Booker T. Washington

Merrix WatsonProf. AlexanderFeb. 17, 2000Imagine being in a position that gave you the power to inspire a race and gain the respect of another. Booker T. Washington, a prominent and extremely successful African-American had that opportunity. This opportunity came in the times of the emancipation of slavery. And when given the chance he excelled.

In his book, Up from Slavery, Booker T. Washington exposes readers to the hardships he faced from the time he was a slave, until the times he became a leader among African-Americans. His book gives detailed accounts of his life, from a first. It speaks of slavery, racism, triumph, and struggle, which all couldn’t overpower handwork. Hard working was something Washington believed in and was. The most in unheard voice at the time of slavery both past and present, was that of the African-American women.

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During these periods, female accomplishments were not recognized. These accomplishments have been brought forth for people to view them in one of many books. The book, Voice from the South, by Anna Cooper combines works of fiction, poetry, autobiographies, and biographies. Cooper was one of few black woman of her time to earn a Ph.D.

She was a feminist who believed that women’s voices shouldn’t go unheard. The book displays great moments of triumph that conquer over hard bearing obstacles. The book is quite interesting one that focuses on black women’s writings in the nineteenth and twentieth century. The context however seems to jump around from subject to subject, which could often confuse the reader. This book seems to be drunk on syntax blind to semantics.

In other words this book tended to use words that went around the subject.These books try to focus on all aspects of the struggles of both women of color and of African Americans as a whole. A big difference between these books is the fact that one of the voices was heard while the other silenced. Though in times of racism, black males still received more respect then women. My goal is to compare and contrast these two books. Washington spoke a lot about his life through out his book.

But the main point he was trying to show was gaining education for the black race. As this was the purpose in the Voice from the South. It was a long, tough road, for both Black men and women alike. I have learned that success is not measured not so much by the position one has reached in life is, but by the obstacles he has overcome while trying to succeed. (Washington p.23)This is a quote Washington lived by.

Born a slave in Franklin county, Virginia. After the emancipation, he and his family moved to West Virginia where his stepfather had found work in the coalmines. The mines were to be thestarting point for Washington as he began his quest for education. He first started with a book that taught the basics. Soon after that Washington set out to attend the Hampton Institute in Virginia. There he would work as a janitor to pay his way through college. He studied under a man by the name of General Armstrong, whom he admired the most. After receiving his degree, he briefly went Armstrong, whom he admired the most.

After receiving his degree, he briefly went home only to be called back to Hampton to teach. What he had learned from Hampton what could be accomplished when you never give up. During this time at Hampton, Washington was in charge of educating Indians with the help of his students, both male and female. But what he really wanted to do was educatehis own race. And with this idea he received word from some men in Alabama, that there a request put in for a teacher to come teach a school in Tuskegee. Booker T. Washington saw this opportunity and accepted it. He then moved to Alabama to begin what would become a legacy.

The school was built by the students that attended, which would pay for part of their tuition. Washington believed that it was better to earn a trade than it was to study things such as Greek and the arts. I have found too that, that it is the visible, the tangible goes a long ways in softening prejudices. The actual sight of a first-class house thata Negro built has built is ten times more potent that the pages of discussion about a house that he ought to build, or perhaps could build.(Washington p.72) This view would be later argued by another prominent black figure, W.E.B.

Du Bois. So Tuskegee became an institute of trade. Though in the midst of racism, Washington faced triumph gaining the support of the whites in the Du Bois. So Tuskegee became an institute of trade.

Though in the midst of racism, Washington faced triumph gaining the support of the whites in the community. To earn money for the school, Washington set out across America in order to gain money for the school. His campaign promoted teaching the Negro atrade as opposed to book knowledge. Whites actively supported the teaching of a trade, feeling that the Negro would never be first class. In Atlanta he gavehis famous Atlanta Exposition Address. Both races applauded the words spoken by him. But in it he seems to put black on the bottom of the scale.

It is at the bottom we must begin.(Washington pg.101) This is the very statement that many educated blacks such as Du Bois argued against. W.E.B.

Du Bois believed in book knowledge. This was the knowledge that would help the black man excel. In Alice Cooper’s, Voice from the South, she believed in starting at the top. The object was to recognize the female for her role in the rise of the race. But her book shows females as the unheard part of the African American race.

Cooper states, The colored women of to-day occupies, one may say, a unique position in this country. In A period of itself transitional and unsettled, her status seems one of the least ascertainable and definitive of all the forces which make our civilization. (Cooper pg.134). In the context with Voice from the South, Cooper strived to raise the voice of the black women.

