Behaviorism

Chapter 1Behaviorism: A school of thought that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behaviorfocus on stimulus-response relationshipsGestalt psychology: A school of thought rooted in the idea that the whole (perception) is greater than the sum of its parts (sensation).Reaction to structuralism and functionalism-the whole is greater than the sum of the partsFreud Psychoanalysis: Theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, both of which assume that out motives are largely unconsciousProposed existence of unconscience and attempted to explain personality motivation and mental disorders.Skinner: Organism tend to repeat responses that lead to positive responsesHumanistic revolt: An approach to personality that focuses on the self, subjective experience, and the capacity for fulfillment.Humans are basically good; humans are driven towards personal growth;disturbances as result of having needs blockedCognitive and Physiological Psychology:Electrical stimulation of parts of brains elicit different emotional response; Connection between biochemical and psychological effectEvolutionary Psychology:Examines befavioral process in terms of adaption value for a species over the coutse of many generationMulticultural Psychology: Study how culture is transmitted through socialization practices and how culture colors one’s view of the world;Understanding others from their point of viewChapter 2Neuron: Nerve cells that serve as the building blocks of the nervous systemDendrite: Extensions from the cell body of a neuron that receive incoming impulsesAxon: Extensions of the cell body of a neuron that sends impulses to other neuronsMyelin sheath : A layer of fatty cells that is tightly wrapped around the axon to insulate it and speed the movement of electrical impulsesAction potential: An electrical impulse that surges though an axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuronSynapse: The junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of anotherAcetylcholine: A neutotransmitter found throughout the nervous system that links the motor neurons and musclesEndorphins: A morphinelike neurotransmitter that is produced in the brain and is linked to pain control and pleasureCentral nervus system (structure): The network of nerves contained within the brain and spinal cordPeripheral nervous system: The network of nerves that radiate from the central nervous sestem to the rest of the body.The PNS comprises the somatic and autonomic nervous systemsSensory Neurons: Neutons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the central nervous systemInterneurons: Central nervous system neurons that connect sensory inputs and motor outputsMotor neurons: Motion-producing neurons that transmit commands from the central nervous system to the muscles, glands, and organsSkeletal nervous system: Autonomic nervous system: The branch of the peripheral nervous system that connects the CNS to the involuntary muscles, organs, and glandsSympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that controls the involuntary activities of various organs and mobilizes the body for fight or flight–that heightens arousal and energizes the body for actionParasympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body and conserves energyEndocrine system: A collection of ductless glands that regulate aspects of growth, reproduction, metabolism, and begavior by secreting hormonesHormones: Chemical messengers secreted from endocrine glands, into the bloodstream, to various organs throughout the bodyPituitary gland: A tiny gland in the brain that regulates growth and stimulates hormones in other endocrine glands at the command of the hypothalamusBrainstem: The inner core of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and contains the medulla, pons, and reticular formationMedulla: A brainstem structure that controls vital involuntary functionsReticular formation: A group of nerve cells in the brainstem that help to control sleep, arousal, and attentionCerebellum: A primitive brainstem structure that controls balance and coordinates complex voluntary movementsLimbic system: A set of loosely connected structures in the brain that help to regulate motivation, emotion, and memoryAmygdala: A limbic structure that controls fear, anger, and aggressionHypothalmus: A tiny limbic structure in the brain that helps regulate the autonomic nervous system, endocrine glands, emotions, and basic drivesCerebral cortex: The outermost covering of the brain, largely responsible for higher-order mental processes4 lobes and their functions:Motor cortex: The area of the cortex that sends impulses to voluntary musclesSensory cortex: Broca area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that directs the muscle movements in the production of speechWernicke’s Area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of languageCorpus Callosum: A bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheresSplit brain studies: A surgically produced condition in which the corpus callosum is severed, thus cutting the link between the left and right hemispheres of the brainChapter 3Sensation: The processes by which our sense organs receive information from the environmentPerception: The processes by which people select, organize, and interpret sensationsAbsolute threshold: The smallest amount of stimulation that can be detectedWeber’s law:The principle that the just-noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensitySensory adaptation: A decline in sensitivity to a stimulus as a result of constant exposureWavelength:HueIntensityPupil: The small round hole in the iris of the eye through which light passesIris: The ring of muscle tissue that gives eyes their color and controls the size of the pupilLens: A transparent structure in the eye that focuses light on the retinaAccomodation: In Piaget’s theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to new information.Also, the visual process by which lenses become rounded for viewing nearby objects and flatter for viewing remote objectsRetina: The rear multilayer part of the eye where rods and cones convert light into neural impulsesRods: Rod-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to lightCones: Cone-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to colorOptic nerve: The pathway that carries visual information from the eyeball to the brainBlind spot: A part of the retina through which the optic nerve passes.

