.. employment and services so as to shorten journeys, public transport availability effectiveness and fares, and road pricing. 1.Short term Measures : a. Pricing and Finance : In urbanized areas with substantial amount of congestion caused by motorization, road pricing offers the best solution since it promotes both the purposes; it encourages that the socially efficient number of trips be undertaken and raises revenue to finance road ways and transport expansion to the efficient level. More ever, road pricing can contribute to viable loan financing and voluntary participation of the private sector. Some supplements to other basic taxes which may be used are petrol tax and parking fees, which should be set such that they can contribute to the cost of road maintenance, public transport operation, the control of harmful externalities and the value of space devoted to road and parking.
It is encouraged that such revenue should be earmarked for transport. The fare of public transit should be set to cover the incremental cost of its operation. Fare should be differentiated between peaks and off-peak as well as distance related. Since such fare may be unaffordable to low income users, targeted subsidies should be provided. The cost of infrastructure and operating cost of urban transport should be born by all the beneficiaries not just users, such as public transport users, private road users, community at large, property owners, retailers and local government.
Financial and capital markets should be tapped to raise funds needed for transport infrastructure investment. Public-private partnership, build own and operate; should be pursued with the framework of comprehensive transport planning and evaluation of various options, adequate regulation and supervision. The obligations and expectations of both parties must be specified. Eg. These measures are already in use in European Megacities like Paris ,where 33 million motorized trips take place daily,while the population is about 10 million.
b. Traffic control measures : The sharp curves on the carriageways should be widened to double width and divider should be provided in between wherever possible. The main nearby bridges to the sharp curves, must be widened to full formation of width. The roads signboards in the local languages are not understood by the drivers of the foreign country vehicles. It is, therefore necessary that the road signboards must be made in two languages local and English.
The road signboards other blank side must be used for slogans, which will convey psychological safe driving message to drivers and road users. The speed breaker on road must be constructed in standardized shapes, height, length, good visibility painted and with cautionary boards at speed breakers point with additional support by another hundred meter before, on both sides of the road. The petrol pump required to be shifted to minimum 250 meters inside and of the formation of the road width with large and sufficient space for parking of vehicles and additional separate space for ancillary services. The roadside hotels required to be shifted minimum 60 meters inside and of the formation of the road width with sufficient parking space for parking the customer vehicles. Eg.
Traffic control measures are adopted effectively in Germany,resulting in a reduction in traffic problems. c. Traffic laws : The civic authority must be forced to shift their octroi nakas, inside but of the highway, with provision of large and sufficient parking space for parking of waiting vehicles. According to the local conditions special traffic rules should be made which are suitable to the city conditions. Strict laws should be made and correctly implemented to have better traffic discipline.
Heavy fines and corrective measures should be taken for rash driving and cause of fatal accidents. d. Modern traffic control systems : New modern traffic equipments such as signals showing time should be used to give better idea of signal timing to the drivers. At the crucial roads, new radar equipments should be placed to check the vehicle speed to have regulation on speed. Signals place should be properly connected to avoid traffic stagnancy and to reduce the traveling time.
Proper watch on the number of vehicles should be kept by putting some vehicle measuring instruments. Eg: Modern traffic control systems are used in some cities in U.S.A. to have disciplind movement of traffic. In Delhi also Radar equipments are used to control traffic. 2.Long term Measures: a. Land use planning : The parking bays or parking places near the highway needed to be provided for every alternative kilometer for minimum 5 to 10 vehicles.
While the planning abilities like school, hospital, water well, bus shades, etc. it should be made to locate on the same side of the village or town to reduce crossing of roads by the local people. The highway and major district roads must be kept free of encroachment and civic amenities. These authorities should be completely ban the erection of statues, fountains, guidance, etc. on the roads passing through their limit areas.
The implementation of the pedestrian areas brings bought perform changes in the commercial activities of the area; depending on its location and its accessibility it might attract many shoppers and tourists. b. Investment in mass transit systems: To make riding buses more attractive than driving the car, is to protect them from general congestion. Providing them with exclusive right- of way such as bus lanes or bus-only streets or bus ways can do this. To provide an efficient public transport service on the tangent rules of the lower density suburbs, where demand cannot justify investment in high capacity rail systems.
The tramway like Bobigny will prove more successful. It was inaugurated in 1992, after 10 years of negotiations and concentration between country, four suburban communes and the RATP. The financing should come from central government. Heavy subsidies should be given to the local transport to discourage the use of cars by the car owners. The pedestrians ways should be made beautiful to encourage walking.
c. Encouragement of distributing urban land development : Coordination between land-use and transport planning has been under four front of the international planning authority for years, with the result that new development has tended to go hand in hand with the provision of good public transport, mainly rail. In order to reduce the demand for long distance commuting the central government should issue a specific rule in the urbanization code of the city by which new offices can be provided only together with new housing. This avoids agglomeration, imbalance and generates less travel. The physical size of mega cities should be limited and a series of satellite cities with rapid transit corridors connecting each other and the major city shoul be built. This option may be initially expensive but would have the advantage keeping the cities of manageable size. However if smaller cities closed to the mega cities could be provided with the full range of facilities found in mega cities, then the attraction of mega cities would be reduced.
People may opt to stay in the smaller cities where the negative effect of urban living would be lower. d. Environment friendly transportation: Vehicles can be powered by LPG, natural gas or battery power. While great hope has been expressed in the development of battery-powered vehicles, there has recently been concern expressed at very high levels of lead pollution likely to occur. e. Miscellaneous: The planning of urban transit systems usually takes at least 5 years and needs a details examination to determine routine and the most appropriate system for given demand. There is then a period of some times severe traffic problems during construction stage. Eg.
At the andheri flyover construction in Mumbai. In the city, such as Bangkok there is also the question of latent demand. This is the trip that is currently not made because it is too difficult. When a new system comes on stream making it suddenly easy to travel, the additional capacity is absorbed leaving no visible improvement on the existing network.Eg. The construction of the Paud-Phata flyover in Pune. Conclusion: Much needs to be done in the region if public transport is to play a significant role in the life of the city. The city cannot afford to cater only to the private car, and there has to be a general recognition that without public transport cities would be even less viable.
Measures need to be taken in the short run to enhance the quality of service provided and to impose constraints on the use of private transport in cities. In the long term, there needs to be effective land use planning and the introduction of new transit systems to keep the city moving and to assist in making it pleasant to living .It must not be forgotten that cities are major contributors to the economic growth and we must make moment in and between cities as efficient as possible. The report continues to point out that every conceivable form of traffic control measures are being tried somewhere in the region and that with only a few exceptions these measures are having little or no effect on the rising tide of motorization Acknowledgement: The Authors of this paper are thankful to Mr. Vidyadhar Deshpande Deputy Director, Town Planning And Transportation for his guidance and making available the statistical data required for this paper. References. 1 Transport and Communication for Urban Development Report of the Habitat.II Global Workshop.1997 2 Sustainable transport by Derbera, Richard.Oct 1996, 60p.
3 Urban Transport demand Management In European Cities. Richard Darbera.169-197. 4 Cities and Automobile Dependence by Newman ,Peter & Jeffery enoworthy. 388p. 5 Prospects of Daily Mobility, Transport Reviews, Vol.14 no. 4 Oct-Dec1994 by .H.Massot & J.P.Orfeuil.
6 Road Traffic Problems and Remedies. Indian Highways.February 2000 . Engineering.