Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

Angiosperms are flowering plants.

Angiosperms are the biggest group in the plant kingdom. They have true roots, stems, leaves and flowers. They also have seeds.

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The seeds are formed when an egg is fertilized by pollen in the ovary. The ovary is within the flower. The flower contains the male or female parts of the plant.

Fruits are frequently produced from these ripened ovaries. Angiosperms are more highly evolved that the algae, mosses, fungi and ferns. Their advanced structures allow them to live on land. They have roots that hold the plant in place and take in needed minerals and water.

They have leaves that are the major food makers for the plant. They have stems that hold the plants up and move the nutrients and water about the plant. Angiosperms are the primary food source for animals and provide oxygen for us to breathe. They provide lumber for buildings and other objects, fibers for clothes, are the basis for many drugs.

Gymnosperms are a type of plant that reproduces by a seed that is not enclosed. They are not like the angiosperms that have seeds contained flowers. Many of these plants are cone-bearing plants.

Gymnosperms are found throughout the world. They have roots and stems. Their leaves are in the form of needles in conifers. At the time of pollination, the pollen grains fall among the cone scales until they fall on to the ovules. As the cone grows up, it gets bigger and the seeds that are created by the male pollen and female parts are seen.

Most conifers are always green and they do not shed their leaves as deciduous plants do but retain their needles for quite a while. When the needles fall off, they are quickly replaced. Other groups within the gymnosperms include the gingkos and cycads.