Men actually agreed with Cooper saying, they want females to learn as much as they did. We are ready to make any modifications in those relations which will satisfy the woman’s just aspiration for personal independence, for intellectual and moral development, for the physical culture, for political activity, and for a voice in the arrangement of her own affairs, both domestic and national. (Cooper pg.

67)With in marriage, they felt that women would make a better half if educated. All Cooper would hope to accomplish would come in time. Her efforts were recognized by many in the United States. She would be one of the first to put the African American female in the national spotlight. In my opinion the two books focus on strong points.

These books attempted to show readers that black faced hardships to gain an education. Even tougher was gaining education for Black females. Both Authors were leaders in the African American Communities. Booker T. Washington and Anna Cooper believed in the education of blacks being the stepping stone for the rise of the race.

The biggest difference between these two books was Washington focused on the African American races as a whole, while Cooper focused on elevating the females. In the case of Booker T. Washington, I feel given the situation and the time at which it occurred, I would have probably followed along the lines of his idea of education than that of Mr. Du Bois. Anna Cooper’s efforts to raise the education of the black women hasn’t gone unnoticed. It brought a sense of pride and respect form The African American women As did Washington’s campaignTheater

Booker T. Washington

By: Solstar01 Booker T.

Washington 1856-1915, Educator Booker Taliaferro Washington was the foremost black educator of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He also had a major influence on southern race relations and was the dominant figure in black public affairs from 1895 until his death in 1915. Born a slave on a small farm in the Virginia backcountry, he moved with his family after emancipation to work in the salt furnaces and coal mines of West Virginia. After a secondary education at Hampton Institute, he taught an upgraded school and experimented briefly with the study of law and the ministry, but a teaching position at Hampton decided his future career. In 1881 he founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute on the Hampton model in the Black Belt of Alabama. Though Washington offered little that was innovative in industrial education, which both northern philanthropic foundations and southern leaders were already promoting, he became its chief black exemplar and spokesman. In his advocacy of Tuskegee Institute and its educational method, Washington revealed the political adroitness and accommodationist philosophy that were to characterize his career in the wider arena of race leadership.

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He convinced southern white employers and governors that Tuskegee offered an education that would keep blacks “down on the farm” and in the trades. To prospective northern donors and particularly the new self- made millionaires such as Rockefeller and Carnegie he promised the inculcation of the Protestant work ethic. To blacks living within the limited horizons of the post- Reconstruction South, Washington held out industrial education as the means of escape from the web of sharecropping and debt and the achievement of attainable, petit-bourgeois goals of self-employment, landownership, and small business. Washington cultivated local white approval and secured a small state appropriation, but it was northern donations that made Tuskegee Institute by 1900 the best-supported black educational institution in the country. The Atlanta Compromise Address, delivered before the Cotton States Exposition in 1895, enlarged Washington’s influence into the arena of race relations and black leadership. Washington offered black acquiescence in disfranchisement and social segregation if whites would encourage black progress in economic and educational opportunity.

Hailed as a sage by whites of both sections, Washington further consolidated his influence by his widely read autobiography Up From Slavery *menu.html* (1901), the founding of the National Negro Business League in 1900, his celebrated dinner at the White House in 1901, and control of patronage politics as chief black advisor to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft. Washington kept his white following by conservative policies and moderate utterances, but he faced growing black and white liberal opposition in the Niagara Movement (1905-9) and the NAACP (1909-), groups demanding civil rights and encouraging protest in response to white aggressions such as lynchings, disfranchisement, and segregation laws. Washington successfully fended off these critics, often by underhanded means. At the same time, however, he tried to translate his own personal success into black advancement through secret sponsorship of civil rights suits, serving on the boards of Fisk and Howard universities, and directing philanthropic aid to these and other black colleges.

His speaking tours and private persuasion tried to equalize public educational opportunities and to reduce racial violence. These efforts were generally unsuccessful, and the year of Washington’s death marked the beginning of the Great Migration from the rural South to the urban North. Washington’s racial philosophy, pragmatically adjusted to the limiting conditions of his own era, did not survive the change.

Bibliography Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington, 2 vols. (1972, 1983), with Raymond W. Smock, eds., The Booker T.

Washington Papers, 12 vols. (1972-); August Meier, Negro Thought in America, 1880-1915 (1963). Source: From ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SOUTHERN CULTURE edited by Charles Reagan Wilson and William Ferris. Copyright (c) 1989 by the University of North Carolina Press. Used by permission of the publisher. Word Count: 575


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