Carl Gustav Jung

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. driving force to be a complete person! The self is the central archetype in the col lective unconscious, much as the sun us the center of the solar system. It unites the personality. When a person says he feels in harmony with himself and with the world, we can be sure that the self archetype is performing its work effectively. There are three ways how your psyche works together.

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One structure may compensate for the weakness of another structure, one component may oppose another component, and two or more structures may unite to form a synthesis. Compensation may be illustrated by the contrasting attitudes of extraversion and introversion.If extraversion is the dominant or superior attitude of the conscious ego, then the unconscious will compensate by devel oping the repressed attitude of introversion. Compensation also occurs between function, which I briefly mentioned earlier. A person who stresses thinking or feeling in his conscious mind will be an intuitive, sensation type unconsciously. As we studied in class, this balance, which compensation provides us with, is healthy. It prevents our psyches from becoming neurotically unbalanced.

We need to have a little Peter and Jack in all of us. Opposition exists everywhere in the personality: between the persona and the shadow, between the persona and the anima, and between the shadow and the anima. The contest between the rational and irrational forces of the psyche never ceases either.

One’s integrity of “self” can actually determine whether or not this opposition will cause a shattering of a personality. Must personality always by a house divided against itself, though? Jung thought not. There can always be a union of opposites, a theme that looms very large in Jung’s writings.DYNAMICS ——– The psyche is a relatively closed system that has only a fixed amount of energy also called Values, which is the amount of energy devoted to a component of the mind. There are some channels into the psyche through which ene rgy can enter in form of experiences.

If the psyche were a totally closed systems, it could reach a state of perfect balance, for it would not be subjected to interference from the outside. The slightest stimulus may have far-reaching consequences on one’s mental stability. This shows that it is not the amount of energy that is added, but the disruptive effects that the added energy produces within the psyche.

These disruptive effects are caused by massive redistributions of energy within the system. It takes only the slightest pressure on the trigger of a loaded gun to cause a great disaster. Similarly, it may take only the slightest addition of energy to an unstable psyche to produce large effects in a person’s behavior.

Psychic energy is also called Libido. It is not to be confused with Freud’s definition of libido. Jung did not restrict libido to sexual energy as Freud did. In fact, this is one of the essential differences in the theories of the two men.

It can be classified as actual or potential forces that perform psychological work. It is often expressed in desires and wants for objects. The values for things are hidden in complexes. The psyche is always active, yet it is still very difficult for people to accept this view of a continuously active psyche, because there is a strong tendency to equate psychic activity with conscious activity. Jung, as well as Freud, hammered away at this misconception, but it persists even today. The source of psychic energy is derived from one’s instincts and diverted into other uses.

Like a waterfall is used to create energy, you have to use your instincts to turn into energy as well. Otherwise, just like the waterfall, your instincts are completely fruitless. For example, if you think that to get a beautiful wife, you have to be rich, so you direct your sexual drive into a business persona, which will bring you money.

There are two principles of psychic dynamics. What happens to all that energy? 1. Principle of Equivalence.

Energy is not created nor destroyed. If it leaves something, it has to surface.For example, if a child devoted a lot of energy to reading comics, it might be redirected into a different persona, som ething like being Mr. Cool Dude! He then will loose interest in reading comics. Energy also has an inclination to carry tendencies of its source to its destination. 2. Principle of Entropy. Energy usually flows from high to low.

If you have a highly developed structure (persona, for example), instead of equalizing, it may start drawing values from other systems to boost itself even higher. Such highly energized systems have a tendency to go BOOOOM! So, entropy can destroy those high energy systems if they get too big. The operation of the entropy principle results in an equilibrium of forces. Just like two bodies of different temperatures touching each other would soon equalize temperatures. The hotter one will transfer heat to the cooler one. Once a balance is reached in your psyche, according to Jung, it will be then difficult to disturb.Tho se two principles influence the following: Progression and Regression.

Progression is the advance of psychological adaptation. For example, if you need a shadow (creativity, perhaps), you will try to develop one. When conflicting traits loose power, your psyche enters regression. Say, your persona and shadow are in opposition and because they are in opposition, they both would be suppressed, because neither would get enough libido, or energy.DEVELOPMENT ———– Jung stated that there are basically four stages of life. They are Childhood, Youth and Young Adulthood, Middle Age, and Old Age. In the beginning (childhood), a person’s psyche is undefferentiated and this person becomes a projection of the parents psyche.

