a long process.

….I feel that the cloning of Endangered Species could be a excellent idea. Humanbeings have carelessly killed off many innocent living creatures on this planet by huntingthem and by creating pollution that end their lives.

If the we could prevent the extinctionof healthy, harmless animals, we should do it. Cloning is a way to prevent the extinctionof animals, and possibly even take them off of the Endangered Species list. Some peoplebelieve that cloning is wrong and that to clone means to “play God.” In this particularsituation, I disagree.

I feel that if scientists can clone an animal whose species is in dangerof extinction, he/she should do so. works cited: Scientific American, March 2001 Issue

Cloning

Cloning Cloning Today During my interview with my grandmother I asked her what she thought of cloning.

she responded by saying that it was not right and should be stopped. on the other hand i have a different opinion. I think that cloning should be continued and furhter researched for we might be able to have different organs and substances produced in these clones.

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Below is the step that were taken to clone the adult sheep named Dolly.Part 1: An Improbable Goal Scientists hoped that cloning healthy, mature sheep, rather than just creating lambs from embryonic cells, could produce a highly specialized sheep with large quantities of proteins in its milk. The proteins are believed to help treat diseases such as emphysema, hemophylia and cystic fibrosis. Part 2: The Perfect Timing For years, scientists could not synchronize the growth of the egg and the cell. If one was off- synch, abnormal chromosomes would soon transform in the nucleus and thereby kill off the embryo. Dr.

Wilmut achieved near perfection in the timing by putting the cells into hybernation; of the 277 eggs they began with, 247 lived through the process. Timing the growth in other species, however, has proved to scientists that cloning mature animals is extremely difficult; in the case of mice, they’ve concluded it can’t be accomplished. Part 3: Jump-start from a Jolt Though it has become a standard procedure in cloning, scientists are not sure why an electric pulse sent to the two cells causes them to meld together and activates development in the egg. They are learning, however, the shock doesn’t fully mimic the activation process of a sperm, which could explain why just 29 of the remaining 247 cells live longer than six days. Part 4: Surrogate Motherhood Despite the fact that the newly formed embryo is transplanted into the uterus of another ewe, scientists believe Dolly is a nearly exact carbon-copy of her genetic originating mother.In theory, that means an almost exact look-alike of John F. Kennedy Jr.

could be produced by taking cells from his skin, melding their nuclei with any woman’s egg that has had its nucleus removed and then planting the embryo in a surrogate mother. Part 5: A 6-Year-Old in 7 Months? Scientists are eagerly watching Dolly to see if she exhibits the characteristics of her mother, a 6-year-old sheep, or those of her own age, just 7 months. As animals and humans age, changes occur in their DNA – such as decreasing fertility and increasing susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. If she prematurely ages, clones of mature animals would be useless to the agriculture industry.

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