Lacking rods and cones, this spot is not responsive to lightAudition: The sense of hearingFrequency: Pitch:Retinal disparity: The difference between two images we see, the greater the difference, the closer the object is to usRelative brightness: Dimmer obgects appear more distantPerceptual set: The effects of prior experience and expectations on interpretations of sensory inputGestalt: “Form” or “Whole”Figure-ground: The organization of the visual field into obgects (figures) taht stand out from their surroundings (ground)Grouping: Proximity: we group close figures togetherSimilarity: If fiqures are similar to each other we group them togetherContinuity: We percieve smooth, continues patterns rather than dicontinues onesClosure: If a figure has gaps, we complete it by filling in the gaps to create a complete whole objectBinocular cues: Monocular cues: Distance cues, such as linear perspective, that enable us to perceive depth with one eyeConvergence: A binocular cue for depth perception involving the turning inward of the eyes as an object gets closerInterposition: Nearby objects partially blick our view of more distant objectsRelative height: Higher objects appear more distantRelative motion: When we move, object at different distances change thier relative positions in out visual image with the closest moving fastestLinear Perspective: We percieve the converging of what we know to be parallel lines as indication an increase of distanceChapter 4Consciousness: An awareness of the sensations, thoughts and feelings that one is attending to at a given momentSelective attention: The ability to focus awareness on a single stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli, as in the cocktail-party phenomenonCircadian rhythym: A biological cycle, such as sleeping and waking, that occurs approximately every twenty-four hoursREM sleep: The rapid-eye-movement stage of sleep associated with dreamingStages of sleep and brain waves involved:Insomnia: An inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or get the amount of sleep needed to function during the dayNarcolepsy: A sleep disorder characterized by irresistable and sudden attacks of REM sleep during the dayPsychoactive drug: A chemical that alters perceptions, thoughts, moods, or behaviorTolerance: Withdrawal: Dependence: A physiological addiction in which a drug is needed to prevent symptoms of withdrawalDepressants: A class of drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates)Stimulants: A class of drugs that excite the central nervous system and energize behavior (e.g.

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, amphetamines, cocaine)Hallucinogens: Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and cause hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana)Sleep apnea: A disorder in which a person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep and awakens gasping for airNight terrors: When a person jolts abruptly from a deep sleep in a state of panic, and gives off a loud, bloodcurdling screamManifest content: According to Freud, the conscious dream content that is remembered in the morningLatent content: According to Freud, the unconscious, censored meaning of a dreamHypnosis: Attention-focusing procedures in which changes in a person’s behavior or mental state are suggestedLSD: One of the most known elicit Hallucinogens Barbiturates: sedativeOpiates: A class of highly addictive drugs that depress neural activity and provide temporary relief from pain and anxiety (e.