Children are not individuals in the beginning of their life, because their ir memories don’t have too much stored in them and they lack a sense of continuity because of that. As they gain experience, they realize that they are their own person and not their parents’ projection. The stage of youth and adulthood is announced by the physiological changes that occur during puberty. During this stage, an individual establishes his/her position in life.His vocation and marriage partner are determined. A person usually uses his Anima and Shadow to d ecide those things.

Values are channeled into his establishment in the outside world. Once one is independent, even a small experience can influence him greatly. The Middle Age is the one often neglected by psychiatrists. Lots of people have problems in this stage.They usually don’t know what to do with the energy left over that was devoted to establishing positions in society as youth. As the principle of entropy suggests, the energy is conserved, so once an adult put it to use, he must redirect it elsewhere.

Jung stated that those left-over energies can be usefully diverted into spiritual contemplation and expansion. Nothing much happens in old age. People have so much energy of experiences in their psyche that even a major experience won’t upset their psychological balance.Often, society will force people to assume prefered types. Types are categories of classifications of psyches which are non-absolute and have no definite boundaries. There are eight “types.” Types are combinations of functions and attitudes (page 3).

The following are the eight main types: 1. Extraverted Thinking Type.This type of man elevates objective thinking into the ruling passion of his life. He is typified by the scientist who devotes his energy to learning as much as he can about the objective world. The most developed extraverted thinker is an Einstein. 2. Introverted Thinking Type. This type is inward-directed in his thinking.

He is exemplified by the philosopher or existential psychologist who seeks to understand the reality of his own being. He may eventually break his ties with reality and become schizophrenic. 3. Extraverted Feeling Type. This type, which Jung observes is more frequently found in women, subordinates thinking to feeling.

4. Introverted Feeling Type. This type is also more commonly found among women.

Unlike their extraverted sisters, introverted feeling persons keep their feelings hidden from the world. 5. Extraverted Sensation Type. People of this type, mainly men, take an interest in accumulating facts about the external world. They are realistic, practical, and hardheaded, but they are not particularly concerned about what things mean.

6. Introverted Sensation Type.Like all introverts, the introverted sensation type stands aloof from external objects, immersing himself in his own psychic sensations. He considers the world to be banal and uninteresting. 7. Extraverted Intuitive Type.

People of this type, commonly women, are characterized by flightiness and instability.They jump from situation to situation to discover new possibilities in the external world. They are always looking for new worlds to conquer before they have conquered old ones. 8. Introverted Intuitive Type. The artist is a representative of this type, but it also contains dreamers, prophets, visionaries, and cranks.He usually thinks of himself as a misunderstood genius. Variations in the degree to which each of the attitudes and functions are consciously developed or remain unconscious and undeveloped can produce a wide range of differences among individuals.

This book is an extremely valuable source of thought provoking logic. Jung wrote with common sense, passion, and compassion, and the reader experiences a “shock of recognition”; he will recognize truths he has known, but which he has not been able to express in words. This book made me think about myself, and people in general. How people’s minds work, including my own.

I found a lot of “truth” or at least I though I did in Jung’s teachings.I could relate some of the reading material to elements studied in class. One will be astounded by the number of Jung’s ideas that anticipated those of later writers. Many of the new trends in psychology and related fields are indebted to Jung, who first gave them their direction.

The book is also interesting, because of its challenging nature. I suppose that not all people would enjoy reading such type of literature, since many people in this world are sensational types.I certainly did enjoy it, and have found out some things about myself in the process.

The book is very well written. It has many good analogies and explanations which even the most sensational type would understand. The collection of information is tremendous. There is so much information bundled in 130 pages, that it makes you think that 500 pages would not be enough to really explain deeply the subject matter.This book can be faultlessly us ed as a textbook, which could prove to be salutary in psychology classes. I strongly recommend reading this book to all audiences that want to.

A person, content with the world around him, not wishing to challenge the puzzles of nature, should not. This book is a treasure for all who seek to explore the human mind. Ilya Shmulevich.