g., heroin, morphine)Amphetamines: stimulantHallucination: Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulationBy: Travis WondersChapter 1Behaviorism: A school of thought that defines psychology as the scientific study of observable behaviorfocus on stimulus-response relationshipsGestalt psychology: A school of thought rooted in the idea that the whole (perception) is greater than the sum of its parts (sensation).Reaction to structuralism and functionalism-the whole is greater than the sum of the partsFreud Psychoanalysis: Theory of personality and method of psychotherapy, both of which assume that out motives are largely unconsciousProposed existence of unconscience and attempted to explain personality motivation and mental disorders.Skinner: Organism tend to repeat responses that lead to positive responsesHumanistic revolt: An approach to personality that focuses on the self, subjective experience, and the capacity for fulfillment.Humans are basically good; humans are driven towards personal growth;disturbances as result of having needs blockedCognitive and Physiological Psychology:Electrical stimulation of parts of brains elicit different emotional response; Connection between biochemical and psychological effectEvolutionary Psychology:Examines befavioral process in terms of adaption value for a species over the coutse of many generationMulticultural Psychology: Study how culture is transmitted through socialization practices and how culture colors one’s view of the world;Understanding others from their point of viewChapter 2Neuron: Nerve cells that serve as the building blocks of the nervous systemDendrite: Extensions from the cell body of a neuron that receive incoming impulsesAxon: Extensions of the cell body of a neuron that sends impulses to other neuronsMyelin sheath : A layer of fatty cells that is tightly wrapped around the axon to insulate it and speed the movement of electrical impulsesAction potential: An electrical impulse that surges though an axon, caused by an influx of positive ions in the neuronSynapse: The junction between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of anotherAcetylcholine: A neutotransmitter found throughout the nervous system that links the motor neurons and musclesEndorphins: A morphinelike neurotransmitter that is produced in the brain and is linked to pain control and pleasureCentral nervus system (structure): The network of nerves contained within the brain and spinal cordPeripheral nervous system: The network of nerves that radiate from the central nervous sestem to the rest of the body.The PNS comprises the somatic and autonomic nervous systemsSensory Neurons: Neutons that send signals from the senses, skin, muscles, and internal organs to the central nervous systemInterneurons: Central nervous system neurons that connect sensory inputs and motor outputsMotor neurons: Motion-producing neurons that transmit commands from the central nervous system to the muscles, glands, and organsSkeletal nervous system: Autonomic nervous system: The branch of the peripheral nervous system that connects the CNS to the involuntary muscles, organs, and glandsSympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that controls the involuntary activities of various organs and mobilizes the body for fight or flight–that heightens arousal and energizes the body for actionParasympathetic nervous system: A branch of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body and conserves energyEndocrine system: A collection of ductless glands that regulate aspects of growth, reproduction, metabolism, and begavior by secreting hormonesHormones: Chemical messengers secreted from endocrine glands, into the bloodstream, to various organs throughout the bodyPituitary gland: A tiny gland in the brain that regulates growth and stimulates hormones in other endocrine glands at the command of the hypothalamusBrainstem: The inner core of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and contains the medulla, pons, and reticular formationMedulla: A brainstem structure that controls vital involuntary functionsReticular formation: A group of nerve cells in the brainstem that help to control sleep, arousal, and attentionCerebellum: A primitive brainstem structure that controls balance and coordinates complex voluntary movementsLimbic system: A set of loosely connected structures in the brain that help to regulate motivation, emotion, and memoryAmygdala: A limbic structure that controls fear, anger, and aggressionHypothalmus: A tiny limbic structure in the brain that helps regulate the autonomic nervous system, endocrine glands, emotions, and basic drivesCerebral cortex: The outermost covering of the brain, largely responsible for higher-order mental processes4 lobes and their functions:Motor cortex: The area of the cortex that sends impulses to voluntary musclesSensory cortex: Broca area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that directs the muscle movements in the production of speechWernicke’s Area: A region in the left hemisphere of the brain that is involved in the comprehension of languageCorpus Callosum: A bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheresSplit brain studies: A surgically produced condition in which the corpus callosum is severed, thus cutting the link between the left and right hemispheres of the brainChapter 3Sensation: The processes by which our sense organs receive information from the environmentPerception: The processes by which people select, organize, and interpret sensationsAbsolute threshold: The smallest amount of stimulation that can be detectedWeber’s law:The principle that the just-noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensitySensory adaptation: A decline in sensitivity to a stimulus as a result of constant exposureWavelength:HueIntensityPupil: The small round hole in the iris of the eye through which light passesIris: The ring of muscle tissue that gives eyes their color and controls the size of the pupilLens: A transparent structure in the eye that focuses light on the retinaAccomodation: In Piaget’s theory, the process of modifying existing cognitive structures in response to new information.

Also, the visual process by which lenses become rounded for viewing nearby objects and flatter for viewing remote objectsRetina: The rear multilayer part of the eye where rods and cones convert light into neural impulsesRods: Rod-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to lightCones: Cone-shape photoreceptor cells in the retina that are sensitive to colorOptic nerve: The pathway that carries visual information from the eyeball to the brainBlind spot: A part of the retina through which the optic nerve passes. Lacking rods and cones, this spot is not responsive to lightAudition: The sense of hearingFrequency: Pitch:Retinal disparity: The difference between two images we see, the greater the difference, the closer the object is to usRelative brightness: Dimmer obgects appear more distantPerceptual set: The effects of prior experience and expectations on interpretations of sensory inputGestalt: “Form” or “Whole”Figure-ground: The organization of the visual field into obgects (figures) taht stand out from their surroundings (ground)Grouping: Proximity: we group close figures togetherSimilarity: If fiqures are similar to each other we group them togetherContinuity: We percieve smooth, continues patterns rather than dicontinues onesClosure: If a figure has gaps, we complete it by filling in the gaps to create a complete whole objectBinocular cues: Monocular cues: Distance cues, such as linear perspective, that enable us to perceive depth with one eyeConvergence: A binocular cue for depth perception involving the turning inward of the eyes as an object gets closerInterposition: Nearby objects partially blick our view of more distant objectsRelative height: Higher objects appear more distantRelative motion: When we move, object at different distances change thier relative positions in out visual image with the closest moving fastestLinear Perspective: We percieve the converging of what we know to be parallel lines as indication an increase of distanceChapter 4Consciousness: An awareness of the sensations, thoughts and feelings that one is attending to at a given momentSelective attention: The ability to focus awareness on a single stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli, as in the cocktail-party phenomenonCircadian rhythym: A biological cycle, such as sleeping and waking, that occurs approximately every twenty-four hoursREM sleep: The rapid-eye-movement stage of sleep associated with dreamingStages of sleep and brain waves involved:Insomnia: An inability to fall asleep, stay asleep, or get the amount of sleep needed to function during the dayNarcolepsy: A sleep disorder characterized by irresistable and sudden attacks of REM sleep during the dayPsychoactive drug: A chemical that alters perceptions, thoughts, moods, or behaviorTolerance: Withdrawal: Dependence: A physiological addiction in which a drug is needed to prevent symptoms of withdrawalDepressants: A class of drugs that slow down activity in the central nervous system (e.g., alcohol, barbiturates)Stimulants: A class of drugs that excite the central nervous system and energize behavior (e.

g., amphetamines, cocaine)Hallucinogens: Psychedelic drugs that distort perceptions and cause hallucinations (e.g., LSD, marijuana)Sleep apnea: A disorder in which a person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep and awakens gasping for airNight terrors: When a person jolts abruptly from a deep sleep in a state of panic, and gives off a loud, bloodcurdling screamManifest content: According to Freud, the conscious dream content that is remembered in the morningLatent content: According to Freud, the unconscious, censored meaning of a dreamHypnosis: Attention-focusing procedures in which changes in a person’s behavior or mental state are suggestedLSD: One of the most known elicit Hallucinogens Barbiturates: sedativeOpiates: A class of highly addictive drugs that depress neural activity and provide temporary relief from pain and anxiety (e.

g., heroin, morphine)Amphetamines: stimulantHallucination: Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulationBibliographyHuman Relations and Motavation copyright 1975McGraw Hill Book co.